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Full text of "Historical researches on the wars and sports of the Mongols and Romans; in which elephants and wild beasts were employed or slain, and the remarkable local agreement of history with the remains of such animals found in Europe and Siberia ... With a map and ten plates"

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ii/io/0«i«»i.r*™,toinpo/oll,fa(C«iip,t,l.._ii/i„/,J,  OnwJ  JTta  riiSlai;  ijft  «/ To- 
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pM  o/iiu«o  ig  a  Ormio.  of  Gnghu  Kha„.—Fa)„rU,  »/  li<  (Talra.,  alUi  MimmM  b, 
Sibtrvm, :  Error,  otomj  U.r./ro«._Ko„„,  (r„,  .^  Sporl,  m(h  ElepluuU  <aid  Ml  boM. 
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I  (,     >    ,.     i'M       .111  'I/I'..*! 

■  ■'     looboir.  ■  ''■,'','  '','■' 

'  W.  U*DOVALi,  PEINtER,  PK>IBE«Ta;N-«0^,  OOO^-JHiVAKt. 



In  the  endeavour  to  trace  historical  proo&,  that  the  fossil  bones  of 
elephants  and  wild  beasts^  which  have  been  found  in  Britain,  France, 
Spain.  Crermanf,  Russia,  Siberia,  and  other  coontries,  are  the  remains 
of  those  animals  which  have  been  employed  in  the  wars,  retigions 
ceremonies,  and  amphitheatrical  sports,  of  the  Romans  and  the  Mon- 
gtds,  (or  Moguls) :  the  author  has  been  led  on  by  the  extensive  scenes 
of  conquest,  the  extraordinary  grandeur  of  the  Mognl  Khans,  the 
nagniflcence  of  their  hunting  expeditions  and  court  parades,  which  so 
far  exceed  any  thing  ever  witnessed  in  Europe;  to  make  a  quarto 
volume  of  what  he  imagined  nlight  have  been  comprised  in  a'  small 

In  the  progress  of  these  researches,  there  was  such  a  convicticm  in 
the  writer's  mind  of  his  success  in  the  mam  o^ect  of  his  wch^,  in  con- 
sequence of  some  extraordinary  discoveries  which  he  has  made;  that 
he  has  been  induced  to  write  an  epitome  of  the  life  of  the  Siberian 
C^ghis  Khan,  the  most  fomous  conqueror  that  ever  existed;  and 
whose  grandson  Kubhu,  on  his  completion  of  the  conquest  of  China, 
governed  and  controlled  an  empire  much  more  extensive  and  populous 



than  was  ever  swayed  hy  the  Romans,  when  their  greatness  was  at  its 
utmost  height*. 

It  will  be  seen  what  efforts,  during  this  Grand  Khan's  life,  were  made 
to  subdue  Hindoostan ;  but  they  were  repelled  by  the  vigour  of  the 
Afghan  Emperors.  Eastern  Bengal,  or  Bangalla,  was  the  only  part  of 
that  country  which  submitted  to  Kublai.  A  description  of  the  very 
ancient  capital  (now  submerged)  of  this  Bengal,  has,  fortunately,  been 
met  with. 

Siberia,  a  name  which  conveys  to  most  readers  the  idea  but  of  frost 
and  exile,  will  be  found  in  summer,  (which  season  only  is  here  described), 
a  most  magnificent  region  in  many  parts;  the  cradle  of  the  greatest 
conquerors  recorded  in  history;  a  country  unknown  to  Russia  till  the 
sixteenth  century ;  of  greater  extent  than  Europe ;  and  so  rich  in  zoo- 
logy and  botany,  that  the  discovery  of  America,  says  Pennant,  has 
scarcely  imparted  a  greater  number  of  objects  to  the  naturalist.  TTie 
reader  will  find  that  country  connected  with  China  and  India,  from 
the  earliest  ages :  and  in  the  thirteenth  century  vast  invading  armies, 
composed  of  Mongols,  Persians,  Chinese,  and  Arabs,  commanded  by 
Timur  Kaan,  governor  of  Yunnan,  Eastern  Bengal,  and  other  elephant 
provinces,  stattoaed  in  Siberia  for  many  years;  to  contest,  upon  the 
banks  of  the  Irtish  and  higher  in  the  north,  the  possession  of  the  moat 
powerful  monarchy  that  has  ever  been  known.  No  notice  of  theae  in- 
vtuions- has  been  met  with  in  amy  history  ^Russia  or  Siberia. 

AboQt  a  century  afterwards,  Tamerlane,  who  as  a  conqueror  is 

'  *  In  the  year  1S80  the  femily  of  Geogbis  Khnn  possessed,  in  loogitade,  from 
Behnng's  Straits  to  llie  Don;  nnclall  Russinwas  tributary: — In  latitude,  from  tbe 
•oath  of  China  to  the  Arctic  Ocean,  (flindoottan  and  Arabia  eicepted). 



seccAd  only  to'Gfenghis  Khan,  will  be  foand  in  Siberia  and  RuBsia  bo 
high  in  the  nortb,  that  the  morning  rays  appeared  in  the  east  b^bie 
the  dun  was  entii^y  set,  (the  Mahomedan  doctors  from  this  pheno- 
menon omitted  the  evening  prayers),  with  armies  that  astonish  us  at 
their  numbers  and  discipline;  and  in  opposition  to  monarohs  as  power- 
fiil  as  himself,  but  never  so  fortunate.  The  splendour  of  the  court,  and 
of  the  "  big  wars  *,  which  seemed  to  make  ambition  virtue,"  of  this 
destroying  prince,  surpass  every  thing  but  the  fictions  of  poetry  and 
romance ;  and  it  will  be  seen  how  extremely  probaUe  it  is,  that  he  has, 
in  several  instances,  been  adopted  as  the  prototype  of  the  infernal 
hero  of  that  great  effort  of  the  human  intellect,  the  Paradise  Lost. 

The  vanity  and  folly  of  ambition  were  never  more  forcibly  exempli- 
fied than  in  the  instant  dissipation,  by  Tamerlane's  successor,  of  the 
countless  and  inestimable  gold  and  jewels,  the  plunder  of  Ddhi,  Bag- 
dat,  Damascus,  and  Bursa ;  and  all  to  indulge  the  capricious  humour 
of  one  of  the  concubines  of  the  Emir  Hadji  Seifeddin,  whom  he  had 
privately  married,  and  whose  fatal  charms  destroyed  an  empire,  which 
was  inferior  to  none  on  the  earth. 

The  history  of  Britain  will  be  found  to  exhibit  that  province,  while 
under  the  power  of  the  Romans,  as  deemed  of  the  greatest  importance 
to  those  conquerors;  and  which  is  evinced  by  the  many  Empermrs 
who  visited  and  resided  in  the  island,  some  of  them  with  their  fiuni- 
lies.  The  obstinate  wars  with  the  unsubdued  Caledonians  lasted  to 
the  term  of  the  Roman  domination,  and  attracted  the  whole  Court  of 

*  The  arniy,  ft'oin  ibe  extremity  of  one  wing  to  that  of  the  other,  extended  be- 
tween three  and  four  leagues.  On  the  approach  to  Danuuca*  the  elephanti,  ina 
great  rank,  marched  in  front, — See  Cfa.  IV, 

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the  Empire  to  Tork,  during  the  long  residence  in  Britain  of  tlie  three 
Emperora,  Severus,  Caracalla,  and  Greta,  the  latter  of  whom  hMl  the 
command  of  London.  It  was  in  the  city  of  York,  which  was  forthree 
years  the  head  quwrters  of  the  Roman  Empire,  that  Severas  odebrated 
a  triamph  for  his  rtctories  in  Partfala  and  Arabia. 

The  greatness  of  several  of  the  British  Emperors,  their  powerful  ar- 
mies, fleet,  and  their  conquests  on  the  continent,  attest  the  wealth  of 
the  island;  and  how  justly  the  loss  of  its  nunes,  its  com,  and  very  no- 
merous  recruits  for  the  Roman  armies  (on  the  continent),  was  de- 

No  other  person  having  given  a  history  of  Britain  with  the  viewt  qf 
the  writer,  a  stronger  light  is  thrown  on  that  part  of  these  researches 
than  has  before  been  collected  in  a  small  compass;  and  nevertheless 
every  essential  historical  event,  that  is  extant,  is  related. 

That  most  nohle  of  the  brutes,  the  elephant,  will  be  found  in  great 
numbers,  climbing  the  Alps  with  Hannibal  and  Asdrubal ;  crossing 
the  momitains  of  Greece;  and  fighting  with  the  Roman  army  under 
the  command  of  Acilius  and  Cato,  against  Antiochus  at  Thermopylae ; 
marching  with  the  Emperor  Qaudtus  to  the  conquest  of  Britain;  thir- 
ty-nine slain  in  one  battle  in  Spain;  a  hundred  and  forty  employed  in 
a  battle  with  the  Carthaginians,  at  Palermo ;  of  which  a  great  number 
was  killed  by  the  Romans,  and  above  a  hundred  were  captured. 

Thirteen  hundred  elephants  at  one  time,  and  five  hundred  on  ano- 
ther occasion,  were  led  by  the  Emperor  Mamood  against  the  king  of 
Cashgar,  and  supported  the  cold  of  Tartary,  when  men  and  horses  per- 
ished by  its  severity.  The  numbers  possessed  by  the  descendants  of 
Genghis  Khan  would  be  incredible,  if  we  did  not  know  that  all  the 


d^ihaat  iffDvinCM  east,  of  the  Bunrao^ooter  were  undar  theJE  con- 
tl^  and  thai  no  mobarchB  on  earth. were  ever  so  potrdifid.  :  i.,-; 

The  variety  and  immense  numbers  of  wild  beasts  destroyed  an  tbd 
circus  and  anqyhitbeatre  are  recorded  by  many  historians.  H^tpoi- 
potami,  rhinoceroses,  camelopards,  and  abnost  every,  known  qciadnh 
ped  were  employed  in  these  amusementa;  sometimes  SflVenl  thmr 
Mnds  4m  a  sin^e  occasitm.  On  one  day,  forty  elephants,  were  Ex- 
hibited in  these  cmel  but  grand  ^rts,  ijritb  which  the  Roaiait 
people  were  indulged  for  many  ceutwidi. 

Such  respectable  authors  as  Pallas  and  others  having  asserted^  that 
all  the  elephants  employed  in  the  armies  of  the  Moguls  would  not  ac- 
count for  the  vast  number  of  mammoth's  remains  found  in  Siberia,  it 
was  indispensably  requisite  to  give  sufficient  historical  proof  of  the 
contrary.  The  evidence  produced  in  this  volume,  accompanied  with 
the  elucidation  of  the  misunderstandings  and  consequent  exaggerations 
on  this  topic,  arising  from  the  Siberians  celling  the  ira/nw,  (which 
they  kill  in  immense  numbers),  by  the  name  of  Mammoth,  and  Eu- 
ropeans always  supposing  them  to  he  speaking  of  elepAimis,  is  deemed, 
by  the  writer,  a  satisfactory  proof  of  the  errors  and  misconceptions 
on  this  subject:  but  sufficient  conviction  regarding  the  numbers  of 
elephants,  could  not  be  conveyed  to  the  reader,  without  present- 
ing him  with  the  causes  for  such  extraordinary  wars  and  scenes 
as  are  here  described;  and  he  was  therefore  necessitated  to  lay 
before  him  those  circumstances  which  have  reached  us  in  various  scat- 
tered authorities,  in  order  to  make  out  a  constructive  evidence  in  those 
cases,  for  which  direct  proof  has  not  been  found.  In  this  pursuit  many 
readers  will  find  descriptions  and  scenes  of  a  nature  entirely  different 
from  what  is  usually  met  with. 



The  various  Chapters  consist  of  those  extracts  of  short  pass^^, 
and  abstracts  of  long  ones,  and  even  of  whole  rolames,  which  contri* 
hute  to  prove  the  point  umed  at.  The  dates  and  circumstances  are 
sometimes  so  distant  or  various  as  to  preclude  the  possibility  of  alwvfs 
mainttuning  a  connected  narrative  like  a  regular  history,  nor  does  the 
nature  of  the  subject  require  it. 

The  author  considers  himself  merely  as  a  pioneer,  who  has,  on  a  very 
interesting  question,  endeavoured  to  open  a  new  road,  which  may  pro- 
bably lead  to  a  more  extended  knowledge  of  nature  and  of  man. 



Inteoductioh P^«    1 

CHAP.  I. 

Sketch  i^tie  History  ^the  Grand  Khant  <^the  Mtrngok  and  Tar- 
iart,fiom  the  Birth  qf  Genghis,  A.D.  1 154,  to  the  Accession  ^ 

Kublai,  in  1257.. Ut^paraUeled   Conquests.- Genghis's 

Laws. Sieges  ^Samarkand  and  <^  Soehara. In^peritd 

Hunting  Circle. A  Courailtm,  or  General  Council,  held  at 

Toncat. Description  <^  Caracorvm,  the  Capital  <if  the  Mon- 
gol Empire : 15 


Of  the  Grand  Khan  Kublai,  whose  domination  exceeded  that  0' 

Augustus. Conquest  (if  Mar^i,  or  South  China;  BtmgaUa; 

Burmah;  ^Fc.-— Numerous  El^thants  received  in  tribute. 

Rebellion  tn  Siberia. Invasion  of  Java, Invasion  ^Ja- 
pan.  Rimp  and  Splendour  <^  Ms  Court. Magn^eent 

Hunting  EapeditUmg. Failure  ^AtieagOs  to  conquer  Hin- 

dostan 58 



CHAP.  ni. 

€fthe  JEagtloymeiU  {^EkphaiU*  from  the  earliest  timet  m  Chims 

I'ierna Turan Seytkia Turquestan Oomko 

TMbet Astam;  from  wkick  ComUriet  ihey  may  have 

been  introduced  into  Siberia 86 


Sietch  ffthe  Life  <f  Timur  Sec,  or  Tamerkme. Hi*  BtttOer  in 

Siberia Russia Hindostan Syria Georgia 

AsiaMinor. Elephants. •Extraordinary  Splendour  qf^ 

Court. His  Death Emn  of  his  Empire. Emha$sy 

from  hi*  Son,  Shah  Mohk,  to  the  Etigmor  if  China. Origim 

if  the  Gypsies f09 

CHAP.  V. 

qf  Siberia. JDeseribed  in  Summer. Ferity. WUd 

Animtdst Magn^cent  Scenery. Mongol  Sovereigns. 

Coronation  of  the  Grand  Khan  Keyuc,  at  Olougyourt. In- 

vadedjrom  China  and  India  beyond  the  Ganges. Immense 

Armies  stationed  on  the  Tt^h,  and  Battles  in  the  Thirteenth 

Century. — ■ — Invasions  if  Tamerlane,  Fomrleenth  Century 

Tombs;  Elephants*  Bones,   €foiden  Chess-hoards  and  Men, 

Golden  Ftaies,  ^e.  found  in  them. JVote  on  the  Conquest  ^ 

Russia  by  Batou,  Grandson  (f  Genghis. Tamerkmeinvftdes 

Russia. Sis  terrible  BatHe  m'M  the  Khan  of  Capsehac 

described 183 



Fossil  Bemtttn*  tfElepiumtti  RMmeerotes^  and  Bi^lidoesjhtmd 

M  SHeria  and  Mnssia. Eemaris  an  tke  Eiephmt  Jbimd  m 

the  lee  at  the  Mouth  i^the  Lena. JSuhUme  Sceaerf.— 

Riuns  of  Ancient  Forts. Happiness  of  the  Natives. Nur- 

merous  Errors  arising  from  Europeans  having  transferred  the 
Word  Mammoth^  the  Siberian  Name  of  the  Walrus,  to  the  Re- 
maiHs  <jf  Elephmts,  Whale*>  ^v 328 


Deseryittion  ^  the  Ancient  City  qf  BangaUa,  which  stood  at  the 

Eastern  Momlh  tfihe  Ganges,  nowovet-fioufed. Burmak, 

Pegu,  ^.  m  the  Sixteenth  Century;  ali  qfuMeh  had  been  siA- 
ject  to  the  Broad  Khans,  in  the  Thirteenth  tmd  Fowrteenth 

Centuries. Bloody  Wars  for  a  White  Elephant. Siege 

if  Pegu. DtydoraNe  Famine. Immense  Treasures .  .  .    261 

CHAP.  vin. 

Hindostan. Heroism  tfthe  Tn^an  Ladies. Court  Parades 

if  the  Emperors  Ahbar,  JehangUr,  and  Aunmga^.- Com- 
bats if  Elephants  with  Horses;  tfEngUsk  Mastiffs  with  Ele- 
phants; ^  Crocodiles  with  Horses 276 

CHAP.  rx. 

Q^  Rtman  tatd  Greek  Wars  in  which  Eiephants  were  employed, 
— -^Marches  ^  Haim&al  and  Asdmbtd  over  the  Alps,  wUh  a 



xii  coNiEirrs. 

great  mmber  if  Elephants. Arduous  march  of  the  Consul 

Marcius,  with  Elephants,  over  the  Oh/v^  chain  qf  Mountains 

in  Greece. QfAdUus,  mith  Elephants,  oner  Mount  Corax. 

Elephants  killed,  and  some  Matured  ht/  Cato,  in  the  defile 

(jfThermyx/la 291 

CHAP.  X. 

OfSonum  Amphitheatres,  remains  <)f  which  exist  in  Britain 

Italy France Spain Sieilji Greece Syria 

and  other  Countries 308 


Sportsand  Combats  in  the  Circus  ondAmpHthealre;  in  which  were 

slain,  EhfJumts Bhinoceroses Hippopotami Bears 

Lions— — Tigers Hyisnas Camelopards -Cro- 
codiles  Ostriches,  Sfc.  in  surprising  nxmbers. Grand  Tri- 

umphaX Processiims  at  Rome. -Chariots  drawn  by  tamed 

lAons,  Leopards,  Tigers,  Oryges  with  one  horn.  Stags,  4'c.    .     317 


Bemainsijf  Elephants  and  Wild  Beasts/ound  in  Italy France 

Sicily Spain Germany and  other  Countries   .    338 


Sketch  if  the  History  (f  Roman  Britain,  ending  A.D.  42T. 

Julius  Cxsar. Clan^us.— Elephants. Britain  is  ri- 

sited  by  many  Emperors. York,  the  Head  Quarters  if  the 

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Soman  En^pirejbr  three  yeart. SSneg. Wealth. 

Temples. Baths. Amphitheatres. British  Er^perors. 

Carausius;   his  power/iil  Jleet;  he  sails  to  Africa. 

Conquest  qf  Oaid  and  Spain  hy  Maximns ;  he  passes  the  A  Ips. 

Inoation  qf  Oaul,  Spain,  and  Italy,  by  ConstanHne. 

Sudden  ruin  and  destmetion  qf  Colonies,  Towns,  Temples,  and 
Palaces 851 


Remains  of  Elephants  and  Wild  Beasts,  foundin  England,  Scot- 
land, and  Ireland 423 


Description  qf  the  living  A  static  and  African  ElephasUs,  which  are 
noticed  by  Naturalists. lAst  <f  Countries  in  which  Ele- 
phants and  other  Wild  Beasts  are  found. Tusks  (fjyteen 

thousand  Elephants  imported  into  Great  Britain  in  Eleven 
Years 440 


On  the  Fisheries  in  the  Arctic  seas,  qf  the  Walrus,  (the  Mammoth 

^Siberia),  and  the  NarwaL Surprising  numbers  qf  these 

Animals. Description  of  the   Walrus  by  the  Emperor 

Kang-^ 464 


On  the  r^d  changes  which  the  surface  qf  the  Earth  undergoes 
from  Floods,  Earthquakes,  and  other  Causes 471 




Erronewu  Notmu  retfeeUng  Giaxtt,  MammoiJuj  Exttaiet  Spe- 
eie*  qfQuadnip«A,aml  Spiral  Tmsiu, — ^Concluditig  Stmarlu     179 


EiBplanaiion  qfthe  Flag$  upon  the  Map;  showing  the  Conqueslt 
and  some  of  the  Places  t^  Residence  i^the  Family  tjf  Genghis 
Khan,  4rc SOO 


qf  Boohs  referred  to  in  this  Wort nt 

Errata 516 

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1  THE  Map  of  Asia  is  to  be  placed  opposite  to  the  title  page  of  the  volume. 

S  The  Emperor  Kublai,  in  a  caatle  borne  by  four  elephants,  to  face  the  title  of 
Chapter  11.  This  print  is  composed  from  the  dcBcriptions  of  Marco  Polo, 
and  the  histories  and  plates  of  Du  Halde  and  the  Abb£  Grosier. 

S  The  Portrait  of  Tamerlane  is  to  face  the  title  of  Chapter  IV.  It  is  from  an  In- 
dian coloured  draving,  in  the  possession  of  the  Author;  in  which  the  dress 
is  rose-colour;  the  buttons  are  emeralds,  surrounded  with  pearls;  and  (he 
turban  is  white,  striped  with  gold. 

4  An  Um  found  in  a  tomb  in  Siberia,  copied  &om  Strahlenberg ;  and  Tartars 

travelling,  copied  from  an  old  book ;  to  fiice  the  title  of  Chapter  V. 

5  Defeat  of  Hannibal  by  Scipio,  at  Zama,  from  Catrou ;  to  feoe  Chapter  XI. 

6  Mapof  the  March  of  Hannibal  and  Asdrubal  from  Spain,  over  the  Alps,  to  Ita- 

ly,— Hairs  of  a  living  ElephanL — Tusks  of  the  Lena  Elephant,  &c.  to  face 
page  395. 

7  A  Temple  for  Sacrificing;  ao  Amplutheatre ;  and  a  Circus,  with  twenty  of  the 

most  remarkable  hhitimI*  slain  by  the  Romans ;  to  face  Chap.  XI. 

8  Hate  1. — Coins  of  Andent  British  Kings,  to  face  page  854. 

9  Hate  3. — Medals  and  Coins  of  Romans  who  were  in  Britain,  to  face  page  385. 

10  Plate  3. — Medak  for  Victories  in  Britain;  and  Emperors  of  Britain;  to  face 

page  395. 

11  TheWalms,  or  Mammoth;  and  the  Narwal;  to  fece  the  title  of  Chapter  XVI. 


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XXOW  defective  is  History,  and  how  small  a  portion  of  that  which 
does  exist  is  known  to  any  one  po^onl  Britain  was  connected  with 
the  Romans  aboutfour  hundred  and  eighly  one-years:  of  which  a  space 
of  three  hundred  and  twenty  years  is  a  perfect  blank.  What  little  is 
known  is  collected  from  the  incidental  mention  of  that  island- by  Ro- 
man, and  a  few  Greek  authors;  Britain  itself,  it  is  supposed,  not  hav- 
ing produced  any  writer  whatever.  Siberia  was  above  three  centuries 
governed  by  the  Moguls;  and  not  a  word  of  its  history,  during  that 
period,  is  to  be  found,  except  what  may  be  gleaned  from  authors  fo- 
reign to  that  extensive  region, — Persians,  Chinese,  Russians,  and  Eu- 
ropean missionaries  and  travellers. 

The  pride  of  man,  in  his  intellectual  attainments,  is  humbled  at  the 
reflection,  that  he  who  can  "unfold  all  Nature's  law,"  measure  the 
diameter  of  the  sun.  and  the  distance  of  the  stars,  should,  at  Uie 
same  time,  be  frequently  as  ignorant  as  the  savage  of  the  most 
important  events  which  Qccur,  during  his  own   existence,  on  the 



otofli  of  the  universal  irame  which  he  inhabits.  Scarcely  a!ny  one 
in  Europe  believed  the  narrative  of  Marco  Polo.  The  information 
received  since  the  discovery  of  the  Cape  of  Grood  Hope,  has  proved 
the  truth  of  that  intelligent  traveller's  book  in  a  remarkable  degree. 

At  the  death  of  the  Black  Priooe,  Timtir  Bee  had  worn  the 
crown  of  Zagatai  ahont  seven  years;  but  his  exploits  had  been  con- 
fined to  Persia  and  his  wars  with  the  Mogul  princes  who  pos- 
sessed Siberia.  It  is,  therefore,  very  probable,  that  these  heroes 
never  heard  of  the  existence  of  each  other ;  although  a  battle,  in 
which  ninety  thousand  men  were  kWed*,  would  have  commanded  the 
admiration  of  that  great  conqueror. 

To  this  day,  in  most  parts  of  Africa,  the  assurance  that,  in  other 
countries,  elephants  are  tamed  and  ridden,  passes  as  one  of  the 
"  white  man's  liesf."  And  can  this  be  wondered  at,  when  my  Lord 
«f  GlouoeBter,  on  examining  the  grinder  of  an  Elephant,  (whioh 
animal  was  dug  up  at  Gloucester,  and  King  James  sent  Lord  Her- 
bert of  Cherbury  to  ascertain  if  it  were  a  giant's),  assured  Bishop 
Hakewill,  that  "  he  himself  was  not  confident  that  it  was  the  tooth 
of  a  manf*, 

The  discovery  of  fossil  bones  of  Elephants  and  certain  other 
animals,  has  filled  the  world  with  amanement;  and  though  history, 
imperfbot  as  It  k,  presHits  ua  with  the  solutMUt  of  the  enigmaj   it 

*  See  Hwerajr,  Historiographer  of  France  wkh  a  penflion  ot  ibnr  thoasand  livrca.  He 
giTei  thepirticukrsofthe  twodaysatCrecy:  HmM  »t«t«  (be  munlwr  of  both  dayi  tq  be 
thyty-Bi^  t]:v>vuaiid  an^  lix  huodred. 

■f  A  French  veisel  touching  on  the  coaat  of  Ouinea,  aome  of  the  crew  were  taken  before 
Aa  hi^,  ite  Has  aaaMdvpnolvg  tn^era  tt^t  irith  ttwqwco,  bwh  nalied,  aKr>^<  by ' 
f)!ff  gpard^  frith  wooden  jpkea :  thip  was  his  pi^tjr'4  Court  of  Justice.  His  enquirjr  of  tl)e 
atrangeis  was,  whether  they  talked  much  about  him  m  France  t  Montesquieu,  Persian  Letter 



is  qaite  astonishing  that  no  one  faaa  hitherto  searched  into  the  U*- 
torieal  origin  of  the  most  remarkable  of  the«e  remains*. 

The  ingennitx  of  the  greatest  and  most  respectable  autbcHs  has 
been  tortured  to  invent  abstruse  systems  and  causes  f»T  vhat  ap- 
peared so  truly  wonderftiL  They,  however,  hare  iailed  to  eonviace 
mankind  of  the  truth  of  their  hypotheses.  The  various  theories 
of  the  earth  have  been  resorted  to.  Of  those  which  are  supposed 
to  have  reference  to  the  subject  of  this  essay,  the  fic^owing  are 
the  principal;  but  they  are  aU  invcdved  in  such  difficulties,  that 
perhaps  the  mind  of  no  person  has  ever  been  satisfbctorily  cimvinced 
of  the  truth  of  either  of  them. 

Leibnitz  supposes  that  the  earth  was  a  luminous ^ow^  star;  which, 
after  burning  for  many  ages,  was  extinguished  from  a  deficiency  of 
combustible  matter;  and  that,  when  coined,  the  moist  vapcwr  fell 
and  formed  the  ocean.  This  theory  is  deemed  altogether  hypothe- 

Buffon  conjectureB  that  the  earth  was  a  portion  of  the  aun,  de- 
tached from  it  by  the  oUique  stroke  of  a  comet;  and  that,  being 
removed  to  a  considerable  distance  from  the  son,  it  gradually  cooled, 
and  the  vapours  condensed  by  d^rees  and  fbll  down  in  water.  But 
this  original  fbrmation  of  the  earth  has  been  thought  hypothetical 
by  all,  and  by  many  jhncifulf.  It  has,  however,  bcnoe  baen  sup- 
posed, that  what  are  now  the  froaen  regions,  were  once  warm  enough, 
firom  the  earth's  own  heat,  to  maintain  wild  Elephants,  Rhinoeerosea, 
ftcj.    Others  have  imagined  that  the  oUiquity  of  the  ccUptic  was 

'  The  writer  hu  peilwpa  been  more  attnctcd  to  thu  tntgect  than  mbj  other  pnwn,  t^ 

the  drcumstance  of  hia  banng  paued  upwardi  of  twen^  ycwt  of  hit  liie  in  HindoatMi  and 


■f  See  Reea's  Cjc  "  Earth,"  "  Deluge."     Encyc  Brit.  "Hanmxrth." 

X  Pallai  at  first  concluded  that  the  Northern  rqtiooa  had  been  nflkiendy  warm  to  be 

de  native  countij  of  Elefrfuuta,  Shlnoccroaei,  ftc.  but,  on  leeli^  dw  ipota  wfaere  bonea  were 

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once  so  great  as  to  include  the  Arctic  Regions  within  the  tropics. 
But  the  obliquity  being  caused  by  a  vibratory,  not  a  rotary>  motion; 
and  the  mean  variation  not  ever  amounting  to  one  mile  in  a  cen- 
tury, rendera  it  impossible  that  the  Arctic  Regions  could  have  ever 
been  warmed  by  that  operation,  so  as  to  affect  this  question:  for, 
granting  that  the  obliquity  does  arise  from  a  rotary  motion,  it  would 
require  more  than  sixty  thousand  years  to  produce  a  difference  of 
only  ten  degrees  of  latitude:  and  how  would  this  accord  with  the 
finding  of  a  Rhinoceros  upon  the  sand  of  the  bank  of  the  river  Vilui, 
in  Siberia,  Lat.  64°,  with  the  skin  upon  the  head,  and  the  eyelids  not 

A  long  list  of  eminent  authors  attribute  the  fossil  remains 
of  Elephants,  and  other  animals  in  question,  to  the  great  Deluge. 
"  I  give  the  fiwit,"  says  Pennant,  "  let  others,  more  &youred,  explain 
how  these  animals  were  transported  from  their  torrid  seats  to  the 
Arctic  Regions.  I  should  have  recourse  to  the  only  one  we  have 
authority  for,  and  think  that  phenomenon  sufficient.  I  mention  this, 
because  modem  philosophers  look  for  a  later  cause :  I  rest  convinced, 
to  avoid  contradicting  what  can  never  be  proved."  It  is  not  to  be 
supposed  tiiat  this  amiable  man  and  excellent  writer  deemed  that 
this  fact  was  required  in  support  of  the  truth  of  the  deluge,  scarcely 
any  one  doubting  it,  and,  least  of  all,  a  philosopher  tike  Pennant. 
In  addition  to  holy  writ,  almost  all  the  historians  of  the  world  agree 
in  this  catastrophe;  and,  therefore,  the  deluge  stands  not  in  need 
that  this  additional  testimonial  should  be  substantiated.  In  mat- 
ters of  science,  truth  alone  is  the  object  which  every  one  ought  to 
have  in  view;  and,  with  regard  to  the  present  inquiry,  the  usual 
interests  and  customs  of  society  will  perhaps  be  sufficient  to  bring 

found  in  Siberia,  be  clianged  faia  opinion,  and  thought  they  could  have  been  transpoited  only 
by  a  nidden  innndation.    Reea't  Cyc.  "  Elephants'  bones." 

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the  subject  home  "  to  the  busings  and  bosoms  of  men,"  without 
disturbing  either  the  heavens  or  the  earth.  If  any  one  can  fairly 
Mki  cosapletely  answer  my  arguments,  I  shall  admire  his  ingenuity, 
and  will  adopt  his  better  proofs.  In  the  words  of  Junius. "  grateful 
as  I  am  to  the  Good  Being  whose  bounty  has  imparted  to  me  this 
reasoning  intdlect,  whatever  it  is ;  I  hold  myself  proportionably  in- 
debted to  him  from  whose  enlightened  understanding  another  ray  of 
knowledge  communicates  to  mine.  But  neither  should  I  think  the 
most  exalted  faculties  of  the  human  mind  a  gift  worthy  of  the  Di- 
vinity, nor  «ny  assistance  in  the  improvement  of  them  a  subject  of 
gratitude  to  my  fellow  creature,  if  I  were  not  satisfied,  that,  really 
to  inform  the  understanding,  corrects  and  enlarges  the  heiurt." 

To  return  to  the  subject:  The  following  opinions  have  been  held: 
Peter  the  Great  conjectured  that  some  Elephants'  bones  had  been  left 
on  Alexander's  expedition,  when  he  crossed,  as  is  said,  the  Don*. 
The  .Emperor  was  probably  not  acquainted  with  the  history'of  the 
Moguls,  as  the  books  on  that  subject  were  then  scarcely  known. 
Quintus  Curtius  was  the  author  whose  works  heated  the  brun  of 
Charles  XII.  and,  thereby,  created  the  formidable  military  power 
of  Russia ;  with  the  history  of  Alexander,  the  Czar  was  of  course  fa- 

Voltaire  gave  it  as  his  opinion,  that  the  tusks  found  in  Siberia  had 
been  lost  by  traders.  Mr.  Tooke  says,  "  if  Mammoths  lived  opce 
where  their  bones  are  discovered,  it  is  certain  that  these  countries 
must  formerly  have  had  a  very  different  climate.  Did  tbey  get  thither 
while  alive  t  what  inducement  led  them ':  have  they  beeo  drifted  thi- 
ther after  death,  or  are  they  the  bones  of  sea  anunalsf  I"  Leibnitz 

■  Alextader  croMed  the  Jaxartea,  which  be  Bupposed  wu  the  Taiuu*.    (See  Plutarch  in 
Alex,  and  Q.  Cartiiu).    Thia  led  the  Czar  to  make  that  erroneotu  conjectuie. 
-f-  RusaiM)  EmiKre,  Vol.  I,  p.  29,  ' 

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and  Liniueus  are  of  opinion  that  the  Mammoths'  honu  mi^  be  mone 
tusks,  but  thejr  are  differently  composed  * ."  Marsigli  supposed  the 
fossil  remains  found  in  Europe  were  of  those  animals  slain  in  the  Ro- 
man games.  Father  Martini,  who  was  in  China  before  Du  Halde, 
was  of  opinion  that  the  fossil  bones  found  in  Siberia  were  the  remains 
of  the  aniinals  employed  in  the  wars  of  the  Mongols  with  the  Chinese 
and  Indians.  Camden  says,  "the  bones  of  the  abundance  of  Ele- 
phants which  Claudius  brought  with  him  to  England,  being  casually 
found,  have  given  rise  to  several  groundless  stories  f. 

The  reader  is  requested  to  keep  in  mind  that  the  bones  of  the  Mas- 
todon or  Mastodonte  found  in  America,  on  the  Ohio  and  in  other 
places,  form  no  part  of  these  researches ;  nor  do  the  fossil  remains  of 
Elephants,  a  few  of  which  have  been  found  on  the  ihorea  of  America. 
Some  fossil  Mastodontes  have  been  found  in  Europe.  The  writer  is 
not  without  hope  that  he  shall  be  able  to  meet  wiUi  something  inter- 
esting respecting  the  eariy  connection  of  Asia  with  America,  and 
about  these  animals,  when  he  is  more  at  leisure ;  some  very  extraordi- 
nary indications,  relating  to  periods  long  before  Coliunbns,  having  oc- 
curred in  the  pursuit  of  these  researches. 

In  reading  Eastern  History  the  names — Scythians,  Tartars,  Turks, 
Mongols,  are  often  used  without  discrimination;  and  without  convey- 
ing to  the  reader  a  clear  idea  of  wliat  people  are  particulariy  alluded  to. 

Scythians,  in  ancient  history,  seems  to  mean,  in  general,  all  those 
people  eastwurdof  the  Black  Sea,  from  the  latitude  40  to  the  Frozen 

Tartars,  in  modem  times,  h  a  general  term  ap^ed  to  all  the  tribes 
betweoi  the  Volga  and  the  J^aa  Sea,  from  about  the  latitude  <^  iO 
to  tlie  duun  of  mountains  which  divides  the  flat  territory  from  Siberia. 

.  *  CuTier,  p.  £5.  f  Bnuimn,  p.  S«7,  (ftil.  ed.  1«»5). 



Turks  have  been  known  in  modem  times  cfaiefij  by  their  conquests 
in  Eorope;  but  Tnrquestan,  the  head  quarten  of  which  has  always 
heea  in  the  Ticinify  of  the  Altai  mountains,  a  couMry  rich  in  pastures, 
horses,  and  cattle,  has  Avm  the  earliest  times  produced  some  of  the 
greatest  conquerors  known  in  history.  More  oh  this  subject  will  be 
found  in  this  volnme. 

Mongols  are  not  distinguished  in  history  till  Genghis,  at  once,  by  his 
bloody  victories,  immortalized  their  name.  Their  native  country  is 
the  neighbourhood  of  Nertshinskf  in  Siberia,  both  on  the  north  and 
south  sides  of  the  chain  of  mountains.  The  Russians  describe 
those  terriUe  invaders  by  the  name  of  Tartars.  The  armies  being 
fbrmed  of  all  the  nations  in  Tartary,  and  the  leaders  not  having  yet 
become  much  known,  they  were,  nodoubt,  at  first  called  Tartars;  and 
tiuit  name  has  generally  been  used  in  Russian  history.  The  Chinese, 
in  their  history,  call  all  their  northern  invaders  by  the  name  of  Tartars : 
Ogua  was  a  Turt,  Genghis  a  Mongol,  and  Sbun-Chi,  the  cMiqueror, 
A.  IX  1644,  was  a  Mandshor  *.  To  enter  further  into  this  subject 
would  lead  to  perplexity;  all  that  is  aimed  at,  is  to  give  those  readers, 
to  whim  Eastern  History  is  not  Ismiliar,  a  guide,  however  imperfect, 
through  a  path  which  no  historian  has  yet  satisfactcnily  cleared  of  its 

it  has  been  the  object  of  the  writer  to>  give  as  mnch  ioforaiation  as 
poarible  on  Ae  aohjeot  of  this  esaay  in  a  small  compass:  any  one  who 
k  deuMoa  of  fiirth^  information  may,  by  means  ctf  the  reference!^ 
procnre  H  vitk  &cifity  in  Emn^wan  works.     With  regnd  to  £aatcn 

*  PiA»fa.  •  gmt  rm^m  wm  wtwm  aadartakni  wilb  mm*  koMr,  or  addwed  with 
K»r«  WMdcm^  dyui  thM  (tf  Ck«  by  the  Ifandskur  Tartan^  who  ue  Mt  ra  naovilb^ 
pie.    8MdwI&l«rr«(lbeCMiqaeMafCyMt,   by  Pdbfox,  Biihi|K«f  OtaM  Mi  VicaMy 
•eUnDD(^a«it.LoiidaD,ia71;    TMkrfi  Bmmo  Ea^^  wL  9^  p.  M;   MiDalMdei 

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History,  as  those  books  are  rarely  read  and  little  known,  he  has  detailed 
as  much  as  he  deemed  requisite  to  give  the  reader  a  snfficaent  know- 
ledge of  the  customs,  and  immense  conquests  and  power  of  Genghis 
Khan  and  his  descendants :  to  some  readers  that  portion  of  the  volume 
wilt  be  found  very  interesting. 

The  character  of  the  Mongols  is  a  mixture  of  aflfection,  jusUce,  and 
mildness  among  each  other;  but  they  exercise  the  most  barbarous  in- 
justice and  terrible  cmelty  to  those  against  whom  they  make  war*: 
one  example  will  shew  this  in  a  strong  light  In  1221,  Greoghis  besieg- 
ed the  city  of  Bamian  in  Zabulistan,  belonging  to  Gelaleddin,  King  of 
Carisme.  Towers  of  wood  were  built  to  commuid  the  city :  wild  fire, 
mill-stones,  flints  were  thrown  in ;  and  every  kind  of  warlike  engine 
was  used.  Every  day,  as  many  cows  and  horses  were  killed  as  would 
provide  Genghis  with  iresh  hides  to  cover  over  his  towers,  to  preserve 
them  irom  being  burnt  by  the  fire  cast  from  the  walls.  In  the  midst 
of  the  havock,  news  arrived  of  Gelaleddin  having  defeated  a  Mogul  ar- 
my near  Gazna.  Genghis  swore  in  his  rage  that  the  city  of  Bamian 
and  the  Sultan  himself  should  give  him  satisfaction.  One  of  his  grand- 
sons, during  this  fury,  exposed  himself,  to  please  the  Emperor,  and  was 
kilted  by  an  arrow  shot  from  over  the  walls  of  the  city.  He  fell  dead 
at  Genghis's  feet;  he  was  prince  Octai's  son.  The  Emperor,  who  ten- 
derly loved  him,  was  mollified;  he  groaned,  and  mixed  his  tears  vrith 
those  of  the  mother,  who,  in  a  state  of  distraction,  wept  over  and  bath- 
ed the  body  of  her  dead  son  with  her  tears.  The  Grand  Khan,  reco- 
vering somewhat  from  his  sorrow,  endeavoured  to  comfort  this  lady; 

*  "  Qae  d'un  c&t£  Ton  m  mette  devant  let  yenx  )e*  masMnei  continiielrdea  rah  et  dea 
cbefs  GrecE  et  Romaiiw,  et  de  I'Butre  la  deatnictioa  dei  peuples  et  da  villet  pw  cea  mCinea 
cheft,  Timur  et  Gei^hii  Khan,  qui  oat  devaat$  I'Aaie;  et  nous  verrotu  que  nous  devona  mu 
ChriitiaDumcetduialegoaveniementuneertain  droit  politique,  et  damUgtuara  anoeitaia 
droit  des  gens,  que  U  natun:  humaine  ne  Muioit  asaes  reconnoitre.  Eaprit  desLoix,  L.  Xi,  C.  8. 

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and  left  to  her  ^scretion  the  punishment  of  the  inhabitants,  when  the 
city  should  fan.  He  lavished  gold  and  silTer  on  his  soldiers ;  and,  at  last, 
the  walls  were  ruined  and  Bamian  was  taken.  The  mother  of  the  young 
prince,  entering  vfith  the  Mogul  soldiers,  could  not  foe  satisfied  with  the 
murders,  but  spared  neither  age  nor  sex.  Not  a  single  person  was  left 
alive.  Even  this  dire  revenge  did  not  assuage  her;  but,  with  the  nn- 
distinguishing  ferociousness  of  a  brate,  foy  the  order  of  this  affection- 
ate mother,  the  beasts  and  every  living  creature  were  killed.  The 
mosques  and  houses  were  demolished,  and  the  city  was  reduced  to  a 
heap  of  ruins.  Since  this  dreadful  fate,  Bamian  has  borne  the  name 
of  MaabaUg,  or  the  Unfortunate  Dwelling.  Octai  was  absent,  and  the  , 
Emperor  commanded  that  the  prince's  death  should  not  be  made 
known  to  him.  A  short  time  afterwards,  the  Grand  Khan  called  the 
family  together:  and,  purposely,  talking  unintelligibly,  -Octai  made 
no  answer.  "  Whence  comes  it,"  said  the  Grand  Khan,  with  [a  fierce 
look,  "that  yon  answer  not.  when  I  speak  to  you?"  Octai,  believing 
his  fother  to  be  angry,  threw  himself  immediately  at  his  feet,  and  said, 
"  My  Lord,  if  I  have  displeased  you,  put  me  to  death ;  I  will  not  mur- 
mur." The  Khan  made  him  repeat  these  words,  and  asked  him,  "  If 
it  were  true  that  he  so  much  feared  his  displeasure  ? "  "  Yes,  my  Lord," 
was  Octu's  reply.  "Well  then,"  said  the  Emperor,  "MuatouKhan, 
your  son,  has  been  killed ;  and  I  forbid  you  to  abandon  yourself  to 
grief."  It  was  not  without  much  pmn  that  Octai  obeyed  a  command 
so  contrary  to  nature;  and,  to  diminish  his  affliction,  his  &ther  gave 
him  the  command  of  an  expedition*. 

It  is  probable  that  the  poptilout  North  has  not  contained  the  multi- 
tudes generally  attributed  to  it.  The  antient  natives  lived  by  pastur- 
age and  hunting,  and,  consequently^  did  not  ia  general  build  cities. 

*  Petia  de  k  Crdx,  p.  306. 


10  INTitODUCnON. 

Their  cavalry  ^as  the  best  ia  the  world*.  Wbeq  Aeii  popnUtioa 
became  strong  enou^  it  required  <ady  an  avabitious  leader  to  take 
the  field;  and  perhaps  half,  or  more,  of  the  nation  would  join  him;  all 
the  principal  persons  taking  their  fomilies  witii  themf ;  and  th^  could 
recruit  their  armies  out  of  the  conquered  provinces.  The  launder  being 
fairly  divided,  would  command  volunteers.  When  it  is  considered 
that  these  troops  were  in  the  habit  of  fiicing  lions,  bears,  tigers  and 
other  beasts,  in  the  manner  described  in  Chapter  I.  the  wonder  at  a 
million  of  such  warriors  overturning  kingdoms  and  empires,  perhaps 
enervated  by  peace -and  wealth,  will  cease X- 

Hindostan  did  not  fall  to  the  Mongols  till  the  year  1535;  that 
Empire  and  Arabia  excepted,  the  continent  of  Asia  and  part  of 
Europe  were  overrun  by  Grenghis  Rhan  and  bis  descendants  in 
about  eighty  years;  and  the  kingdoms  were  taken  possession  of, 
or  subjected  to  heavy  tribute.  All  the  countries  between  the  land 
communication  from  China  and  India  with  Europe,  were  then,  and 
ever  had  been,  enriched  with  the  Asiatic  commerce,  and,  conse- 
quently, possessed  inunense  wealth  §.  The  Cape  of  Good  Hope  was 
not  discovered  till  near  a  century  after  Timur's  death.  Therefore,  if 
extent  of  territory,  number  of  siil))f!cts,  and  command  of  the  greatest 

"  Montesquieu,  Grandeur  et  Decadence  des  Ronuuns.  Ch.  XXII. 

f  Some  of  the  Medes  drove  up  several  waggons  loaden  with  things  that  the  army  was  in 
want  of.  Some  of  them  brought  charioU  full  of  the  most  coniiderable  women,  some  of 
them  legitimate,  others  of  them  courteaana,  that  were  conveyed  up  and  down  on  account  of 
thdr  beauty ;  for,  to  this  day,  all  the  inhabitants  of  Asia,  in  time  of  war,  attend  the  service 
with  what  they  value  the  most ;  and  aay,  that  Aey  fight  the  better  ^en  the  things  that  are 
ntqtt  dear  to  them  are  present.     Xenophon,  Cynfta^M,  B.  IV.  p.  103. 

I  For  the  manner  of  fighting,  see  Timur's  battle  with  die  Emptor  of  Capshac,  when  he 
invaded  Russia.     It  is  in  the  note  on  Russia,  Ch.  V.  of  this  volume. 

J  "  The  silfc  of  China  was  conv^ed  by  a  caravan  in  ogfaty  or  a  hundred  days  fromSheii-si 
to  the  banks  of  the  Oxus,  where  it  was  embarked  and  carried  down  the  stream  to  the  Cas- 
pian, and  thecce  to  Constantinople  by  the  Cyrus,  the  Phasis  and  the  Euxine."  Robertson's 
Ancient  India,  p.  98. 

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iNTttODUcnoN.  n 

wealth,  with  whatever  havock  obtained,  can  be  justly  deemed  to  make 
men  illustrious,  Genghis's  family  is  the  most  so  of  any  that  are  known 
ever  to  have  existed.  *'  What  are  the  conquests  of  Alexander  com- 
pared with  those  of  Genghis  Khan  *?  "  Their  character  as  conquerors 
makes  the  reader  shudder  with  horror ;  and  it  hto  aptly  been  said  of 
them,  that, "  Vangvighed,  they  tuk  noJwDour:  vanquUkitig,  they  show  no 

Justice  requires  that  something  should  be  said  of  the  opposite 
quality  of  these  persons,  so  awfully  terrible  as  enemies;  G«nghis 
never  let  a  good  action  go  without  its  reward,  nor  virtue  with* 
out  commendation  X-  'I'he  fiercest  of  men  were  mild  and  just  in 
their  intercourse  with  each  other  §.  "  We  are  assured  by  the  learn- 
ed author  of  the  Dabistan,  that  the  Tartars  under  Grenghis  were  lovers 
of  truth,  and  would  not  even  preserve  their  lives  by  a  violation  of  ity." 
"  Master  Geoige  Barclay,  a  merchant  in  Londcm,  having  travelled 
through  Russia,  went  from  Cracovia  with  a  Tartar  duke,  who  had 
come  thither  to  sue  for  his  two  daughters,  taken  by  the  Polacfas.  He 
staid  six  months  with  the  duke  in  his  horde,  which  consisted  of  about 
a  thousand  household  of  one  kindred.  These  Tartars  sowed  a  three 
square  grain  called  Totarca.  They  lived  in  such  ease  and  delight, 
every  day  hunting,  that,  for  worldly  pleasiu'e,  he  never,  any  where,  en- 
joyed such  a  life;  with  such  liking  of  his  Tartar  host  as  if  he  had 
been  his  son.  They  used  to  make  sudden  inroads  on  the  Polachs ; 
the  gentlemen  of  Poland  not  dining  without  their  guns  and  soldierly 
serving  men  ready  to  give  them  entertainment.  If  the  Christians 
m^e  head  ^^alnat  tJiem,  they  know  not  where  to  find  them.    .Re- 

*  MonUfquieD,  Fenian  Letter,  LXXXI. 

f  Xietter  tma  Yvo  de  Nubone  to  the  Archbiahop  of  Boutdeaox.     Hakluyt,  Vol.  I. 

X  Abul  Ghui  Bahadur,  VoL  I.  p.  WT. 

)  Gibbon.  VoL  VI.  p.  t90. 

II  Sir  W.  Jooea,  Vol.  I.  p.  65. 




solute  they  are,  and  will  ride  with  their  bows  in  the  &ce  of  a 

The  simplest  spelling  of  eastern  names  has  been  followed.  In  refers 
ring  to  Tarious  authors,  the  reader  is  perplexed  by  the  different  spelling 
adopted  by  several  nations,  according  to  the  prommciation  of  their  own 
languages.  Thus  the  French  write Cha;  the  EngUsh  Shah,  Shaw;  the 
Portuguese  Xa ;  others  write  Scha,  Shaugh,  Sa.  Kublai  is  written  Cub- 
lay,  Koplai,  Cobila,  Ho-pi-laL  Baton  will  be  found  written  Bad,  Baatti, 
Bathy,  Baydo,  Baiothuoy,  Baythin,  Baythus;  so  that  it  would  some- 
times puzzle  the  reader  to  know  to  whom  the  name  alludes,  but  for 
the  facts  connected  vrith  it  Khan  is  spelt,  Can,  Kawn,  Cham,  Cane, 
Cawn ; — Khaan,  Chagan,  Khankaun,  are  said  to  mean  Emperor,  or 
Klian  of  Khans.  Mongol  is  spelt  Mogulf ,  Mungul,  Moal,  MagoreJ- 
A  list  of  the  editions  of  many  of  the  books  referred  to  is  at  the  end  of 
the  volume. 

It  may  here  be  observed,  that  in  these  researches,  very  frequent 
mention  is  made,  in  Asiatic  histories,  of  Chain  Elepheotta;  which  al- 
ways means  elephants  trained  for  war;  but  it  is  not  very  clear  why 
they  are  so  denominated.  One  instance  has  occurred  in  the  course  of 
reading,  long  ago,  but  it  is  forgotten  in  what  book,  where  it  is  men- 
tioned, that  a  chain  being  held  in  the  elephant's  proboscis,  was 
wielded  like  a  lash  among  the  enemy,  but  no  instance  of  a  chain  being 
thus  used  has  been  met  with.  I  find  in  the  Ayeen  Akbeiy  the  follow- 
ing description  of  the  arming  of  an  elephant.  "  Teyeh — Five  plates  of 

*  Purduki,  Vol.  L  p.4Sl.  XVI  Century.  Bell  of  Antenaony  alto  spealu  of  thnr  agree* 
able  kind  of  life  in  eulern  Siberia.    See  Chap.  V.  of  this  vol. 

f  Before  the  couqneat  of  Hindostan,  Mongol  waa  the  luual  spelling ;  bat  with  relation  to 
that  empire,  Mogul  haa  generaUj  been  preferred. 

X  For  the  great  difficulty  there  is  in  (he  orthography  of  Asiatic  words  in  Roman  letters, 
and  the  faopelesanest  of  uniformity,  the  corioos  reader  is  referred  to  a  dissertation  by  Sir  W. 
Jones,  Vol.  I.  p.  175. 



iron,  each  one  cubit  long  and  four  fingers  broad,  are  joined  together 
by  rings,  and  festened  round  the  ears  of  the  elephant  by  four  chuns, 
each  an  eU  in  length;  and  betwixt  these  another  chain  passes  over 
the  head  and  is  festened  in  the  keSmveh;  and  across  it  are  four  iron 
spikes  with  katiutet  and  iron  knobs.  There  are  other  chains  with 
iron  Bjnkes  and  knobs  hung  under  the  throat  and  orer  the  breast,  and 
others  &8tened  to  the  trunk;  these  are  for  ornament  and  to  frighten 
horses.  Pakher  is  a  kind  of  steel  armour  that  covers  the  body  of  the 
Elephant :  there  are  other  pieces  for  the  head  and  proboscis.  G^- 
jhemp  is  a  covering  made  of  three  folds,  and  is  laid  over  the  pakher*," 
The  Grand  Khan,  Kublai,  is  said  to  have  had  five  thousand  ele- 
phantsf.  When  it  is  recollected  that  be  controlled  nearly  all  the  con- 
tinent of  Asia,  including  so  many  kingdoms  which  produce  elephants; 
that  they  were  used  in  his  wars,  (which  were  principally  against  his 
rebellious  relations  in  Siberia);  that  it  is  the  invariable  and  indispensa- 
ble custom  among  the  Mongols  to  send  to  each  other  presents  of  such 
tilings;  that  elephants  were  always  employed  oh  Kublai's  joumies 
and  hunting  expeditions;  that  they  were  sent  to  any  distance  to  fetch 
rare  trees  for  his  green  mountain,  &c.;  the  number  will  not  be  deemed 
extravagant,  and  especially  when  it  is  known  that  Asoph  ul  Dowla, 
nabob  of  Oude,  kept  considerably  above  a  thousand,  in  his  trifling  dis- 
trict, merely  tot  pleantre,  they  not  being  now  considered,  as  they  were 
before  the  introduction  of  fire-arms,  a  principal  strength  in  warfare  J. 
A  gentieman  of  unquestionable  veracity,  at  this  moment,  assures  me 

•  Ayeen  Akbery,  VoL  I.  p.  IS6. 

f  In  the  emperor  Akbar's  etubluhment  two  hundred  dephanU  were  allotted  to  each  tonun 
(10,000)  of  CBTalry.     Ayeen  Akbery,  Vol  I.  p.  193. 

];  Captain  Hawkins,  who  was  at  Agra  in  te07ttwo  yean  aAer  Akbar'i  death;  and  who  de- 
liTeied  •  letter  from  king  Jamea  to  the  emperor  Jdianghir,  and  wai  received  and  treated 
with  particular  fkTOur;  relatea  that  the  emperor  had  "twelve  diouBand  elephants:  aboutfira 
(houauid  with  leetb,  the  rest  femalea  and  young  ones."    Purehas,  Vol  I,  (B),  p.  S9S. 

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tbat  he  was  on  one  of  Asoph's  parties,  when  ahove  twelve  himdnd 
elephants  were  in  the  field.  Instances  win  be  found  in  this  Tolume 
of  numbers  quite  incredible ;  but  th6  author  was  not  at  Kberty  to  alter 
the  text  The  Truth  in  Eastern  history  is  often  suffident  to  remind 
the  reader  of  the  Arabian  Nights;  the  authorities  are  given,  and  every 
one,  according  to  his  knowledge,  is  expected  to  grant  his  belief  only 
to  what  he  may  deem  probable.  It  will  not  be  just  to  cha^  the  wri- 
ter with  credulity. 

In  these  researches  the  chronology  of  Petis  de  la  Croix  has  been 
adhered  to  as  much  as  possible;  it  is  the  most  consistent,  and  agrees 
with  the  Chinese  history.  In  some  histories,  there  is  as  much  as  ten 
years  difference  in  the  date  of  some  of  the  events ;  but  De  la  Croix 
is  ahnost  always  a  safe  guide. 

If  some  parts  of  these  researches  should  at  first  sight  appear  to  the 
reader  rather  incongruous,  they  will,  nevertheless,  be  found  to  bear 
directly  or  indirectiy  on  the  main  object  of  this  volume;  as  relating  to 
the  power,  riches,  customs  or  manners  of  the  Romans  and  Moguls, 
and  thereby,  in  the  dearth  of  better  materials,  tending  to  prove  that 
what  they  practised  in  one  country,  they  probably  also  pursued  and 
adopted  in  the  others  which  were  under  their  government 

The  writer  takes  this  opportunity  to  acknowledge  the  assistance 
that  he  has  had  in  these  extensive  researches  firom  the  excellent  library 
of  the  Royal  Institution. 



Sketch  of  the  History  of  the  Grand  Khans  of  the  Mongols  and 
TartarSifrom  the  Birth  of  Genghis,  A.  D.  1154,  to  the  Acces- 
sion ofKvhlai,  in  1257- Unparalleled  Conquests. Gen- 

ghis's  Laws. Sieges  of  Samarkand  and  of  Bochara. Im- 
perial Hunting  Circle. A  Courailtai,  or  General  Council, 

held  at  Toncat.—' — Description  of  Caracorom,  the  Capital  of 
the  Mongol  Empire. 

GrENGHIS  KHAN,  according  to  the  eastern  historians,  was  de-  CHAP, 
scended  from  the  most  aocietit  conquerors^  who  have  generally  resided  .^^- 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Altai,  or  Golden  Mountains*.  Koadou, 
in  Daooria,  or  Dauria,  an  ancient  place,  considered  to  be  the  same 
with  Tchindat-turookuoy,  on  the  river  OdoDj  In  the  province  of  N^rt- 
shinsk,  in  Siberia,  bears  the  reputation  of  having  given  birth  to  the 
greatest  conqueror  and  destroyer  recorded  in  the  amuds  of  mankind  f. 
Ptolemy  places  the  ancestors  of  the  Mongols  J  in  the  parallels  of  50° 
and  60°,  and  longitudes  120°  and  140°.  They  are  described  as  a  dis- 
creet and  valiant  people§. 

*  Abul  Ghaii  Bahadur,  P.  III.  Ch.  I.    Fetis  de  U  Croix,  B.  I.  Ch.  1. 
t  Captain  Cochrsoe's  Pedestrian  Journey,  p.  489.     Lat.  50*23',  long.  114*25', 
by  Arrowenuth'a  large  map. 

}  Spelt  also  Mogul,  Muqgl,  If  oal,  Blagor,  Mogore,  MungalL 
$  Stnhlenberg,  p.  454. 

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CHAP.  Jouini,  who  died  A.  D.  1284,  says,  that  Genghis  Khan's  country 
•_m~^-m^'  vu  much  to  the  east  and  north'  of  the  desert  side  of  Tartary:  that 
the  Mongols  were  divided  into  tribes:  and  that  Genghis's  tribe, 
called  Niron  Caiat,  was  the  only  one  that  was  civilized*.  Grenghis 
was  the  first  who  united  all  the  Tartars  of  the  vast  regions  above  the 
latitude  50°  westward  (of  Pekin),  and  55°  eastwardf. 

The  sHver  mines  near  the  river  Argun,  formerly  belonged  to  the 
Mongols.  The  rivulet  near  them  is  called,  by  the  Mongols,  Mun- 
gagoll:  Munga  signifying  silver,  and  Goll  a  brook.  By  the  Russians 
it  is  called  Sercbrenkaia-reka,  which  also  means  Silver-river  J. 

A.D.  1154.  Timougin,  afterwards  sumamed  Genghis,  was  bom  A.  D.  1154§. 
His  father,  Pisouca  Bahadur,  was  khan  of  Caracathay,  an  extensive  do- 
minion [|.  Pisouca  having  been  for  some  time  a  prisoner  in  the  hands 
of  the  King  of  China,  and  being  iD  treated,  made  his  escape.  To  aid 
his  revenge  he  married  his  son  Timougin,  not  thirteen  years  old,  to 
the  daughter  of  the  khan  of  the  Naimans,  who  had  also  cause  to  hate 

A.D.  1166.  the  Chinese  monarch.  Pisouca  died,  and  was  succeeded  by  Timougin. 
The  nations  under  him  revolted.  His  mother,  a  noble  minded  prin- 
cess, animated  Timougin  to  set  up  his  standard.  He  was  .taken  pri- 
soner, but  made  his  escape. 

A.D.  1 168.      Purta  Cougine,  another  wife,  daughter  of  the  khan  of  Congorat**, 

•  Petifl  de  la  Croix,  p.  4S8. 

t  Du  Halde,  Vol.  U.  p.  255. 

X  Strahlenberg,  p.  ^11.  Abul  Gbazi,  Vol.1,  p.  39.  isbrante  Idee,  in  Harris, 
Vol.  U.  p.  933. 

§  The  Chronology  and  principal  events  are  generally  from  PetiB  de  ta' Croix; 
numy  are  fi:<Hn  Abul  Gban  Bahadur. 

II  Between  N.  Latitude  50*  and  55" — north  east  of  Caracorum,  by  De  I'  Isle's 
map  to  the  life  of  Grenghis  Khan. 

**  Congorat,  on  De  1'  Isle's  map,  is  in  lat.  51*,  and  west  of  Lake  Baikal.  This 
wife  was  the  mother  of  Genghis's  four  sons  who  succeeded  him. 

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was  takea  prisoner  and  sent  to  Oungh*,  klum  of  Hie  Keraits,  who    CHAP. 
kept  liis  court  at  Caracortun^  as  Crrand  Khan;  and  whom  Timougm'a  v^^v^^,^ 
enemies  pressed  to  marry  this  Ukly  himself:  bat,  having  been  in  friend- 
slup  with  Timougin,  he  treated  her  with  the  kindness  of  a  lather,  and 
not  long  after  restored  her  to  her  husband. 

Timougin  sinks  under  the  weight  of  his  enemies,  and  takes  refuge  a.D.  1174. 
with  Oungh  Khan,  who  grants  him  an  asylum,  accompanied  by  his 
most  &ithful  and  brave  forces,  who  were  few  in  number.    He,  by  his 
prudence  and  wisdom,  gains  the  ascendency  over  the  mind  of  Oungh 
Khan;  whose  daughter,  charmed  with  the  valour  and  perscm  of  Ti- 
mougin, falls  in  love  with  him ;  and  their  marriage  is  celebrated  with 
as  much  pomp  as  if  it  had  been  the  Grand  Khan's.     Cremouca,  a  de-  A.D.  1175. 
spairing  and  desperate  lover  of  the  princess,  now  Timougin's  wife,  ex- 
cites a  conspiracy.    Oungh  Khan,  dethroned  by  his  brother  Erkekara,  AJ).  1177. 
flees,  and  takes  refuge  in  Timougin's  camp.     A  victory  is  gained  over 
the  Tanjouts. 

Timougin  6ghts  the  confederate  khans,  and  gains  a  most  bloody 
victory.     It  was  not  known  what  became  of  Erkekara.    Oungh  Khan  a.D.  1179. 
vraA  re-established  on  his  throne  at  Caracorum. 

Sungun,  a  son  of  Oungh  Khan,  succeeded  in  producii^  hatred  and  a.D.  119S. 
jealousy  of  Timougin ;  who,  fearing  he  might  be  seized,  retired  from 
Oungh  Khan's  court. 

Timougin  is  declared  general  of  the  coinfederate  khans.  The  ar-  a.D.  120S. 
mies  of  Oungh  Khan  and  of  Timougin  meet  in  a  plain  called  Tangut. 
The  Grand  Khan  commanded  in  person,  and  his  son  was  with  him; 
both  confident  of  victory.  The  battle  was  disastrous  to  Oungh  Khan; 
he  was  wounded,  lost  forty  thousand  slain  in  the  action,  and  the  best 
of  his  trocrps  went  over  to  Timougin.      The  booty  was  immense. 

*  Spelt  also  Um,  Un,  Aunac,  Ung. 

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Oungb  Khan  took  vefag9  with  Tvym  IUmh,  at  whose  f»>art  th«nt 
.  were  Bomei  Naimaa  lord*,  who  pei^uaded  Tayan  Khap  to  put  tbft 
Grand  Khan  to  death;  and  he  was  breaded.  Hia  son  flad  to  Tib«fi> 
aad  lived  in  obscurity;  but  was  aeiaed  as  a  spy,  and  eseonted.  Xi- 
mougin  took  possession  of  all  the  Grand  Khan's  donusiom,  trwmrefi, 
and  palaces,  by  right  of  oonqueet.  He  was  declared  Emperor  of  all 
the  Mogul  nations,  crowned,  and  all  the  khans  bowed  the  koise  niw 
times  before  their  new  Grand  Khan. 
E.  Ximougin  vanquished  the  khan  of  the  ^N^aimaas,  in  a  %ht  irtiieb 
lasted  from  the  rising  to  the  setting  sub,  most  bloody  and  obstinate^ 
The  khan  was  wounded  mortally,  and  the  slaughter  was  t^rribte.  Ge^ 
mouca  was  taken  prittc»ier,  and  torn  limb  from  limb.  In  the  midat  of 
his  tiHtnres  he  declared,  that  had  Timougin  folJen  into  his  hands,  h« 
would  have  served  him  the  same  *. 

Ximougin  returned  to  Caracorum,  where,  during  the  winter,  his 
court  was  filled  with  ambassadors. 
>■      Timou^  established  and  arranged  his  army  in  tooianB  of  too  lUwu- 
■and;  regiments  of  one  thousand;  companies  of  one  hundred;  and 
smaller,  of  tenf. 

At  the  general  diet  at  Caracorum,  sitting  upon  his  throne,  imd  sur- 
rounded by  the  princes  of  the  blood,  the  nevians,  khans,  ^njrs,  wid 
other  lords,  Ximougin  promulgated  the  Mogul  laws,  and  took  tJ»« 
iwBfe  of  Genets  Khan  {.  "  By  the  firrt  Uw,  it  is  ordained  to  believe  that 
there  is  but  vne  God,  creator  of  heaven  and  earth,  wbo  alone  gives  Mt 
and  death,  riches  and  poverty,  who  grants  md  denies  wh«tera-  hie 

•  Alnl  Ghszi  Bafaadar,  Vol.  L  p.  S7. 

t  This  arrangement  is  very  similar  to  that  in  the  Cyropeedia  of  Xenophon. — 
See  B.  XI.  p.  46. 

J  Spelt  Zingia,  Tchimkia,  Jenghis,  Tchinguis,  Chungaze,  &c.  Zin  is  eaid  to 
mean  great,  and  gi»  is  tbe  superbtne  tfnwnation. 

y  Google 

GBMOtllS  feHAM'6  LAWS.-ARUy.  19 

pltofte^,  and  who  hai  oVer  all  tbitigs  an  atisoliitig  pOker ."  AD  tcllgion^  CHAi^. 
were  tolerated.  Sottie  of  his  childr^  Were  ChrUilatiA,  and  Jews,  ftrid  v^^iiyT^/ 
Mahotnetads ;  sotte,  Hke  faib^If,  w^ttg  DetetS: 

"The  enemy  is  not  to  be  pillaged,  till  the  general  has  granted 
leaTe.  nndet  pain  of  fledtli.  Th^  tneanest  sdldlfer  is  tti  share  US  the 
offlceiSi.  There  shdl  he  a  geileral  huniilig  ^ery  wint^,  to  exet- 
eise  th^  troops.  Ever^  one  of  his  subjects  is  to  serve  the  &tate 
tome  wfly  or  other.  Whoeyet  steals  tfn  ox,  or  the  value  of  one,  is  (6 
atiffer  death;  for  less  fheftSi  ftotn  seven  to  seven  hundred  blows,  ot 
to  paj'  nine  times  the  value  of  the  thing  stolen.  Hasbatids  are  to 
be  employed  solely  in  hunting  and  war;  all  other  occupations  beldng 
io  ^omen.  Children  botn  of  the  first  wife  afe  fA  be  most  respected. 
AduHetets  are  to  sulfer  death.  Gov«rn0ft  of  distant  countiiea  firiHh^ 
in  th^  daty;  ttte  to  suffer  Oeath. 

"  The  arms  appointed^  are  the  sabre,  the  bow^  the  battle  axe,  wHH 
some  ropes,  the  officers  to  Wear  helmets,  and  breast-elates  of  Iea~ 
ther  er  ir<m,  or  an  entire  coat  of  mail.  8otdlera  who  can  afford  H, 
are  permitted  to  wear  arniour.  Th6  dfBeers  are  strtcfly  tft  6xafAnte 
the  edges  and  points  of  tlrti  teliVes*^'* 

GengMs  takes  Campion,  the  eapHal  of  Tahgut,-  and  the  c6nntries  of  ^.p,  i^i^ 
Crequir  and  Ctfchin.  HevancftrisheatbeMei^tei,  by  tfieriverlr^sh:  ^0  j^^g^ 
he  reduces  the  Kergi^  under  his  dtrtmnite. 

Genghis  gfves  his  daughter  hi  marriage  to  fh6  hhan  of  the  Ynghai>s. 
He  invades  China,  entering  by  th^e  great  gat^'  in  the  wall,  and  comes  ^p   j^k^ 
to  action  wTtb  the  king,  Who  loSes  thirty  thousand  men;  the  Hior 
peror  loses  a  great  many  officers,  and  more  soldiei%  than  the  Chi- 
nese.   He  makes  peace,  and  obtains  Cubcou  Catune,  the  king's  daugh- 

*  For  the  whole  of  the  lawa,  see  De  la  Croix,  p.  78. 



ter>  in  marriage. — ^Betnnis  to  Caracomm  with  the  princess,  a  tribate 

J  of  gold,  silk,  and  five  hundred  young  persons  of  each  sex.  Altaa/ 
king  of  China,  leaves  this  goremment  to  bis  son,  and  retires  to  Nan- 

[.  Genghis  invada  the  extensiTe  country  of  Capschac,  of  which  the 
principal  rivers  are  the  Volga,  the  Yaik,  and  the  Irtish,  and  extend- 
ing northward  to  the  Frozen  Sea.  This  country  had  been  subject  to 
Oungh  Khan.  The  whole  kingdom  submits;  and  the  Grand  Khan 
returns  to  Caracomm,  leaving  half  his  army  with  his  son  Touschyf, 
to  govern  this  new  empire,  the  other  half  being  sufficient  for  any  un- 

!.  The  Grand  Khan  quarrels  wiUi  the  king  of  China,  who  had  ravaged 
a  part  of  Caracathay.  In  consequence  of  indisposition,  he  appiunts  Sa- 
mouca  Bahadur  to  take  the  command  of  the  army,  with  the  eldest  geqe- 
rals,  khans,  princes,  and  emirs,  to  invade  China.  The  king,  hearing  that 
Genghis  does  not  command  in  person,  attacks  the  Moguls,  and  is 
driven  back  into  his  cities.  The  king's  son,  with  the  flower  of  the 
army,  defend  Pekin.  The  besiegers  and  the  besi^ed  were  alike  re- 
duced to  the  necessity  of  eating  one  another.  The  city,  being  under- 
mined, was  taken,  and  no  quarter  given.  The  king  poisoned  him- 
self; and  the  northern  half  of  China,  and  all  Corea,  were  added  to  the 
Grand  Khan's  empire  by  Moncly  Grouyanc,  the  general  who  was  left 
in  the  command.  Every  thing  of  the  plunder  that  was  precious  or 
valuable,  was  divided  according  to  Grengbis's  law. 

'.  Tturquestan,  of  which  the  capital  is  Cashgar,  is  added  to  the  em- 
pire by  prince  Hubbe. 

•  AbulGhaw,VoI.  I.p.91. 

t  Spelt  also  Pjoudgy,  Giougy,  Dzqji,  Joujy,  Zuri.      See  Peti^  de  la  Croix, 
page  104. 



Neasir,  Calif  of  Bagdad,  who  was  in  enimty  witii  Mehemed,  King  of  CHAP. 
Carinne*,  wishing  to  send  an  ambassador  to  Caracorum,  found  it  at-  '^.■^■•v'li-^ 
most  impossible;  Meboned's  poww  reaching  from  the  Caspian  sea  to 
the  Indus.  Nesur  and  Mehemed  were  both  Mahomedans.  The  ca- 
lifs council  were  divided  in  opinion,  but  NesBiKs  policy  prevailed.  It 
was  impossible  to  send  any  letter  or  paper ;  which  would,  if  discover- 
ed, cost  the  ambassador  his  life.  It  was  therefore  resolved  to  shave 
his  head,  and  write  his  credentials  by  puncturing  it  with  a  needle,  and 
colouring  the  marks  with  nil  (indigo)-)-.  He  soon  departed  and  ar- 
rived at  the  khan's -residence,  assuring  Genghis  of  his  master's  esteem 
and  affiectbn.  Having  no  credentials,  and  the  Emperor  expressing  his 
doubts,  the  ambassador  requested  that  his  h«r  might  be  cut  off;  when 
Genghis  read,  that  the  calif  promised  to  make  war  on  the  king  of 
Carisme,  if  the  Crrand  Khan  would  attack  him  on  his  side.  Genghis 
assured  him  that  if  anything  should,  from  the  restless  spirit  of  Mehe- 
med, occasion  a  quarrel,  he  would  not  fail  to  declare  war.  The  envoy 
returned  to  Bagdad.  Neastr  drew  on  himself  the  reproaches  of  all 
Mahomedans  by  this  act. 

Genghis  was  however  desirous  to  live  in  amity  with  Mehemed  king  of 
Carisme,  to  establish  a  commerce  for  gold,  stuflb,  silks,  stiver,  &c.  An 
ambassador  was  sent  attended  by  one  hundred  and  fifty  Mogul  mer- 
chants* with  gold  and  silver  for  purchasing  merchandize.  The  governor 
of  Otrar,  {oretending  to  suspect  that  this  was  a  mission  for  the  purpose 
of  espionage,  murdered  the  whole  embassy,  consisting  of  four  hundred 
and  fifty  persons,  except  one,  who  fled  to  Mogulistan  with  all  dili- 
genee.  Genghis  swears  revenge.  He  sends  ambaaudors  by  another 
road  to  Mehemed,  to  demand  an  explanation.     Mehemed  beheads 

*  Spelt  also  Charum,  Karasm,  Kworasm,  Chowaraflia ;  the  ancient  Corastnia. 
t  It  appears  that  this  b  an  old  practice ;  see  HerodotuB,  Terpsichore,  Ch.  XXXV. 



CHAP.        The  Emperor  with  tus  fonr  fiiTOurite  mu,  TotiMlu>  Zdgatoi,  Oktai, 
x-^-C'^m^  and  Tuli,  arrircs  oeai  Otrar  (oa  tiie  Slbon)  with  MTen  hundred  thotua&d 
A.D.  1318.  troops.   Mehemed  bad  collected  from  KhorasMa,  Balb,  Pemft,dtidtil« 
borders  of  India,  £Dur  hundred  thousand  fighting  men.     His  son,  £relA> 
leddiDfComnutndedthetToopsofTounm;  the  king  eotnmanded  in  chief} 
Mehemed  crossed  the  Sibon  to  cover  Otrar.     The  armies  meet  and 
immediately  range  in  order  of  battle,  in  a  ^ace  cafled  Caracou.     The 
great  trumpet  kerrenai,  which  was  fifteen  feet  long,  brass  timbrels, ' 
drums,  fifes,  and  other  warlike  mstroments  sounded  the  charge.     Jou- 
gi  Cassar,  Genghis  Khan's  second  brother,  who  commanded  the  van' 
guard,  adTanced  towards  the  first  ranks  of  the  enemy,  who  immedi' 
ately  detached  some  troops  to  charge  him;   but  this  prince  defeated 
them.     Then  Gdakddin  began  tbe  general  action  by  charging  prtoee 
TouacU,  who  was  at  Ute  head  of  the  first  body  of  Moguls :  after  a  sharp 
dispute,  Gelaleddin  got  tbe  better,  and  the  Corismeans  shoated  fat  joy. 
Genghis  sent  other  troops  under  the  command  of  Tidi  t«  support 
his  brother  Touschi,  while  he  hisEiself,  at  the  bead  of  tbe  midn  body  of 
the  army,  with  his  son  Zagatai,  fell  on  the  Scdtsn.    The  shock  was 
terrible,  and  the  left  wii^  of  the  Mogals  soAred  greatly.    The  Caris- 
mcans,  animated  by  the  extraordinary  bravery  of  their  sovereign,  nuun- 
tuned  their  advantage  as  kmg  as  they  were  able:  but  being  forced  to 
^ve  way,  Gelaleddm,  bavii^  beaten  the  troops  sent  against  him,  hasten- 
ed towards  hie  father,  and  renewed  the  battle.    On  this  occasion,  Gela^ 
leddtn,  his  oSkers,  sad  troops,  performed  actions  of  surprising  valour. 
The  slaughter  was  protBgious.    Genghis  new  ordered  his  son  Octai 
to  charge  the  enemy  in  tbe  flanh:   the  fight  continued  till  dark,  when 
each  party  gathering  up  their  wounded  a»  well  as  they  could,  retired 
to  their  camps  and  fortified  themselves,  to  prevent  surprise  in  the 
night,  with  the  design  to  renew  the  battle  the  next  morning.     When 
Mehemed  found,  on  enquiry,  that  a  hundred  and  sixty  thousand  of  his 



(r9Pp«  bwl  been  IjilW  W»<i  w«l»dpd,  mi  the  spies  Tep(Hrting  how  CHAP- 
S^ttc^  qupeiior  ^  Hoguls  were  iq  Humber,  he  mtrenefaed  himself  bo-  <^-^/r^^ 
iWfUy,  and  Ben^  part  of  his  forwaj  into  the  fortresses,  keeping  wiUi  bim- 
velfaSfiageuiipfoi- wswt^  occasifw?,  md  giving  the  command  of 
the  remainder  of  his  troops  to  Crelaleddin ;  who,  not  approving  of  his 
father's  design,  contrary  to  Mehemed's  command,  retired  to  Khorassan, 
and  reinforced  his  corps. 

Genghis  smt  Oct^i  and  Zftgttai  with  two  hundred  thousand  men. 
to  beside  Otrar;  and  Touschi,  with  one  hundred  thousand,  to  observe, 
westward.  The  ^mp^ror  axid  TuU,  with  more  thqn  two  hundred 
thousand,  marched  towards  fiochara  and  Samarcand.  After  five  A.D.  Iiji9. 
qumths  sic^e,  and  a  most  brave  defeBce.  Otrar  was  taken,  and  the  nu- 
merous troops  in  it  were  butchered. 

ToDoat,  Cogwde,  and  oth»  i^aces,  were  beueged  and  taken  by 
Tonsofai  KJian.  Cogende  was  defended  against  Elac  Nevian  to  the 
iMt  extremity,  by  Timur  Melee,  who,  when  all  hope  was  at  an  end, 
made  hia  esjeape  in  seventy  vessels,  which  he  had  conslnicted.  They 
were  plaiatored  over  with  a  composition  made  of  wet  felt,  kneaded 
with  elay  and  vinegar,  so  that  neither  fire  nor  arrows  could  hurt  them. 
He  was  acooBopainied  by  his  friends  and  bravest  warriors,  with  his 
woat  T^uable  efieots.  They  escaped  by  causmg  a  sally,  and  setting 
flie  to  tfae  bridge.  AAet  fitting  their  way  down  the  Sinr,  as  far  as 
Toncat,  they  ware  stopped  by  a  i^ain  across  the  river ;  and  before 
they  couU  sever  the  diain  with  files  and  hatchets,  they  suffered  great 
loss,  stiU  beittg  pufsued  by  the  Mi^fuls.  The  prince,  with  his  re- 
maiaing  fighting  men,  landed,  and  the  fleet  escaped  i^to  «  safe  port 
bdonging  to  Mejoemed.  Aiter  losing  all  his  companions,  Timur  Me- 
lee was  pursued  by  tbnee  Moguls:  he  killed  one  of  them,  and  bribed 
thB  other  two ;  after  which  he  arrived  safely  at  Quent.  Many  years 
aftwwards,  he  was  in  convenation  with  a  Mogul  prince,  who,  speak- 



CHAP.'  ing  to  him  contemptuously,  was  answered  with  spirit.   A  Mogul,  wh© 

^— ("-v-^fc-^  was  present,  and  who  had  fonnerljr  been  wounded  by  him  in  the  ejtf 
charged  him  with  disrespect,  and  killed  him  with  an  arrow.  Thus 
fell  the  generous  Timur  Melee,  who  has  been  compared  with  the  Ruft- 
tans  and  other  heroes. 


The  walls  of  the  dty  were  very  strong,  and  the  outer  wall  was 
twelve  leagues  in  compass.  It  included  not  only  the  suburbs,  but  also 
many  pleasant  seats,  and  five  farms.  The  Moguls  forced  the  outer 
wall  in  March.  The  Grand  Khan,  accompanied  by  his  son  Tuli,  en- 
camped his  army  and  invested  the  city  in  form.  The  three  command- 
ers, with  troops,  basely  deserted  the  city.  They  were  overtaken  by 
three  thousand  Moguls,  defeated,  and  nearly  all  slain.  The  gates  were 
opened  to  Genghis.  The  governor  retired  to  the  castle,  resolved  t9 
defend  it.  The  city  was  entirely  filled  with  the  Mogul  cavalry;  they 
made  stables  of  the  libraries,  and  litter  of  the  leaves  of  the  Koran. 
The  populace  were  inconsolable;  the  wise  men  said,  it  was  requisite 
to  suffer,  without  murmuring,  since  it  was  the  wind  of  God's  anger 
blowing  upon  them.  The  Emperor  addressed  the  principal  men.  He 
praised  God  for  the  fevors  he  had  received ;  declared  that  Gayer  Khan, 
who  was  in  chains,  should  lose  his  life  for  murdering  his  ambassadors 
by  command  of  Mehemed ;  whom  also  he  would  punish  for  his  cruelties ; 
and  that  he  would  clear  the  earth  of  him  and  all  other  tyrants;  for  he 
was  inspired  by  God  to  govern  all  the  kingdoms  of  the  earth.  He 
then  ordered  the  inhabitants,  in  proof  of  their  obedience,  to  discover 
all  their  hidden  treasures ;  and  to  be  cautious  not  to  conceal  any  of  the 
Sultan's  friends.     In  the  city,  being  a  placO  of  great  trade,  there  was 




abundance  of  gold,  Bilrer,  precious  stones;  and  rich  gold  and  silvA    OIAP. 
stufik.     One  part  was  carried  into  the  ro;ral  treasury,    the  officers  v.^-v-^^ 
had  a  large  share,  and  the  soldiers  enriched  themselTeB.     The  Mongul  ^  ~ 

officers  discovered  that  some  of  the  inhabitants  had  sheltered  a  few  of 
the  Sultan's  relatioi^.    The  Emperor  commanded  that  the  city  should  ' 
be  laid  in  ashes.    The  greater  part  of  the  buildings  were  of  wood, 
stone  being  scarce:     That  great  city,  which  in  the  morning  jvas  one  _ 
of  the  most  beautiful  in  all  Asia,  was,  on  that  fatal  evening,  litlr  the  -  ,, 
exception  of  the  brick-built  mosques  and  caravanserais,  a  hegp  of.cin- 
ders  and  ruins.    The  governor  of  the  castle,  finding  the  plac|  over- 
whelmed with  pots  thrown  in,  full  of  naptha  and  fire,  and  tbe  gate  in 
flames,   surrendered  at  discretion.    The  castle  was  demolished,  and 
the  Sultan's  principal  adherents,  who  had  so  ill  served  their  master, 
were  put  to  death. 

Bochara  was  the  seat  of  the  arts  and  sciences:  in  the  university  of 
this  city,  the  learned  Avicena  studied  philosophy,  and  produced,  in 
prose  and  verse,  more  than  a  hundred  volumes,  called  The  gloriotu 
Works.  It  is  observed  too,  that  he  extremely  loved  wine  and  women. 
(He  died,  aged  58,  A.  D.  1036). 


After  the  taking  of  Bochara,  prince  Touschi  joined  the  Emperor, 
his  father,  in  the  camp,  within  one  day's  march  of  Samarcand,  at  this 
time  the  capital  of  Transoxjana,  and  the  Maracandis,  capital  of  Sogdi- 
ana,  of  Pliny  and  Strabo.  The  city  was  now  in  circuit  about  three 
French  leagues,  surrounded  by  an  outer  wall,  better  built  and  fortified 
than  that  of  Bochara;  having  twelve  iron  gates,  distant  a  league 
from  each  other.     At  every  two  leagues  there  was  a  fort  able  to  hold 



t  ^re«t  body  of  troops;  mnd  the  -wdli  were  fenced  with  towns  teai 
bstdements.  The  city  wai  weU  suppBed,  by  ieadeo  papei,  iritfa  -nt^ 
ter,  and  fountaiiH  and  caseadee;  and  verf  'fine  gandeiu,  ererj  houfe 
having  one.  From  die  top  of  the  fortress  one  seei  ttotJiing  but  ttrees, 
rooA  of  bouses,  ploughed  lands,  gardens,  and  eveqiDoaatawand  tsI* 
fies,  within  the  onter  yraH. 

The  Siritan  M ehemed,  king  of  Gansme  and  aU  Persia,  bad  retired 
from  Samarcand,  notwithstandiog  the  Mongol  Emperor's  atdeartHiw 
to  prevent  him.  Expectisg  that  phwe  to  be  besieged,  he  had  caused 
sixty  tboueand  Tnilcs,  and  ^£by  thoasaiid  Persians,  tinder  oommandffls 
of  renown,  to  enter  it;  he  had  also  twenty  of  the  bi^eat  andatvonf^ 
est  elepitantt;  and  so  many  people  had  taken  shdter  tbere,  that  the 
|»lace,  extensive  as  it  was,  could  hardly  contain  them. 

The  Emperor,  having  arrived  .before  Samarcand,  marked  out  the 
iposts  which  the  generals  were  to  oceupy.  When  the  engutes  were 
■eady,  he  caused  several  places  to  be  attained  at  the  same  time :  these 
attacks  were  snstotned  with  great  courage,  and  «ome  of  the  beat  tooop» 
salHedout,  and  ovevt^ew  all  they  met  with;  but,  perceiving  a  freefa 
reinforcement  of  Mongols,  they  retreated  in  good  order  into  the  city, 
with  a  great  many  prisoners.  Discord  crept  in  among  the  besieged; 
some,  feeling  certain  of  death  if  the  place  should  be  stormed,  were  for 
surrendering  the  town.  Bat  Alub  Khan,  the  goy.emor,  trusted  to 
numbers  and  valour,  and  was  for  defending  the  place  to  the  last  ex- 
tarenufey,  in  the  oastje  and  bast  posts  of  tbe  city.  The  cady  apd  inuf- 
^  were  deputed  by  4he  other  party  to  wait  on  tite  Edmperor.  A^er 
4bey  hftd  saluted  him,  he  asked  them^What  ivras  their  budness  ? 
They  replied,  t«  iinrteroede  for  the  besieged ;  to  bf^  pardop  {for  the 
refliatanoe  tiiey  had  made,  and  to  assure  the  Khan,  that  they  were  not 
^bie  to  their  duty ;  but  that  they  found  them^lves  cpnsftrawed  by  a 
.ntpeniior  power;  wfaidi  tHmvinoed  them,  l^at  H  was  Crod!s  plew»iir« 



th«7  lAoDld  submit  to  tke  Great  Genghis  Khao;  wboae  ckaoency    CHAP. 
^brf  im^ored  for  tfacBOBelves^  and  those  ot  ihtar  fidends  who  were  in  ^.tf^v-^ik^ 
the  otty.    The  Grand  Khan  raceiTed  them  with  civility ;  asd,  feaxing 
to  drive  the  caty  to  despair^  he  granted  the  cady  and  mufti  life  ai^ 
fintmie,  and  also  all  of  their  party;  but  flmdy  reinsed  &Tor  to  the 

He  sent  cMumisBioBers  to  take  poMession  of  the  gate  tbey  were  to 
ddrrer  to  him.  The  cady,  mufti,  and  more  than  fifty  thousand  per* 
■0B8  came  out,  and  were  distributed  by  hundreds  in  the  fields.  The 
goTemor  resolved  to  seek  better  terms  by  resistance,  or  to  die  giori* 
ously.  For  four  days  they  could  not  force  him  to  yield;  the  fifth, 
having  lost  all  the  posts  but  the  one  he  defended  in  persrai,  he  re- 
Sfdved  to  pecish ;  or^  with  his  chief  officers,  and  a  thousand  diosen' 
horsemen,  to  break  through  the  Moi^l  csmp.  They  surprised  the 
camp,  and,  in  spite  of  resistance,  effected  their  escape. 

The  forces  remaining  in  the  dty  lost  all  courage,  and  the  Kongnia 
were  soon  masters  of  the  place,  which  they  jdondeved,  ruined  the 
walls,  and  put  to  death  thirty  thousand  Turks  of  tribes  that  had  been 
subject  to  the  Sultan's  mother,  amongst  whom  was  the  prince  of 
Calculi,  and  some  petty  princes.  All  the  people  they  intended  to 
mfUce  slaves  of,  men  and  women  and  above  thirty  thousand  tradesmen; 
were  ordered  out  of  the  dty,  and  distributed  among  the  princes,  go* 
nerals,  and  other  officers  of  the  army;  and  the  soldiers  loaded  them- 
selves with  the  spoils.  The  rest  of  the  inhabitants  were  pardoned, 
on  paying  two  hundred  thousand  dinars,  or  crowns  of  gold. 

The  reduction  of  Samorcand  pleased  the  £mp«rw,  he  not  expect- 
ing so  soon  to  reduce  it.  He  put  the  city  into  conditiou,  reposed  his 
troops,  and  prepared  for  other  enterprises. 

At  Gheucserai,  without  the  city,  Crayer  Khan,  the  governor  of 
Otrar,  was  put  to  death  by  the  Emperor's  orders. 



"  Samarcand,"  says  Abulfeda,  "  where  the  sky  ia  perpetually  clear,  has 
'  fine  atone  buildiags  and  public  market-places,  and  has  considerable  com- 
merce with  Great  Tartary,  India,  and  Persia,  from  whence  all  sorts  of 
merchandize  are  brought;  and  this  ctty  funuBhes  Hindostan  with  the 
best  fruits,  green  and  dried.  The  silk  paper  made  here  is  the  finest  in 
the  world.  There  is  a  famous  academy  of  sciences.  An  Usbec 
prince  is  at  present  lord  of  the  city:  he  is  much  greater  than  the  khans 
of  Bale  or  Bochara,  who  are  also  Usbecs.  These  three  petty  princes 
are  almost  alwaysat  war  with  the  king  of  Persia,  and  are  leagued  against 

The  Sultan  Mehemed  having  escaped  the  vigilance  of  Genghis 
Khan,  the  three  famous  generals,  Hubbe,  Suida,  and  Emir  Touquer, 
each  with  ten  thousand  cavalry,  were  despatched  in  pursuit  of  him. 
"  Go,  (said  the  Emperor),  do  no  injury  to  those  who  yield,  give  no  quar- 
ter to  those  who  oppose  you;  penetrate  even  to  Derbend  in  Georgia; 
raise  troops;  spare  no  pains  to  seize  the  Sultan,  and  bring  him  to  me." 

Mehemed  had  fled  to  Nishabour,  and  from  thence  to  Bestam,  a 
strong  city.  Here,  in  the  castle  hall,  he  sent  for  Omar,  one  of  the  stew- 
ards of  his  household;  he  shewed  him  ten  cofi^ers,  which  were  sealed 
with  the  royal  signet,  and  asked  him  if  he  knew  what  they  contained  ? 
The  emir  answered.  No.  Well  then,  said  the  Sultan,  they  are  filled 
with  jewels,  among  which  are  several  of  inestimable  value,  and  no  man 
in  the  world  except  these  two  (who  were  present)  knows  what  is  in 
them.  He  then  ordered  Omar  to  see  them  carried  to  the  fortress  of 

Mehemed  had  raised  some  troops,  and  having  arrived  in  Irac  Agemi, 
his  son,  Rucneddin,  the  governor,  joined  him.     He  had  now  twenty 

•  Abulfeda  died  A.  D.  13S1.  The  Uabecs  were  sovereigns  of  Samarcand  when 
De  la  CroU  compOed  the  life  of  Genghis,  which  see,  p.  828.    Abul  Ghazi,  P.  VII. 

ch.  n. 



thousand  hrarse.  The  Mogul  generals  surprised  him  at  Farzine,  and  CHAP, 
cut  to  pieces  the  best  part  of  his  cavalry.  The  rest  fled.  The  Sultan  v— -v-»*-i 
escaped  bj  ctobs  roads  and  arrived  at  Astrabad.  Here  he  remained, 
concealed  from  the  eager  enquiries  of  his  pursuers.  A  lord  of  that 
country,  whose  uncle  Bfehemed  had  put  to  death,  to  be  reveuged, 
headed  some  Mogub,  discovered  his  route,  and  was  told  by  some  pea- 
sants, that  the  Sultan  was  in  a  town  near  the  Caspian  sea,  where  be 
assisted  at  the  {wayera  in  the  mosque.  It  is  said,  that  the  unfortunate 
monarch,  at  bearing  the  Alcoran  read,  melted  into  tears,  and  made 
many  tows  with  a  lond  voice,  that  if  God  would  deUver  him  from  his 
danger,  and  re-establish  him  on  his  throne,  he  would  govern  his  peo- 
ple with  genUeniess  and  equity.  Tbe  traitor  lord  led  on  the  Moguls, 
and  the  Sultan  had  but  just  sufficient  time  to  escape  into  a  ship  at  the 
sea  diore,  tbe  Moguls  vainly  shooting  their  arrows  after  him;  some 
even  swam  after  the  vessel  and  were  swallowed  up  by  the  waves. 
The  Sultan's  sufferings  brought  on  a  pleurisy,  which  became  so  vio- 
lent, that  he  was  obliged  to  stop  at  a  desert  island  called  Abiscon. 
Here,  in  a  profound  melancholy,  Mehem^'s  sentiments  were  divided, 
whether  to  chuse  life  or  death.  "  How  uncertain  a  dwelling,  said  he, 
is  the  world!  Is  it  possible  that  of  my  immense  territories  no  more  re- 
mains but  two  cubits'  length  to  hold  my  body?" 

His  son,  Grelaleddin,  having  discovered  this  retreat,  with  two  of  his 
brothers,  secretly  arrived.  "  Prince,  said  tbe  afflicted  parent,  you  are 
the  person  who,  among  all  my  children,  are  the  most  able  to  revenge 
me  on  the  Moguls ;  I  therefore  revoke  the  act,  made  at  the  request  of 
the  queen  my  mother,  in  fevor  of  Coutbeddin.  He  then  gave  his 
sword  to  Gelaleddin,  and  conmianded  those  who  were  present  to  obey 
him.  Under  the  cover  of  a  little  tent,  this  migh^  king  expired:  and 
the  first  gentleman  of  bis  bed-chamber  washed  his  body  and  wrapped 
it  in  a  shirt,  having  nothing  more.    Some  time  afterwards,  Gelaleddin 



bad  ^e  bona  disinterred;   and  removed  wit^  great  pocap  to  Af- 
•^  daban. 

Tnrcan  Catun,  queen  of  Teki  A,  the  king  of  Cariaioe,  sometime  de> 
ceased,  was  motiier  of  Mefaemed.  Sbe  was  dau^^rter  of  HaBqatscb^ 
a  king  in  Turquestai);  who  dying  witiioat  male  isBUff,  bis  sulyects 
went  over  to  Mebemed,  and  thus  grcotlj  extended  iaa  enqnrc,  wUoh 
reached  fivm  the  Caspian  sea  to  the  rirer  Indus.  This  gare't^ 
queen  almost  absolute  authority  in  her  son  Mefaemed's  dominimBL 
She  bad  seven  secretaries  of  state,  men  of  the  greatest  abilities  is  tiie 
onpire,  and  was  called  "Ijady  of  the  world;  protectress  of  tbe  feitta; 
and  queen  of  women:"  she  wrote  with  a  very  large  pen,  very  cmioin- 
ly,  so  as  not  to  be  coanterfehed.  She  was  just,  BMidnoos,  and  was 
beloved  by  the  poor.  Her  signature  was  obeyed  in  preference  to  her 
son's,  when  each  issued  a  command.  But  she  was  cruet  She  pnt  to 
death  twelve  children  of  sovereigns,  who  were  in  her  power  as  pri- 
soners. She  hated  tbe  iamons  Gelaleddin,  who  was  the  ^dest  son  of 
Mehemed,  on  whom  she  had  prevailed  to  name  Contbeddin,  whom 
she  loved,  as  his  successor.  But  before  bis  death,  Mehemed  annulled 
that  win,  and  named  his  eldest  stm  Gelaleddin  to  succeed  to  the  crown. 
On  this.  Turcan  Catun  revived  to  abandon  the  em^re,  considering 
Crelaleddin's  mother  to  be  her  mortal  enemy.  She  left  tbe  city  <^  C»- 
risme,  with  tbe  wives  and  ooncnbines  of  Coutbeddin,  and  tb^  cbild- 
ren,  and  loads  of  gold  and  jewels.  She  took  for  her  guide,  a  Umd, 
named  Omar,  who  conducted  her  to  Mazenderan.  She  retreated  into 
the  citadel  ftf  Elac,  having  put  to  death  Omar,  her  friendly  guide,  lest 
he  m^^t  betray  ber.  Genghis  learned  from  his  ^ies  where  the  queen 
was;  and  bis  general  Hubb«  besieged  tbe  place  closely,  for  nearly  four 
EMUths;  when  the  queen  was  forced  to  capitalate.  She  was  sent  with 
all  her  treasury  and  court  to  Gr«i^bts.  There  bad  been  an  opportu- 
nity to  escape  to  her  grandson  Gelaleddin;  but  her  hatred  of  him  was 



n-noflible  And  iBi(d»a^)tes  «id  Ae  wiBbed  him  all  Hnti  of  imsekS^ 
dedtaiuig  4h«t  de  wou}d  prefer  toy  lAaverj  to  edl  ke  could  do  Snr  ha.  ^ 

CoiUbeddi»'9  otiiUnm  fr«re  all  put  to  Ateih.  The  Queen  was 
ireatod  wiih  Uk  Tttmt  tedi^tMs,  And  carried  sbaut  in  triumpb,  b^ 
fiei^l^  KhflB,  AaroaKh  ths  tenritoriee  wUdb  Ate  bad  gOTera«d*- 

NiBhaboar,  Heist;,  And  Herov  wei»  l)eaM^  ««d  taJtaciJB  V  l**)^ 
Kihfbi.  &am  CMateddin.  Mishabonr  was  faattenad  ]>f  iw<4v«  hundnd 
^BgJoCB,  and  athw  imU  iwi  ta  .of  wMf.  Neither  boww  n<v  (ooaciae 
tiwa  deft  standing.  The  M>»<A*  nwei?  and  shwigbter  weiw  txnaeDdooa. 
*3%i  said  tliflt  Ike  iwaediUe  Bumbcr  of  Bev^nteen  bnodxed  thoneaad 
X^ariaMKWB  ▼i«e  dain  in  NiAab(»ir,  (which  had  .often  been  the  capi- 
tal of  IKhMaewn),  and  its  dependant  (»tie8  and  oountiry.  Aiter  nany 
Mfigea,  and  hMriUc  ihkK>dahed.1iie  weet  part  of  Carume  was  added  t« 
the  empires  ihe  cspitol  of  which  wae  taken  after  a  siege  of  aeven 


CrBHOHW  KikVi,  being  at  Termed  in  the  midflt  ef  the  winter  of  1321, 
a  eeaaen  that  prevented  him  fDoaa  pBosecntu^  the  .war,  ordered  a  great 
biHit,>t«fce<9hiaa(Miewinaclion3:.    Tonidii  Khan,  the  KmfwnKr's 

*  Xbeti«MaientofP«HenfluidhuchiIdreobyPaulwjiBinUiu«,andthatofthe 

b«autijul  and  aocomplished  Zenobia  by  Aurelian,  were  aa  barbarous.  A  Briton 
may  reflect  with  pleasure  on  the  humanity  and  delicacy  of  the  conduct  of  the 
Mack  Prince  towards  his  unfortunate  rt^al  captive. 
■  f  The  jMonfp^  bad  CbineAe  esigiqews. 
{  This  is  a  very  ancient  custom,  as  we  may  suppose  that  Xenophon  represented 
real  manners  in  bis  Cyropsedia.  "  They  are  careiul  to  keep  up  these  public  hunt- 
ings, i«d  the  kuig,  as  in  war,  is  hi  -tins  their  (eadw,  hunts  bimaelf,  and  takes  care 
that  others  do  so,  because  it.seema  to  be  the  truest  method  of  practising  all  sacb 
things  as  relate  to  war."  Cyropsedia,  B.  I.  p.  9.  It  does  not  appear  that  the  Per- 
sians bunted  m  the  grand  slJle  of  the  Mongols. 

y  Google 


eldest  son,  Master  Hnntsman  of  the  empire,  being  abeent,  the  Emperor 
i  commanded  the  nerian,  his  lieutenant,  to  prepare  the  chase ;  and  di- 
rected what  circumference  of  ground  they  most  encompass.  The  of- 
ficers of  the  army  were  to  follow  at  the  head  of  their  troops,  according 
to  the  prescribed  laws  concerning  hunting.  The  officers  having  led 
their  soldiers  to  the  rendezvous,  they  ranged  them  round  the  space 
which  was  encompassed,  in  the  manner  of  a  thick  hedge ;  sometimes 
doubling  the  ranks  about  the  circle,  which  the  Huntsman  had  appoint- 
efl.  They  neglected  not  to  remind  the  troops  that  it  was  as  much 
as  their  lives  were  worth,  to  let  the  beasts  escape  out  of  the  ring, 
which  was  an  immense  number  of  leagues  in  circumference,  and  in- 
closed a  great  number  of  groves  and  woods  with  all  the  animals  that 
lived  in  them,  llie  centre  of  this  great  inclosure,  whereto  idl  the 
beasts  must  retire,  was  a  plain  marked  out  by  the  Huntsman. 

The  officers  of  the  chase  immediately  dispatched  couriers  to  tiie 
lieutenant-generals  for  the  orders  given  for  marching:  the  pevian 
himself  went  to  receive  them  from  the  Grand  Khan,  and  gave  them 
to  the  couriers,  who  conveyed  them  to  the  hunting  officers;  having 
well  observed  where  the  Emperor's  quarters  were,  and  in  which  di- 
rection he  would  advance.  On  the  couriers'  arrival,  the  orders  were 
communicated  to  the  captains.  The  kettle  drums,  trumpets,  and 
horns  sounded  the  general  march,  which  began  every  where  at  the 
same  time,  and  in  the  same  order.  The  soldiers  marched  very  close 
together,  and  always  towards  the  centre,  driving  before  them  the 
beasts.  Their  officers  were  behind,  observing  them;  all  were  armed 
as  if  on  a  martial  expedition ;  with  helmets  of  iron,  corslets  of  leather, 
bucklers  of  wicker,  scimitars,  bows,  quivers  full  of  arrows,  files,  hat- 
chets, clubs,  cords,  packing  needles  and  thread.  It  was  forbidden  to 
kill  or  wound  any  animal,  whatever  violence  the  beast  ofibred. — 
They  were  to  shout  and  frighten  the  game  from  passing  the  in- 
closure; for  the  Emperor  so  ordained.     Thus  they  marched  every 



4aj,  drivi^  the  beasts  befcwe  them.  All  that  is  practised  in  war,  was 
punotoally  observed,  centinels  relieved,  watch-word  given.  Thus,  for  < 
some  weeks,  they  marched  without  interruption;  but  a  river,  not  every 
where  fordable,  caused  a  halt:  the  beasts  were  driven  into  it  and 
swam  across;  the  soldiers  passed  over  up<m  round  pieces  of  hide, 
bound  together;  several  being  seated  upon  oiie  of  these  bundles  of  lea- 
ther, each  of  which  was  tied  to  a  horse's  tail ;  the  horse  drew  it  across  the 
river,  following  a  person  that  swam  before.  Now,  the  circle  lessening, 
and  the  Jieasts  finding  themselves  pressed,  some  ran  to  Uie  mountains, 
some  to  the  vidleys,  some  to  the  forests  and  thickets;  whence,  scent- 
ing the  hunters,  they  fled  elsewhere.  They  retreated  to  holes  and 
bqrrows;  hut  spades,  mattocks,  and  ferrets,  brought  th«n  out 

The  beasts  now  began  to  mix,  some  became  furious,  and  toiled  the 
soldiers  greatily  to  keep  them  in  the  drcle.  and  to  drive  them  frmn 
mountains  and  precipices ;  but  not  an  uiimal  escaped  their  vigilance. 

Couriers  went  from  difiWent  quarters  to  advise  the  Grand  Khan  of 
what  was  passing,  and  to  give  him  news  of  the  princes  who  shared 
~  the  diversion  and  confusion  of  the  chace.  The  Emperor  kept  a  strict 
eye  on  the  conduct  of  the  troops.  The  wild  beasts  being  now  hard 
pressed,  the  strong  leaped  on  the  weakest,  and  tore  them  in  pieces; 
bnt  their  fury  did  not  last  long. 

The  timbrels,  drums,  and  other  instruments,  were  now  played  upon; 
which,  with  the  shouts  and  cries  of  the  soldiers,  so  aOHghted  these 
wild  animals,  that  they  lost  all  their  fierceness.  The  lions  and  tigers 
grew  gentle;  bears  and  wild  boars,  like  the  most  timid  creatures, 
seemed  cast  down  and  amazed. 

Tlie  trumpets  being  sounded,  the  Grand  Khan  entered  the  circle 
first,  holding  in  one  hand  his  n^ed  sword,  and  in  the  other  his  bow; 
his  quiver  was  across  his  shoulder.  He  was  attended  by  some  of  his 
ions,  and  all  his  general  officers.    He  himself  began  the  slaughter, 


strHung  the  fiercest  beasts,  seme  of  wlueh  heoamm  fiuaons,  and  ea^ 
f  dearoiired  to  Ae&rid.  their  lir«s*.  At  last,  the  Emperor  rstreatedtf 
an  eminence,  seating  himaetf  upon  a  throne  {H<^ared  tot  lum.  BVom 
thence  he  observed  the  strength  astA  agifit^  (tf  his  children,  aad  all  the 
officers  wbo  attacked  the  savage  aaiaoals.  Whatever  danger  ilwjr 
ran,  yet  no  one  avoided  it  or  gave  batd^,  but  rathor  showed  mora  e»- 
gemess,  well  knowing  that  the  Grand  Khan,  hy  this,  would  judge  of 
^their  merit. 

After  the  princes  and  lords  bad  had  their  sport,  the  jewng  soldkars 
entered  the  circle,  and  made  a  great  slaughter  of  the  various  annnals. 
Then  the  Emperor's  graodsons,  followed  by  several  young  lordc)  of 
the  same  agie,  presented  tbemsdves  heifyre  the  thienej  aad,  by  a 
speech  made  aftertfaeir  manner,  desired  that  his  Majesty  would  give 
tiie  beasts  that  remained  their  lives  and  liberty ;  which  he  granted 
them,  praiwDg  l^e  valour  of  the  trot^;  who  were  dismissed  and  smt 
back  to  tiieir  quurten.  Those  animals  which  had  escaped  the  araows 
and  scymitars  got  away,  and  regained  their  forests  aad  dms. 

1%as,  the  hunting  at  Termed  ended,  which  had  lasted.four  months, 
and  would  have  continued  longer,  if  it  had  not  been  feared  that  the 
spring  would  surprise  l^era  whilst  employe  d  in  {Jkese  sports,  when 
the  war  must  be  prosecuted.  At  length,  the  spring  drew  near,  and 
tlie  Oudemean  soldiers  beii^  already  arrived,  ihey  bad  not  a  long 
time  toTest;  for  Genghis  Kb^  put  himself  at  the  head  of  bis  troops, 
about  Che  end  of  March,  to   pass  over  the  Qxus;   and  afterwards 

*  Cyrus,  wben  in  the  flower  of  his  age,  was  food  of  dangerous  hunting.  Once, 
when  a  bear  raabed  upon  hkn,  he  (dosed  wilfa  it  and  was  torn  fimm  his  horse,  when 
h«  Bocetved  th^se  wounds  of  which  he  ever  9^r  bore  the  scars :  at  lut  he  kill«d 
tb^  bear.  The  person  who  first  ran  to  his  assistance,  he  made  a  happy  man.  Xe- 
nophon's  Expe^tion  of  Cyrus,  p.  37.  It  is  probable  that  Genghis  was  well  pro- 
tected 1^  hia  tioopi. 



went  towtfd«  BactriAiu,  Tthett  ike  SuUau  G«kteddiii  had  ^  m    CHAP, 
snqr  together.  v,.«-v-*«-> 

The  Bfoi^le  were  besieging  Condabsi,  «faen  Gelaleddin  leanied. 
fiwin  bis  spies,  HiAt  tbey  were  in  no  apprebension  of  any  suecoon  ta- 
tiTii^  to  the  relief  of  the  beneged.  Gebleddio,  baviDg  porraaded 
Emim  Ifelec  to  join  him  with  ten  tboasand  Turkish  cavalry,  atteetod 
them  so  unexpectedly  in  the  dead  of  night,  that  the  Mongc^  be^re 
that  dtadel  were  Kized  with  fear,  and  the  whole  <^  their  army  were 
elain.  The  booty  they  h^  accumulated  on  their  mareh  was  divided 
betwe^  the  troops  of  £niin  Melee  and  tboae  of  the  brave  Gelakddin^ 
The  plunder  that  had  been  taken  from  th«  inhabitants  of  Oand^ar 
was  restored. 

Gelaleddin,  who  had  retired  to  Scgestau.  raised  twenty  thousand 
men,  and  arrived  at  Gazna.  Hts  subjects  received  him  witii  affection. 
Genghis,  who  was  besi^;iiig  Bamian,  had  sent  a  force  towards  India, 
and  recdved  accounts  that  his  general  had  been  totally  defeated  by 
Gelaleddin ;  who  had  returned  in  triuii^»h  to  Gazna. 

H«rat  rev<rfted  against  Genghis ;  who  now  blamed  prince  'I  uli  fmr 
not  having  put  all  the  inhabitants  to  the  sword.  "  I  forbid  yon,"  said 
he,  "to  show  mercy  to  my  enemies  without  an  express  order  from  me. 
Know,  henceftvwatd,  that  conq>assion  resides  only  in  mean  souls.  Tis 
only  rigour  that  keeps  men  to  their  duty;  and  a  vanquished  enemy  is 
not  tamed,  but  will  ever  hate  his  new  master." 

Gelaleddin,  with  a  reinforcement  of  30,000  Turks,  defeated  80,000 
Mongols  near  Gasna.  Gmghis,  still  bdbre  Bamian,  attaoUug  it  with 
every  kind  of  warlike  engine,  by  which  wildfire  and  even  mill  atones  were 
thrown  into  the  city,  saw  his  grandson  fall  dead  at  his  feet,  killed  by 
an  urrow  shot  from  over  the  walls;  at  which  he  showed  the  profoondr 
est  gri«£    Bamian  was  taken ;  and,  at  the  instigatitm  of  the  youth's 


mother,  every  living  being  was  slaughtered.  Crenghis  foUowed  Gela^ 
f  leddin  to  the  banks  of  the  Indus ;  where,  after  a  conflict  of  ten  honrd 
against  three  hundred  thousand  Mongols,  Gelaleddin's  army  was  80 
dreadfully  defeated,  that  he  had  only  sieven  thousand  left  out  of  thirty 
thousand;  with  which  he  ventured,  from  his  strong  position,  to  op- 
pose Genghis:  and,  lest  he  should  be  taken  alive,  he  hastily  embraced 
his  mother,  wives  and  children,  mounted  a  iVesh  horse,  and  plunged  in- 
to  the  rapid  Indus.  Genghis  hastened  to  the  bank,  and  the  heroic 
Gelaleddin  continued,  while  crossing  the  stretUn,  to  shoot  several  ar- 
rows at  him  and  his  retinue.  Genghis  said,  turning  to  his  children, 
"  Any  son  should  wish  to  spring  from  such  a  father;  and  a  wise  man 
who  has  him  for  his  enemy,  must  always  be  on  his  guard."  (After  vari- 
ous attempts  to  recover  his  dominions,  Gelaleddin  was  killed  by  treach- 
ery in  Cnrdistan,  in  the  year  1230). 

Genghis  finds  that  his  army  is  diminished  by  two  hundred  thousand 
troops.  The  strong  places  in  the  antient  Media  and  Georgia  are  re- 
duced by  his  generals.  Moultan,  on  the  Indus,  is  t^en.  Herat 
and  Gazna  are  taken  by  prince  Octai,  and  most  of  the  inhabitants 
are  pat  to  the  sword,  in  obedience  to  the  cruel  commands  of  Genghis. 
The  generals  Hubbe  and  Suida  take  Shamakie,  march  by  Derbend, 
and  take  Astracao,  having  made  the  circuit  of  the  Caspian  sea.  Geng^ 
his  leaves  Persia,  and  passes  the  winter  at  Samarcand. 


"  God  never  made  a  more  delicious  dwelling  than  the  city  of  Ton- 
cat,"  was  a  common  saying.  Purling  brooks  watered  fdmost  every 
■fareet;  the  suburbs  and  country  seats,  were  delightful.     The  gar- 


GftAND  Assembly  OF  THE  STATES.  »7 

deoB  were  full  of  fruit  trees,  munnuringfoiuitains,  and  most  charming     CMAP, 
walks.  There  was  in  this  city  an  academy  of  arts  and  sciences.    Geng-  '.*^-v>-^./ 
his  Rhan  had  been  a  year  in  Sogdiana,  where  he  had  remitted  many 
taxes  for  life,  and  had  given  the  great  lords  of  the  country  marks  of 
his  affection,  being  pleased  with  their  deportment  towards  him.     But 
the  general  joy  was  damped  at  seeing  the  queen  Turcan  Catun,  and  all 
the  great  officers  of  the  empire,  led  in  triumph,  followed  by  the  ladies      - 
of  the  Haram  and  Mehemed's  principal  lords.    The  throne  and  the 
crown  w^re  borne  in  stated    Thus  the  Grand  Khan  marched  towards 
Toncat.    (A.  D.  1224). 

The  imperial  princes  repaired  to  court.  Octai  from  Grazna,  Zaga^ 
tai  Arom  Otrar,  Touschi  from  the  f^ntiers  of  Muscovy;  the  last  of 
whom,  on  coming  into  the  Grand  Khan's  presence,  knelt;  and  the 
Emperor  gave  him  his  hand  to  kiss,  as  he  did  also  to  the  other  two. 
The  presents  laid  at  the  ftiot  of  the  imperial  throne  were  very  consi- 
derable; but  Touschi,  besides  several  rare  things,  presented  his  father 
with  a  hundred  thousand  horses;  twenty  thousand  of  which  were 
white,  twenty  thousand  black,  tvienty  thousai^d  grey,  twenty  thousand 
spotted,  and  twenty  thousand  brown  bay.  The  Emperor  testified,  by 
his  caresses  and  rich  gifts,  how  satisfied  he  was  with  the  conduct  of 
his  sons. 

A  banquet  was  given,  which  lasted  a  whole  month;  for  which  were 
supplied  thousands  of  beasts  and  birds  of  all  kinds  by  the  Khan's  fiil- 
eoners;  exquisite  wines,  sherbet,  cammez,  and  hydromel. 

There  also  arrived  the  governors  of  Catai,  Mongolistan,  Iran,  Ca- 
racatai,  Touran,  and  the  khan  of  the  Tugures;  also  many  sovereign 
princes  who  had  voluntarily  submitted  to  the  Grand  Khan.  Although 
the  plain  of  Toncat  was  seven  leagues  long,  it  could  hardly  contain  the 
tents  and  attendants  of  these  great  personages.  The  greatest  part 
had  brought  their  movable  houses.    These  houses  were  built  upon 


wUecls,  with  vety  long  betoafi  upon  tbe  a:de4reei,  md  ivatmblsd  £«• 
'  ropeaotnitsi  soiAv  covered  with  fd^nMdeiiapnetrable  to  ndn,  otbesi 
with  staffs  of  variovs  ooloursi-  aad  were  of  idl  sins.  Some  Ulae  W 
pieeM.  Each  requires  from  two  to  thirty  oxen  to  dnw  it.  The  gnsB 
tents  were  pitched  round  the  Urge  oueB  of  the  great  lords;  and  evtfy 
door  openis  to  the  south.  The  oxen  are  the  finest  oniaBkent  of  theae 
equipages.  Those  f^m  Tangut  can  ont;^  be  punabasied  bj  rioh  peN 
Bons.  They  are  extremely  strong,  have  hair  like  horses,  and  their  t^ls 
are  white  and  soft  as  silk.     la  some  plsees  camels  are  u^cd. 

The  Grand  Khan's  quarters  were  two  leagues  in  compass;  with 
streets,  bazars,  and  public  places.  The  tent  for  the  I^et  h^  two 
thousand  persons.  It  was  covered  with  white,  and  contained  a 
magnificent  throne;  on  an  eminence  was  placed  the  Uack  feU  cto- 
pet,  upon  which  Genghn  sat  when  hei  was  proclsdmed  Grand  KbaA.- 
This  carpet  was  held  in  veneration  as  long  as  the  empire  lasted.  The 
tent  had  two  open  entrances,  one  of  tbffln  for  the  Emperor,  through 
which  no  other  being  dare  pass,  of  what  qutUity  soever,  though  no 
guard  was  placed.  On  the  tents  were  streamers  of  divera  colours,  of 
tite  richest  silks.  The  saddles  and  hwse  furniture  were  Bet  ^th  pre- 
cious stones.  The  habits  of  the  great  lords  were  of  gold  and  sUveir 
stufi^  and  rich  silks;  the  weather  being  still  cold,  they  wore  next 
th«r  skins,  sables  and  fine  furs  from  Rusda  and  Siberia;  and  over 
their  habits,  great  coats  of  wolf  skins. 

Zagatai  had  put  the  laws  of  the  em^re  into  so  good  a  train,  thait 
tittle  rMuained  to  do  but  to  ratify  them:  at  which  the  legislator  was 
greatly  rejoiced. 

The  Grand  KhaD>  who  delighted  in  ut  oceasion  to  make  an  oration, 
spoke  highly  in  praise  of  his  laws;  declmi^  that  they  were  t^  cause 
of  all  his  conquests,  uid  of  the  power  the  Mragols  uow  sbazed  with 
him.    He  took  occa»on  to  recount  his  vicftories;  maning  eveay  s6v^ 


RBv<n;r  of  the  prince  op  tajiqut-  89 

wapi  prince  he  had  ^quesftd;  not  auMptiag  ihe  prince  of  Topg^t;  CHAP^ 
who  was  there  .present.  Not  content  to  »late  the  number  and  i 
of  the  suhdued  kmgdoiis,  to  coavince  the  diet  of  hu  greatness,  he  or- 
dered tiiot  rU  the  ambaModMB  who  had  foUorted  the  C«iirt>  should  be 
oaUed  into  the  imperial  t«t,  and  also  all  the  envc^s  and  deputies  of 
various  couirtries.  The]'  appeared  at  the  frcHSt  of  the  throne ;  he  gave 
them  audience :  and  then  dismissed  the  assembi/. 

Prinoe  Touschi  returned  to  Cap^c;  his  two  geuerab>  havuog 
dehrered  over  the  oomuand  of  the  troops,  returned  to  the  Grand 
Khan;  who  soon  set  out.  attended  by  them  and  all  Ins  court,  always 
making  the  captive  qu*«a  Sallow  him,  mounted  on  a  diariot,  tai  loaded 
with  irons,  to  shew  to  the  eyes  of  the  nations  a  proud  monument  of 
Ins  victories.  On  the  march,  he  gave  an  hour's  conversation  each  day 
to  the  two  renowned  generals,  Hubbe  and  Sulda,  to  relate  to  him  their 
eoqieditifma,  and  the  rarities  they  had  come  to  the  knowledge  of  in  the 
steange  countries  they  had  beem  in;  and  they  had  someUiing  new  to 
satisfy  the  Emperor's  curiouty  till  their  arrival  at  Caracorum,  the  seat 
of  his  empire,  and  which  became  a  &mou8  and  populous  place. 

Genghis  had  grandsons,  whom  he  had  not  seen  Cor  seven  yeard. 
KuUai  aged  ten,  and  Hulaeou  one  year  less,  were  in  the  city.  Their 
inclinations,  and  pursuit  of  hunting,  endeared  them  to  Gengbiv. 
The  first  became  Grand  Khan  oi  the  Moguls,  and  Emperor  i^  all 
China;  the  latter,  King  oi  Persia. 

Sehidascou,  the  subdued  sovereign  of  Tangut,  intrigues  with  the 
southern  Chiftese  and  the  oriental  Turks,  who  were  disposed  to  sticoad 
him  a^mst  Genghis.  The  Emperor's  army  arrived,  mwik  fatigued, 
at  Caracwum,  in  1220.  After  the  trof^  had  rested,  the  usual  hunt- 
ing was  proclaimed,  though  the  winter  was  very  severe.  Before  it 
was  ended,  Crenghis  received  news  that  Schidascou  had  got  together 
a  considerable  army.    Ihe  graierals  wene  ordered  immediately  to  col- 



lect  the  troops>  and  to  clothe  them  in  coats  lined  with  sheep  aldiu« 
,  and  to  cover  the  horses  with  felt. 

,  The  preparations  for  war  did  not  stop  the  diversionB  of  the  court. 
There  were  many  marriages  between  the  princes  and  princ^ses  of 
the  imperial  family.  Public  feasts,  suitable  to  their  quality,  and  m*- 
ny  horse  races  were  exhibited.  The  soldiers  who  were  Udoi  wkh 
plunder,  purchased  and  married  the  handsomest  maidens. 

Some  troops  marched  to  Tai^t.  Schidascou  was  startled  at  the 
news,  not  expecting  them  till  spring.  The  weather  is  not  warm  in 
Tangut  till  June.  The  Mogul  troops  did  not  advance  for  fear  of  ba- 
ing  surprised,  llie  Emperor  reviewed  his  army,  and  sent  a  hundred 
thousand  troops  for  China,  fearing  a  revolt  if  he  should  not  be  suc- 
cessful. He  then  marched  with  the  rest  to  Tengut.  He  found  that 
he  should  have,  when  joined  with  the  forces  already  there,  three  hun- 
dred and  fifty  thousand.  His  army  was  divided  into  ten  bodies.  Zaga- 
tai  and  Octal  commanded  the  two  first  Huhbi,  Suida,  Caraschar, 
and  other  distinguished  generals,  commanded  the  rest  But  all  of 
them  were  subject  to  prince  Tuli.  There  was  a  flying  camp  for  the 
instruction  of  his  grandsons,  Kublai  and  Uulacou. 

The  army  crossed  a  desert  of  forty  days'  journey,  took  the  city  of 
■Azine,  and  reposed. 

Schidascou  had  five  hundred  thousand  troops  mostly  ftimisfaed  by  the 
Chinese  of  Manji.  Genghis,  whose  troops  were  from  Carisme,  In- 
dia *,  Geta,  and  other  places,  and  much  inferior  in  number,  advanced, 
tliinking  he  had  the  advantage  of  discipline  over  inexperienced  sol- 
diers. The  Mogul  officers,  though  very  rich,  and  the  troops  also, 
were,  by  Genghis's  orders,  dressed  very  plainly.  Schidascou's  were 
in  clothes  of  gold,  silver,  and  silk. 

•  llMfiii^  the  coDtiguotu  oountrieB  «wtf  of  the  Indua. 

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Sdudasopu  sent  a  hundred  tbonsuid  hone  to  attack  the  vanguard 
of  the  Mognls,  but  they  could  not  make  any  impressiou  on  them;  ^ 
and  they  retired  to  the  main  anny  with  Iobs. 

Genghis  advanced,  and  the  armies  came  in  sight  of  each  other: 
Schidascou's  army  covered  a  large  space.  Cienghis  took  a  position 
on  an  extensive  lake,  sHU  quite  frozen.  The  Moguk  liad  quickly  the 
advantage,  but  the  generals  IMayan  Khan  and  the  prince  of  Jurge 
withstood  their  fury;  and,  charging  the  two  wings  of  the  Emperor's 
army,  killed  thirty  thousand  of  his  troops.  This  success  was  &tal; 
fbr,  believing  the  Moguls  defeated,  they  continued  the  fight  with- 
out keeping  their  raAks;  tmd  the  corps  de  reserve  coming  up,  Schi- 
daacou,  who  shewed  extraordinary  bravery,  was  vanquished.  It  is 
said,  that  he  lost  three  hundred  thousand  soldiers  on  that  dreadful  day. 
After  this  victory,  Genghis  marched  against  the  Turks  of  Jurge,  who 
submitted.  -He  passed  the  next  winter  in  the  west  of  Tangut,  mean- 
ing to  conquer  Southern  China. 

News  arrived  of  the  deaUi  of  the  Calif  of  Bagdat.  New  levies  were 
ordered;  and  Genghis  secured  to  himself  the  countries  dependant  on 
Tangut.  There  needed  so  fertUe  a  country,  and  of  such  vast  extent, 
to  subsist  so  numerous  an  army  for  so  long  a  time.  The  conquest  of 
the  rest  of  China  appeared  not  difficult  to  Genghis;  and  he  said,  that 
he  now  wished  for  nothing  more  than  the  good  of  his  subjects.  But 
his  prosperity  and  joy  were  to  be  turned  into  sorrow.  While  he  was 
diverting  himself  in  the  midst  of  his  fiunily,  he  was  informed  by  a 
courier  from  Capschac  of  the  death  of  Touschi  Khan,  his  eldest  son. 
The  whole  court  was  afflicted.  The  Emperor  shewed  at  first  much 
constancy  of  mind;  but  fatherly  affection  got  the  better  of  him,  and 
he  fell  into  a  profound  melancholy. 

An  officer  arrived  from  Schidascou  to  entreat  that  the  Emperor 
would  foigive  his  revolt,  and  accept  his  services.     Geoghid  gave  him 


CUA^,    »u«U«W}9«  APd  prpi)»u9d  to  grwi  SelddaMon  his  friwdsliip,    Th«  ar- 
v^r>^^  mr  WW)  snewaped  max  » tonaU  in  ft  vwAj  omntry,  on  1^  rwd  to 
China.    The  Camp,  of  teofe  a«d  mpving  bouMti,  had  tlw  •ppownnM 
of  At^rgQCJtf. 

tii^Vgh)^,  findujg  himself  extremely  ill,  ordered  «U  bis  sou,  th«^ 
cbildrep,  wd  f^be  ppiaoes  of  ihe  hlopd,  ij)t»  Mb  prev^aw.  He  pl«c«d 
hJwai^If  ^pngh^,  nq^witbBtwiding  bi»  p*in;  and,  with  his  u««al  pm^jofb' 
lie  ]pok,  yr^ich  comrawded  aw*  aqd  reBp^t,  even  from  his  ^ikUm 
aft4  the  8pvem^»s  of  the  East,  he  UM  thSQ),  that  h»  found  bla  ^ 
nte  ^uqb,  and  that  h^  must  prepare  fi>7  de^tb-  "  I  leave  f  ou,"  s«id 
h$,  ''  tb^  gre^teet  empire  in  the  woi-}d;  if  yoi}  would  pteeexv^  it,  be 
pnit^,  ^id  observe  the  Uwg  wbieh  J  have  established ;  but,  if  jttft 
yffJi}i  in  the  pdtbs  of  dipsention,  your  BubjeetB,  tbftt  w  tp  Bay,  your  enfh 
mioe,  wiU  qpoo  b^  masters  of  your  empire."  He  named  hU  third  son, 
pfrino^  Oc^  for  his  successor,  w  KboQ  of  Khans;  apd  all  the  rert, 
bowing  the  knee,  cried — "  What  the  great  Oengbis  Kban  ordaipe 
is  just,  and  f^U  be  obeyed  without  disputing."  The  £mppn>r  died 
A.D.  1226.  ^yvfx^  (be  bttter  end  of  the  year,  in  tb?  seventy-third  year  of  bis 


Eigb^  days  after  fche  Emperor's  decease,  wbidi  was  kept  secret,  ' 
Scbidascou,  acpQmpanied  by  bi«  children  and  some  lords,  arrived. 
4n  appeai^flpe  of  rejoif:ing,  as  if  for  the  Emperor's  recovery,  was  put 
on,  to  ^nyei^  him  into  the  camp.  He  and  his  party  were  a}!  put  jto 
death,  aceording  to  orders  left  by  Genghis'.  By  this  bloody  trean 
cbery,  Tangwt  was  aanexed  to  the  empire  of  the  Moguls-    After  tWh 

*?  Ahtd  GlHuri  Eelstes,  (p.  144),  th»t  Genghis  received  the  eavoy  with  great  ciyin 
lity,  but  did  not  put  himself  under  any  positive  engagement  with  respect  to  Schi- 
dascou ;  who  was  afterwards  besieged  in  his  capital,  (Campion),  captured,  and  put 
to  4ea]b,  but  Gengbia's  unsparing  cruelties  sanctiMi  the  suspidoa  of  a»y  ptJidcal 
e^OEOMty  whatever . 

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TOMB  OF  (OMBXm  tMJM^~MVT9l(m  OP  fflS  EBfPIRE. 
th>  Bmywonc's  tociwwi  wan  Made  ftiVIk,  «id  tfttt  g^<<  Otfi  dtfMMrfea- 
tiM,  wc*e  gMand.  v. 

The  QaM  Khan  ww  kotied  with  tb#  utauMt  r^pdet  And  raagnif^ 
cence,  with  all  the  pompous  ceremonies  of  the  Mogul  Mlfgi<nr.  Hte 
CMpM  ms  interred  aoonrdiag  t»  his  9«Tt  d«tive,  imder  a  trot  of  slb- 
gulBT  height  and  beauty,  where,  in  his  t«t!ura  fnm  tbe  eluu^,  soue' 
darfB  befiRE  he  1e&  skk,  he  had  reited  faivwdf  yrHh  mwA  st^staetAtm. 
A  most  noble  modunn^  was  encted  upon  bi»  grav«.  The  people 
who  eanw  ta  viA  the  touby  planted  attacr  ttees^  around  it;  wMelr  so 
avtSally  oMered  ft,  wd  in  sodi  beavtiftil  order,  as  rend«ved  it,  in  tJme, 
amt  of  the  flnett  aiAnuiiients  in  the  world.  It  fe  in  ktitttde  tOf,  longii- 
tuda  lOft"  north  of  the  great  wdL  Thcte  was  s  great  resort  of  atrve^ 
nigDS  to  tfia  court  for  six  monUis,  ta  contfert  tiie  afflicted  princes. 

G«igUs  KJiaa  had  ntimeroos  wives  aad  cencabines.  The  Are 
daat;htaEBoeOuBgh  Khan,  of  the  KingftfCtn%  of  tlK  Khans  of  tlie 
NnimaDB,  Congojutt^^  aod  the- Herkites,  pnincipdly  shafed'lis  esteen; 
the  daughter  ef  the  last  was  a  remarkable  beautT-.  He  left  a  prodigr- 
QUsly  numcTons  progeny;  but  his  foer  fovonrlte  sons  and  successors 
weve  all  bora  of  one  mother.  Porta  Congme,  Mte-  Congonrt  Rhan^ 
danghtcK:  ^le  restof  the  princes  were  appointed  and  liaiitsd  to  pett^- 

TouBohi*  was  tiie  elde&t  of  Purta  Congine's  sons,  the  s«>cond  was  Z»- 
g)Uai,  the  third  Ootai,.  and  the  fourth  Tuli.  Genghis  hnring  studied 
theii  tAmpers,,  had  appointed  TouscM  to  be  Master  Hmitennn  of  tlie 
empire,  the  most  considerable  post;  the  Mongols  being  obliged'  to  ex- 
ercise themselves  in  the  Huntings.  Zagatai,  was  chief  judge,  and  di- 
rector of  all  the  courts  of  justice  in  the  empire.  Octai  from  his 
pradenee  and  wisdom,  was  chief  counsellor.  The  afihirs  of  war  were 
committed  to  Tuli,  and  he  was  paymaster  to  the  royal  camp  or  golden 
horde.  At  tike  deaith  of  C^uighis,  the  emjHre  remained,  neaiiy,  as  he 
had  divided  it  durmg  his  life, 

O  2 



Touscbi,  the  eldest  son,  just  deceased,  was  succeeded  in  the  sore 

reignty  of  Capschac  by  Batou  his  eldest  son;  a  name  terrible  to  Ibw- 

sia,  and  alarming  even  to  Europe*.     For  a  descriptioD  of  Capsdiac, 

see  Chapter  II. 

Zagatai  had  for  his  part  Transoxiana,  the  country  of  the  Yuguree, 
Cashgar,  Badachshan  and  Bale. 

Tuli  had  Chorassan.  Persia,  and  India  (so  called)  west  of  the  Indus. 
He  died  while  m  Catai  (or  Cathay),  with  Octai,  in  1329. 

Octai,  the  new  Grand  Khan,  kept  for  his  division  Catai  or  the  norUi- 
em  half  of  China,  the  conquest  of  which  he  completed,  Tangot,  Corea 
and  eastern  Siberia.  His  army  consisted  of  fifteen  hundred  thousand 
troops.  He  usually  resided  at  Olougyourt,  a  city  not  far  from  Cara- 
corum.  where  he  made  a  park  for  game,  many  miles  in  circuit,  and- 
greatly  embelhshed  both  these  citiesf.  Octai  was,  according  to 
eastern  historians,  a  more  virtuous  and  enlightened  monarch  than 
Genghis.  He  had  much  warfare  and  some  success  agaiust  the  Chi- 
nese of  Muoj)  X ;  and  his  armies  subduedthe  Sultan  of  Iconium  and  over- 
ran Asia  Minor.  "  Octai  died,"  says  Mr  Tooke,  "in  consequence  of  a 
propensity  worthy  of  this  universal  despot,  (the  effects  of  a  fit  of  drunk- 
enness) ;  and  his  death  saved  Asia  for  a  time,  and  Europe  for  ever.  An 
interregnum  of  four  years  succeeded.  The  widow  of  Octai  (the  cele- 
brated Tourakina  Catun),  by  whose  intrigues  that  prince  was  thwarted 
in  all  his  ordinances,  now  set  herself  up  as  regent  of  the  empire ;  in 
which  office  she  was  continually  making  innovations,  that  tended  to  ge-  - 
neral  mischief 

*  A.  D.  1238.  The  inhabitants  of  Gothia  and  Prize  were  preventeil,  by  their 
fear  of  the  Tartars,  from  sending  as  usual  their  ships  to  the  herring  fishery  on  the 
coast  of  England :  and,  as  there  waa  no  exportation,  forty  or  fifty  of  these  fish 
were  sold  for  a  shilling.     Gibbon,  Ch.  LXIV.  note  38,  (from  Mat.  Paris,  p.  396). 

i"  This  khan's  name  is  spelt  Bometimea  Ugadai,  Occadai. 

t  Levesque,  Vol.  U.  p.  78,  Vol.  VII.  p.  18,  says,  "  he  finidied  the  conquest  of 
China:"  but  it  was  only  Catai,  or  the  northern  diviuon,  aa  will  appear  in  Ch.  II. 

y  Google 


"  lUdckiitny,  a  d«eendant  of  the  detiuoaed  imperial  house  of  the  CHAP. 
Kitwies,  died  of  grief,  at  the  increasing  deeolation  of  the  conn-  s^-s^-^-^ 
try  which  vriu  now  become  his  second  home:  he  found  all  his  eObrts 
to  no  purpose ;  he  was  a  truly  great  and  noble  minded  man.  and 
first  officer  of  state  under  Octai.  He  poUBhed  the  Mongols,  and  in- 
troduced tiie  arts  and  sciences  among  them,  as&r  as  he  was  able.  He 
saved  milUons  from  their  impending  &te  from  the  savage  Mongols; 
and  hi^j  merits  to  live  in  the  hearts  of  muikind.  On  his  death,  in- 
stead of  the  vaot  treasures  that  were  expected^  no  property  was  found 
in  his  p«flaession,  except  several  books,  composed  by  himself,  on  histfuy 
astronomy  and  political  economy,  collections  of  coins,  maps>  pictores, 
&C.  Who  does  not  feel  satis&ction  in  finding  one  man,  worthy  of 
that  name  *,  among  such  a  horrid  crew  of  blood-thirsty  barbariansf  ? ' 

Keyouc  succeeded  his  lather  Octai;   he  was  not  crowned  till  Uie'A.D.  1S4I. 
year  1244.     A  description  of  his  magnificent  coronation  is  given  in 
the  chapter  on  Siberia.     He  is  there  named  Cuyne,  (a  probable  mis- 
^nt).     Keyoucdied  in  1346. 

Mangou,  son  of  Tuli,  through  the  influence  of  Baton,  succeded  to  A.D.  1846. 
the  empire.     In  1251  he  gave  a  feast  at  Caracorum,  in  which  were 

*  In  the  character  of  thia  great  man,  we  may  feel  the  full  force  of  the  poet'i 

"  Court-virtues  bear,  like  gems,  the  highest  rate. 
Bom  where  heav'n'a  influence  scarce  can  penetrate : 
In  life's  low  vale,  the  soil  die  Virtues  like. 
They  please  as  beauties,  here  as  wonders  strike. 
Though  the  same  sun  with  all  diffusive  rays 
Bhish  in  the  rose,  and  in  the  diamond  blaze. 
We  prize  the  stronger  effort  of  his  power. 
And  justly  set  the  gem  above  the  flower." 

Pope,  Moral  Essays,  Ep.  I. 

tTooke,  Vol  II.  p.  5  to  13.  Carpin  relates  that  Octai  was  poisoned;  and  that 
his  concubine  and  her  confederates  were  executed  while  he  was  at  the  court. 
HaUuyt,  Vol.  L  p.  66. 



ooiHUmed  fiat  Beven  days,  dmfy,  ei^t  chasiot  loadt  sf  iraiBi^  two  of ' 
bnuidy,  twenty  of  kmaia  (mwe's  milk  nuide  Eour»  tmd  twice  distHted  la 
am  earthern  pot),  wbidi  is  aatitaaaaAiutgo9AaBaguaviUB,mAdairaim 
grun;  three  hnndied  bonses.  three  hundrad  cem,  and  two  thousand 
sheep  for  the  kitchen*.  Mjmgon  had  svocetded  his  &ther  TiUi  in 
ike  goT«niia»t  of  Choraasan,  Persia,  ftct  nhi^  daring  htalift,  ooat^- 
nned  under  the  Grand  KhaAate,  and  were  gorsratd  by  his  brother  Hi»> 
lacou.  aa  Tieeroy.  He  ^ed  in  1397  before  the  city  of  Chcu  (Hfr-dtea^ 
which  fell  afterwards  to  KuUalf .  The  extensiTv  country  called  1%)* 
bet,  was  oonqneored  wUb  difficulty,  uid  cruelly  dewhtted  » tUa  kfaan^ 
.  reign.  (Marco  Polo  p.  412).  Rublai  aucoeeded  hia  teother  Mangow, 
and  resided  in  China.  By  his  conunand,  Halacon  nnaBted  tiie  thron* 
of  Persiai,  &c.     For  the  history  of  KuUai  see  Chapter  H. 


This  conqueror,  a  grandson  of  Genghis,  reduced  Russia  and 
western  Siberia:  he  afterwards^  with  half  a  million  of  troops,  ravi^jjed 
Poland,  destroyed  Cracow  and  Lublin;  entered  Moravia,  Datmatia. 
Bulgaria,  Bosnia,  and  other  countries.  Massacre  and  destruction 
marked  his  course.  He  invaded  Hungary  to  go  and  besiege  Constan- 
tinbple:  but  his  projects  were  arrested  by  death  in  1256. 

William  De  Rubmquis,  a  monk,  was  sent  as  ambassador  from  St 
Louis  to  Tartary  and  China  in  1253  J.    "  When  X  beheld  the  court 

•  Abul  Ghazi,  Vol.  I.  159.  and  Vol.  II.  403. 

t  Sir  William  Jones,  Vol.  I.  p.  lOl.  At  tbe  funeral  of  Mtingou,  it  u  asserted 
that  vast  numbers  of  human  beings  were  slain,  to  attend  their  deceased  master : 
although  this  ia  the  only  mention  of  such  a  horrid  custom  baring  been  actually 
practised  at  the  funeral  of  a  Mogul  Grand  Khan,  it  ia  to  be  ffeared  that  it  may  be 
true.  See  M.  Polo,  p.  200,  note  381.  Petis  de  la  Croix,  p.  S89.  Herodvtas, 
Melpomene,  LXXI. 

i  Louis  IX.  had  been  informed,  &bely,  by  a  Mongol  khao  and  the  Annopian 



ff  Bttoo,'  «;»  8Bkf«««>i,  "I  wae  wtmukiidi  *o  hoiues  in4  tmte 
weiG  Uie  Home  mjgfcty  cttjr  foj the ajiam oftbroaorfeqr teagws.  (8e-  > 
rai.wwtliwtaiiigbgitt).  TItecvuitisoilMOnla.  Atugetavtwiw 
«iMted,  w4  th*  dny  &l|q<riiia  w»  otImM  at  mwt.  Bttso  wt  iqwH 
«  >e«t,  Iwg  aa4  hnwd  like  •  Mi  gilt  All  av«r.  wilii  tlure«  atept  to  wt- 
Dwdi  wd  one  of  kid  Mim  wt  baaide  him.  The  imn  wt  preniKit- 
ffiialy.m  the n(^t  wd  Wt  sf  the  lodr.  4t  the  entniiKe  of  the  tent 
WW  ft  benob,  fanii«h9d  irith  fcnpijs,  mi  with  atately  cup«  of  iUver  aai 
gold,  riehly  set  with  ieweU.  We  atood  b«re.Mt  and  haFQ-beaded>  a»d 
were  «  gre»t  md  a  atnnge  spectafde  in  their  eyes.  We  bowed  our 
Inees,  and  atood  fcr  a  apace  wherein  a  man  mif^  have  rehearsed  tM 
{Helm  mutrertrntn  JJitw;  and  thete  was  a  pvofonad  dlence.  Baton 
beheld  m  eameatly,  and  we  bin:  he  aeemed  to  resemble,  in  pera««i 
Monsieur  Jean  de  Beaumont,  whose  soul  reatetb  in  peMO.  jfor>  like  hiak 
be  had  a  fresh  ruddy  countenance. 

■<  Baton  aahed.^ '  If  your  Mivesty  had  sent  an  smhaawidw  to  him 
or  no?"  I  answered— ■  th»t  your  Majesty  hti  sent  awbeswidora  to 
Ken  iUian.  and  letters  to  Sartacb,  (these  were  Batwi's  sow,  md  bw 
wetoys  between  the  Volga  and  the  Don),  being  persuaded  that  they 
bad  beeorae  Christians.'  The  guide  direetad  us  to  kneel  on  be«h 
knees;  and  we  were  commanded  to  speak.  Then  1,  thinking  of  a 
prayer  unto  God.  because  I  was  upon  both  kneea.  began  to  jnj — 
'  Sir.  we  h«>ee«h  the  Iiord,  who  hath  given  yon  theae  earthly  hens' 
fits,  that  it  would  pleas*  Him,  hereafter,  to  mako  you  partake  of  lUi 
heawnly  bleaainga,  because  thei  former,  without  thesci  are  win  an* 
vnproltable,  and  yon  will  not  obtain  the  ioys  of  henvet,  wleia  y<m 
heoome  «  CUriatiw.' 

wnbassadoin,  (hat  the  chiefs  of  the  Me^goU  had  evbrso«d  (Siaiitiamty.  Thi 
Mongols  having  vanquished  the  Saracens  in  Asia  Minor  and  S^,  Lpvis  courted 
their  alliance.    See  Mezeray,  A.  D.  1349. 

y  Google 

"  At  this,  Batou  modestly  smiled.  1%  e  other  Moguls  began  to  clap 
J  their  hands,  and  deride  us;  and  my  silly  inteipreter,  from  whom  I  ^- 
pected  comfort,  was  utterly  out  of  countnianice.  AJt«r  sileiice.  I 
said — '  I  came  to  your  son,  because  w^  heard  he  had  become  a  ChilBt- 
ian,  and  brought  falm  letters  from  my  lord  the  King  of  France ;  and 
your  son  sent  me  to  you :  the  cause  of  my  coming  is  therefore  best 
fanown  to  yourself.'  The  khan  caused  me  to  rise;  he  enquired  youl- 
Majesty's  name,  and  my  name,  and  caused  them  to  be  written  down. 
iHe  demanded — '  Against  whom  you  waged  war?'  I  answered — 
"  Against  the  Saracens,  who  had  defiled  the  house  of  God  at  Jerusa- 
lem." (Batou  was  a  Deist,  his  successor  became  a  Mahomedan).  He 
iasked  me — '  If  your  Majesty  had  ever  sent  him  an  ambassadot  b»- 
fore?*  I  answered — '  To  you,  Sir,  never.'  He  ^en  gave  us  milk  ttt 
drink,  and  kumis,  a  special  &vor. 

"  As  I  sat  looking  down  on  the  ground,  he  commanded  me  to  Uft  up 
my  countenance ;  being  desirous  yet  to  take  a  more  diligent  view  of  us. 
Then  we  departed.  The  guide  said—'  Your  master,  the  king,  re- 
questeth  that  you  may  remain  in  the  kingdom;  which  request  Batou 
Khan  cannot  grant,  without  the  consent  of  the  Grand  Khan,  Mangu: 

wherefore  you  and  your  interpreter  must  go  to  him  at  Caracorum.' 

(Fifty-seven  degrees  to  the  east!) 

"  We  set  out;  and  of  hunger,  thirst,  weariness,  and  cold,  there  was 
no  end.  In  the  morning,  we  had  a  little  drink,  or  some  boiled  millet; 
in  the  evening,  some  ram's  mutton,  or  brotb.  Ziughis,  the  Great 
Khan,  had  four  sons,  from  whom  proceeded  many  children;  every 
one  of  which  doth  at  this  day  enjoy  great  possessions :  and  they  are 
dmly  nmliiplied  and  dispersed  over  that  huge  and  vast  desert;  which 
is  in  demensions  like  the  ocean.  Our  guide  led  us  to  many  of  their 
habitations,  and  they  marvelled  exceedingly  that  we  would  not  re- 
ceive gold,  silver,  or  precious  garments,  at  their  hands.    They  en- 



qnired  about  the  Pope,  and  asked  if  it  was  true,  that  he  was  five  hun- 
dred years  old*?    We  saw  many  wild  mules. 

"  We  arrived  at  court.  I  could  bo  longer  go  barefoot,  the  cold  was 
extreme :  and  in  May>  it  froze  in  the  morning  tmd  thawed  in  the  day. 
There  is  no  wind  in  the  coldest  weather,  or  nothing  could  live. 

**  At  the  end  of  April,  the  streets  of  Caracorum  were  so  fiill  of  snow, 
that  it  was  removed  in  carte. 

"  Mangu  Khan  has  at  Caracorum  a  large  court,  near  the  walls  of  the 
city,  inclosed  with  a  brick  wall;  where  is  a  great  palace,  in  which  a 
grand  feast  is  held  at  Easter,  when  he  passes  that  way,  and  in  sum- 
mer when  he  retumeth;  all  the  nobles  meet  here,  and  be  displays  his 

"  Within  the  walls  of  the  court  there  are  also  many  dwellings,  about 
the  size  of  our  farm-houses.  William  Bouchier,  the  goldsmith,  had 
made,  because  it  was  indecent  to  have  flaggons  going  about  as  in 
taverns,  a  silver  tree  and  four  silver  lions,  and  four  pipes  to  convey 
to  the  top  of  the  tree  and  spread  downward,  through  four  serpents* 
taUs,  from  which  were  conveyed  wine,  «aracosmos,  hydromel,  and  tera- 
cina  (made  from  rice),  into  silver  vessels,  at  the  foot  of  the  tree.  At 
the  top  was  an  angel  holding  a  trumpet;  the  boughs,  leaves,  and  fruit, 
on  the  tree,  are  all  silver.  When  the  angel  sounds  the  trumpet,  the 
liquors  are  poured  out  and  served  to  the  company. 

The  palace  is  like  a  church,  having  two  rows  of  pillars,  and  three 
gates  to  the  south.  Before  the  middle  gate,  is  the  tree;  and  the 
khan  site  on  the  north  front,  on  a  high  place,  ascending  by  two  flighto 

*  The  Delai  Lama,  who  is  the  pope  of  those  vast  regions,  never  dies:  his  soul 
being  discovered  inthe.body  of  some  child,  by  tokens  known  only  to  the  priests: 
and  always  in  one  of  that  order. 

y  Google 


CHAP,  of  steps:  by  one,  the  cup  bearer  mounts,  aad  descends  bj  the 
K^^-'^i'-i^  other. 

"  The  Grand  Khan  sits  above,  like  a  god.  On  tiie  r^t  are  his 
sons  and  brethren;  on  the  left,  his  wives  and  daughters;  one  of  thp 
Empresses  sits  beside  him,  hut  not  so  high. 

"  We  arrived  near  Caracorum  on  Palm  Sunday;  we  lAessed  the 
willow  boughs,  which  had  yet  no  bud.  We  entered  the  eity  about 
nine,  carrying  the  cross  t^oft;  passing  through  the  street  of  the  Sara- 
cens, where  the  market  and  fair  are,  to  the  church ;  and  the  Nesto* 
riaiu  met  us  in  procession.  Mass  was  said,  and  they  communi- 

"  Master  William,  the  goldsmith,  brought  us,  with  joy,  to  his  ian, 
to  sup  with  him;  he  had  a  Mahomedan  wife,  who  was  bom  in  Hun- , 
gary,  and  could  speak  the  French  and  Comanian  languages.  We 
found  there  one  Basilicus,  the  son  of  an  Englishman,  bom  in  Hunga- 
ry, and  who  was  skilfiil  in  the  same  languages. 

"  Next  morning  the  khan  entered  his  palace.  I  much  d^berated 
whether  I  should  go  to  him  with  the  monk  and  the  priest,  seeing 
their  actions  were  full  of  idolatry  and  sorcery;  but,  fearing  offence, 
I  went,  and  prayed  for  the  whole  church  with  a  loud  voice;  and  also 
for  the  khan  himself,  that  God  would  direct  him  in  the  way  of  sal- 

"  The  palace  was  full  of  men  and  women;  the  court  of  which  was 
very  neat;  the  rivers,  in  summer,  being  conveyed  to  every  place, 
whereby  it  is  watered. 

'*  The  city  of  Caracorum  is  not  so  good  as  the  Castle  of  Saint  De- 
nis ;  and  the  monastery  of  Saint  Denis  is  worth  ten  times  the  palace. 
There  are  but  two  streets ;  one  for  the  Mahomedans,  where  the  fairs 
are  kept;  and  many  merchants  resort  thither  by  reason  of  the  court. 



and  the  number  of  ambasBadora.     There  is  also  a  street  for  the  C*- 
thayans.    liVithout  those  streets,  there  are  great  palaces,  which  are  ' 
tiie  courts  of  the  secretaries*. 

"  On  our  arrival,  we,  and  all  strangers,  severally,  xv&k  called  he- 
fore  Bulgai,  the  chief  secretary,  and  diligently  questioned ;  for  Man- 
gu  Khan  had  been  told,  that  four  hundred  assassins  bad  gone  fcHrth, 
in  divers  habits,  to  kill  himf .  His  mother  is  a  Christian,  and  Mas- 
ter William  is  her  servant. 

"  Having  had  permission  to  stay  two  months,  and  five  being  gone 
by,  I  was  sent  for,  and  the  khan  asked  me  — '  If  I  would  have  gfAd, 
silver,  or  costly  garments?' — which  I  declined;  but  said,  we  have  not 
wherewith  to  bear  our  expenses;  on  which,  he  provided  for  us  all  ne- 
cessaries to  pass  through  his  country.  '  You  came  from  tiatoa 
Khan,  and  must  return  that  way,'  said  he.  I  then  said — '  I  would 
request  your  Magnificence,  when  I  have  carried  your  letters,  that  it 
may  be  lanful  for  me  to  return.'  He  held  his  peace,  as  it  were  in  a 
muse.  My  interpreter  desired  me  not  to  speak ;  and  Mangu  Khan 
said — '  Make  yourself  strong  with  food;'  and  he  caused  than  to  give 
me  drink,  and  I  departed.  If  I  had  been  endowed  with  pow«r  to  do 
wonders;  as  Moses  did,  peradventure  he  had  humbled  himself. 

"  I  saw,  at  Caracorum,  the  ambassador  of  the  Khan  of  Bagdat,  and 
one  from  a  Soldan  of  India,  who  brought  eight  leopards,  and  ten  hare 

*  Some  account  of  the  ruiiu  of  Caiocorum  aod  Olougyourt  ia^ven  ia  tbe  fifth 

t  In  1262,  Hukcou,  King  of  Persia,  sent  an  army,  and  besieged  the  old  m^n 
of  the  mountain  for  three  years.  The  old  man  w&s  put  to  death,  his  castle  dis- 
mantled, and  hjs  paradise  destroyed.  Marco  Polo,  p.  IIU;  where  there  b  a  full 
description  and  notes.  This  inhuman  being,  and  bis  subjects,  pretended  that 
they  were  descended  from  Arsaces,  founder  of  the  Parthi&o  empire.  They  were 
for  that  reason  called  j4r»acians;  which  has  been  corrupted  into  the  word  Assa$- 
tins.     See  Ahul  Ghazi  Bahadur,  Vol.  I.  p.  185,  note. 



CHAP.     hoandB,  taught  to  sit  on  the  horses'  buttocks,  as  leopards  do,  for  hunt- 
'^«»-v'*w^  ing.      There  were  ambassadors  from  the  Soldan  of  Turkey,  who 
brought  rich  presents;   they  told  the  Grand  Khan  he  wanted  not 
gold  or  silver,  but  men ;  and  that  he  required  of  him  an  army. 

"  We  would  not  w«t  for  company  to  travel  by  the  towns  or  vil- 
lages, but  we  went  hi|^  in  the  north,  it  being  sunmier,  and  found  no 
towns,  but  many  tombs.  We  descended  Irom  the  north  to  Serai, 
where  Batou's  palace  stands,  just  one  year  after  we  had  departed. 
When  I  left  Serai,  we  met  with  one  of  Batou's  sons,  with  many  &1- 
coners  and  falcons.  We  proceeded  through  Derbend,  by  the  river 
Araxes,  and  Turkey,  to  Cyprus*. 

*'  The  substance  of  the  long  letter  of  Mftngu  to  St.  Louis,  is — '  There 
is  but  one  eternal  God  in  heaven;  and  on  earth,  but  one  lord,  Geng- 
his Khan.  The  man,  called  David,  who  said  he  was  our  ambassador 
to  you,  was  a  liar.  You  sent  ambassadors  to  Sartacfa,  Sartach  sent 
them  to  Batou,  and  he  to  me,  as  the  greatest.  If  you  will  obey  us, 
send  ambassadors,  and  we  shall  know  if  you  will  have  war  or  peace. 
If  you  lead  an  army  against  us,  to  know  what  we  can  do,  the  eternal 
God  himself  alone  knows  thatf' " 

*  St.  Louis  was  then  at  Cyprus.  It  was  in  ttte  year  of  Rubraquis'  return,  that 
this  king  rec|uested.Pope  Alexander  IV.  to  appoint  Inquisitors  in  France ;  where 
the  butchery  of  heretics  was  horrible.    See  Rees's  Cyc.  "  Inqubition." 

t  ^iDiam  de  Rubruquis,  in  Harris's  Voyages,  Vol.  I.  p.  556.  The  letter  was 
in  the  Mongol  language,  but  in  the  Yugurian  characters.  The  lines  were  from 
the  top  to  the  bottom,  and  multiplied  from  the  left  to  the  right.  The  Monguls 
adopt  the  Yugurian  character  in  preference  to  their  own.     P.  de  la  Croix,  p.  96. 

y  Google 

Digitized  by  njOOQIC 

KHAN     OF     TEE     MONGOLS    AND      TARTARS-;  , 

(jomiaaiKliii^  uiaiame  iougiit 
1  etwccn  Te'kiii&.  Sitcnamxiict  were  fuiLiked^rUM   I<f^ 

660,000     (^omlialanta . 


Of  the  Grand  Khan  Kuhlai,  whose  domination  exceeded  that  of 

Augustus. Conquest  of  Manji,  or  South  China;   Bangat- 

la;   Burmah;  ^c.^^^— Numerous   Elephants   received  in    tri- 
bute.  BsbelUon  in  Siberia. Invasion  of  Java. Inva- 

^on  of  Japan.-^—Pomp  and  Splendour  of  his  Court. Mag' 

n^cent  Hunting  Expeditions. Failure  of  Attempts  to  con- 
quer Hindostan. 

L  HE  Roman  Empire,  in  its  utmost  grandeur,  under  Augustus  Ce- 
sar, comprised  not  near  the  extent  of  territory,  number  of  subjects,  or  , 
riches  of  this  Mongnl  Emperor;  the  fruits  of  less  than  eighty  years*. 
Rnblai  was  the  third  son  of  Tuli,  (who  was  the  fourth  son  of  Genghis 
Khan,)  a  distinguished  general,  and  treasurer  of  the  army  and  the  royal 
camp.     Kublai  was  bom  in  the  year  1214.  ^ 

*  The  Roman  empire  was  two  thousand  miles  in  breadth  from  the  wall  of  Anto- 
ninus in  Britain  and  the  northern  limit  of  Dacia,  to  mount  Atlas,  and  the  Tropic 
of  Cancer.  It  extendedin  length  mwe  than  three  thousand  miles,  from  the  West- 
ern Ocean  to  the  Euphrates.    Gibbon,  Chapter  I. 

The  Mongul  onpire  was  two  thousand  four  hundred  mites  in  breadth  from  Yq- 
nan  to  latitude  rixty .-  and  in  laigth,  from  the  sea  of  Jiq>an  to  the  Don,  upwards 
of  four  thousand  miles.  The  comparison  is  therefore  enormotufy  in  fiiTOur  ot 
Genghis's  fomily. 

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CHAP.        The  first  pleasure  the  Emperor  enjoyed,  on  his  retarn  to  Caraco- 

•..^-v-w'    mm,  was  the  sight  of  some  of  his  grandsons,  whom  he  had  not  seen 

for  seven  years.    Among  these  were  two,  of  whom  he  had  conceived 

A.D.  1224.  great  hopes:  their  names  were  Kublai  and  Hulacou;  the  first,  about 

ten,  the  other  nine  years  old.     They  continually  employed  themselves 

in  hunting,  a  disposition  much  admired  by  the  Mongols. 

The  Grand  Khan  was  so  extremely  pleased  at  their  courage  and  in- 
clination fbr  this  sport,  that  he  gave  them  employments  near  him ;  and 
took  the  trouble  to  instruct  them  himself.  On  the  march  to  Tangut, 
the  emperor  ordered  a  flying  camp  for  the  instruction  of  these  two  fa- 
vourite grandsons,  who  became  so  famous  in  history.  In  1226,  Geng- 
his Khan  died. 

The  Grand  Khan  Mangu,  some  years  before  his  death,  appointed 
Kublai  viceroy  of  the  conquered  part  or  northern  half  of  China. 

When  Mangu  was  killed  in  China,  his  brother  Kublai  was  pro- 
A.D.  1257.  claimed  Grand  Khan.  He  is  described  as  of  "  the  middle  stature,  his 
limbs  well  formed,  and  his  whole  figure  of  a  just  proportion.  His 
complexion  is  fair  and  occasionally  suffused  with  red,  like  the  bright 
tint  of  the  rose,  which  adds  much  grace  to  his  countenance.  His 
eyes  are  black  and  handsome,  his  nose  is  well  shaped  and  promi- 

The  youngest  brother,  Articbouga,  opposed  Kublai's  advancement 
to  the  throne  of  the  empire,  and  set  up  his  standard,  at  the  head  of  a 
large  army,  at  Caracorum :  he  had  also  a  great  party  in  the  Chinese 
provinces,  who  favoured  him. 

After  several  battles,  in  the  last  Kublai  gained  a  bloody  victory. 
His  brother  was  taken  prisoner,  closely  inunured,  and  died  at  the  end 

•  Marco  Polo,  p.  281. 



of  A  year*.     After  this  war,  Kublai  resided  entirely  in  China:  first,  at        n, 
the  capital  of  Shan-si,  and  afterwards  at  Pekin+.  v-^-v-^-* 

From  1268,  during  the  whole  re^n  of  Kublai,  to  1294,  he  carried  A.D.  1368. 
on  a  war  with  his  nephew,  Kaidu,  who  was  very  powerful.    The  bat- 
tles were  generally  fought  on  the  banks  of  the  Irtish  |. 

In  a  great  battle  with  the  king  of  Mien  and  Bangalla,  the  Grand 
Khan's  general  captured  more  than  two  hundred  elephants.  From  ^-I^- 1^^- 
this  period  the  Crrand  Khan  has  tUwat/t  chosen  to  entploy  elephants  in 
his  armies,  which  before  that  time  he  had  not  done.  By  this  victory 
his  majesty  annexed  to  his  dominions  the  whole  of  the  territories  of 
the  king  of  Bangalla  and  Mien  §.  Mien  is  a  magnificent  city  ||,  the  ca- 
pital of  a  kingdom,  a  former  monarch  of  which,  when  he  was  near  hia 
end,  gave  orders  for  erecting,  on  the  place  o(  his  interment,  two  pyra- 
midal towers,  ten  paces  in  height,  entirely  of  marble,  each  terminat- 
ing with  a  ball;  one  of  these  pyramids  was  adorned  with  a  plate  of 
gold  an  inch  in  thickness.  The  tomb  was  covered  with  a  plate  part- 
ly of  gold,  partly  of  silver.  Around  the  balls  were  suspended  small  bells 
of  gold  and  silver,  which  sounded  when  put  in  motion  by  the  wind. 

*  Petis  de  la  Croix,  p.  399.  Levesque  Bays,  Kublai  was  the  youo^st  brother; 
but  be  gives  no  authority  for  that  assertion. 

t  Pekin  is  the  Chinese  name,  meaning  the  northern  Court.  Khanbalig  or 
Cambalu  is  the  Tartar  name,  signifying  the  city  of  the  Khan  or  sovereign.  See 
Notes  to  Marco  Polo,  B.  11.  Cb.  VIl.  Du.  Halde,  Vol.  I.  p.  Sid.  Mr.  Bell,  chap. 
XI.  says  "On  the  Idth  of  February,  1721, 1  Cook  a  ride  round  the  walls  of  the  ci^ 
which  I  performed  at  an  easy  trot  in  four  hours;  whereby  the  compass  of  Pekin 
may  be  nearly  computed.  The  suburbB,  especially  to  the  east  and  south,  are  ve- 
ry extensive,  and,  in  many  places  of  them,  the  buildings  are  equal  to  those  witbia 
the  walls. 

t  See  Chapter  V.  on  Siberia. 

§  Marco  Polo,  p.  441.  For  some  account  of  the  battle,  and  for  the  description 
of  this  Bangalla,  see  chapter  VII. 

II  Could  this  city  be  Ava?  see  Marco  Pob,  note  864. 

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This  Bepulchre  was  respected  by  the  Grand  Khan's  commands,  the 
Tartars  never  Tiolating  the  tombs  of  the  dead.  In  this  country  were 
found  many  elephants,  handsome  wild  oxen,  stf^^,  rhinoceroses,  and 
other  animals,  in  abundance*, 

Thibet  belongs  to  the  Grand  Khan,  having  been  conquered  and  de- 
vastated by  Mangu  Khan.  Tigers  have  multiplied  to  an  astonishing 
degree.  Here  are  found  the  musk  animals,  and  wild  oxen,  extremely 
large  and  fierce,  both  of  which  are  hunted  with  their  immense  dogs. 
There  are  also  laner  lalcons  and  sakers,  with  which  the  natives  have 
good  sport  t. 

Tholoman  (Burmah)  is  subject  to  the  Grand  Khan.  The  people 
are  tall  and  good  looking,  their  complexions  rather  brown  than  fur. 
They  are  just  in  their  dealings  and  brave  in  war.  Many  of  their 
towns  and  castles  are  upon  lofty  mountains.  They  bum  their  dead. 
Abundance  of  gold  is  found  here.  They  use  porcelain  shells  for  the 
small  currency  J. 

Ziamba,  (by  Cochin  China,)  is  tributary  to  the  Grand  Khan.  The 
king  presents  to  his  imperial  majesty  annually  a  very  large  quantity  of 
lignum  aloes,  (highly  esteemed  as  a  perfume  for  baths  and  for  incense 
at  funerals),  together  with  twenty  of  the  largest  and  handgomest  ele- 
phants to  be  found  in  his  districts,  which  abound  with  those  ani- 
mals §. 

The  countries  between  China  ahd  Bengal,  (Pegu,  Siam,  Tonquin, 
&c.),  where  there  are  abundance  of  elephants,  rhinoceroses,  and  other 
beasts,  were  reduced  to  the  power  of  the  Grand  Khan,  and  paid  him 
tribute  11^ 

•  M.  Polo,  pp.  447,  449.  i  M.  Polo,  p.  457. 

t  M.  Polo,  p.  412.  i  §  M.  Polo,  p.  583. 

n  See  Marco  Polo,  B.  11.  Chapters  XLVl.  XL VII.  XLIX.  and  note  378. 



In  the  leduction  of  Cochin  Chins,  the  Grand  Khan  lost  rast  num-    CHAP, 
bers  of  troops,  by  the  effects  of  the  climate*.  v.^-v-«i-' 

The  Grand  Khan  lays  cLiim  to  the  whole  island ofSumatra;  Marco 
Polo  visited  six  of  the  eight  kingdoms  in  that  island ;  some  of  which 
acknowledge  the  khan's  authority.  They  have  many  wild  elephants; 
rhinoceroses  much  inferior  in  size  to  the  elephants,  but  their  feet  are 
similar,  the  hide  resembles  that  of  a  buffido,  and  they  have  a  single  horn ; 
and  goshawks  black  as  ravens.  They  have  certain  small  apes,  in 
tiieir  faces  like  men,  which  they  put  in  boxes  and  preserve  with  spices. 
They  sell  thepi  to  merchants.who  carry  them  through  the  world,  show- 
ing them  for  pigmies  or  little  men.  When  sbips  pass  by,  the  opportu- 
nity is  taken  to  send  to  the  Grand  Khan  hawks  and  other  curious  ar- 


While  Li-Tsong  had  only  the  south  provinces  of  China  under  his  A.D.  1£80. 
dominion;  the  western  Tartars  possessed  the  empire  of  the  north, 
llieir  king,  Kublai,  was  skilled  in  the  sciences,  and  beloved  by  his  sub- 
jects for  the  respect  he  showed  to  learned  men,  and  ^tbe  honour  he  did 
to  the  memory  of  Confucius.  Li-Tsong  dying  without  issue,  (1264), 
was  succeeded  by  Tu-Tsong,  a  profligate  and  in&mous  prince.  His 
ministers  seeing  no  remedy  for  the  misfortunes  which  were  ready  to 
iall  on  the  imperial  family,  retired  to  the  western  Tartars;  whose  ar- 
my having  overrun  the  provinces  of  Tunnan,  Se-chuen  and  Sben-si, 
entered  that  of  Hu-quang,  and  most  of  the  cities  opened  thetr gates; 
while  the  wretched  Tn-Tsong,  drowned  in  pleasures)  was  stripped  of 

*  See  Grosier's  Description  of  China,  Vol  I.  p.  300. 
t  M.  Polo.  p.  603.  And  in  Hartia's  Voyages,  p.  620. 



his  domhiioiis  by  degrees,  without  knowing  any  thing  of  ihe  matter. 
^  He  died  in  the  year  1274,  aged  twenty-five,  leaving  three  young  child- 
ren, who  were  bom  to  be  the  sport  of  fortune.     Kong-Tsong,  his  se- 
cond son,  was  placed  upon  the  tottering  throne. 

The  empress,  who  governed  the  empire  for  her  son,  sent  ambai8»- 
dors  to  the  Tartar  sovereign,  to  demand  peace;  offering  to  submit  to 
the  most  hard  and  abject  terms.  But  that  inexorable  monarch  replied : 
"  Your  &mily  owes  its  rise  to  the  monstrous  infamy  of  the  last  prince 
«f  the  preceding  dynasty:  it  is  therefore  but  just  that  the  remaining 
princes  of  the  family  of  Song,  who  are  infants  also,  should  gjve  place, 
to  another  family." 

Meantime,  Pe-Yen  advanced  with  a  numerous  army  of  Tartars, 
subduing  all  before  him.  This  general  is  highly  praised,  both  for  his 
prudence  in  conducting  two  hundred  thousand  men  with  so  much  fa- 
cility; and  for  his  modesty,  which  was  so  extraordinary,  that,  in  the 
midst  of  all  his  victories,  he  never  dropped  the  least  word  in  his  own 
praise.  He  took  the  emperor  prisoner,  who  died  in  the  desert  of  Kobi, 
or  Shamo,  and  was  succeeded  in  his  empire  and  misfortunes  by  his 
brother,  Twantsong,  in  the  year  1276.  The  victorious  march  of  the 
Tartar  obliged  this  emperor  to  go  on  board  of  his  fleet,  with  the  lords 
of  his  court,  and  a  body  of  one  hundred  and  thirty  thousand  soldiers 
which  remained  with  him,  designing  to  retire  to  the  province  of  Fo- 
Kyen;  but,  being  closely  pursued  by  the  Tartars,  both  by  sea  and  land, 
he  was  obliged  to  fly  to  the  coast  of  Quan-Tong,  the  most  southern 
province,  where  he  died  of  a  disease,  aged  eleven  years,  in  1278 ;  and 
was  succeeded  by  his  brother  Ti-ping. 

The  Chinese  fleet,  being  overtaken  by  that  of  the  Tartars,  could 
not  avoid  an  engagement,  which  was  very  bloody  and  decisive  in  faror 
of  the  Tartars.  The  prime  minister,  Lo-syew-se,  to  whose  care  the 
Emperor  had  been  entrusted,  seeing  his  ship  surrounded  by  the  Tar- 
tarian vessels,  took  the  young  prince,  who  was  but  eight  years  of  age. 



in  his  Ktms,  and  threw  himself  into  the  sea.    The  rest  of  the  lords  and    CHAP, 
ministers  followed  his  example.     The  Empress,  quite  distracted,  with  \^-v^^«^ 
dreadful  shrieks,  also  flang  herself  into  th^ocean*.     This  terrible  e9r 
tastrophe   happened  near    an  island    dependant  on   Quang-chu-fu 

Another  general,  who  commanded  a  part  of  the  Chinese  fleet,  hav- 
ing forired  his  way  through  the  enemy,  and  escaped  their  fury  with 
some  of  his  ressels,  endeavoured  to  make  to  shore,  but  was  driven  off 
by  a  violent  storm  which  just  then  arose:  and  he  and  all  his  followers 
were  sunk  at  once.  It  is  affirmed,  that  above  a  hmidred  thousand 
Chinese  perished  in  this  fight,  either  by  the  sword  or  the  wat^,  into 
which  vast  numbers  threw  themselves,  in  despair.  Thus  ended  the 
dynasty  of  the  Song,  and  with  it  the  dominion  of  the  Chinese.  Kub- 
lai  took  possession  of  his  conquest,  and  was  the  first  emperor  of  the 
dynasty  called  Ywen,  under  the  name  of  Shi-tsuf . 

The  Grand  Khan  was  excited,  by  the  reports  he  heard  of  the  wealth  A.D.  liiSS. 
and  greatness  of  Japan,  to  make  the  conquest  of  that  country.  An 
army  of  one  hundred  thousand  men  embarked  at  the  ports  of  Kinsu 
and  Zaitun;  and  reached  the  island.  A  storm  arising,  and  the  two 
commanders  falling  into  dissention,  the  whole  of  the  troops  were  lost 
in  the  waves,  or  made  prisoners;  only  three  or  font  returning}. 

Nayan,  a  near  relation  of  the  Crrand  Khan,  proprietor  of  a  consi-  A.D.  1286. 
derable  district  in  Leaotong,  becoming  very  powerful,  formed  the  de- 
dgn,  in  concert  with  Kaidu,  a  relation  of  both  parties,  of  usurping  Hut 
sovereignty.     RuUai,  on  hearing  this,  collected  the  whole  of  the 

*  It  b  said,  that  the  reigning  empress  of  the  Song  dynasty  was  treated  at  Pelin 
with  the  greatest  humanity,  where  she  died,  in  the  year  1381.  See  Marco  FqIo, 
B.  U.  Ch.  Ly. 

t  ]>u  Halde,  Vol  1.  p.  318. 

I  M.  Polo,  p.  569,  and  Du  Halde,  VoL  I.  p.  HIS. 



CHAP,  troops  Stationed  within  ten  dajrs'  march  of  Pekin:  the^r  consisted  of 
K^f-'^^-'im^  three  hundred  and  sixty  thousand  horse :  and  one  hundred  ^thousand 
foot,  being  principally  his  falconers  and  domestic  servants.  In  twen- 
ty days  they  were  all  in  readiness.  Kaidu  had  promised  to  join  N»- 
yan,  with  one  hundred  thousand  horse.  Nayan's  force  consisted  of 
four  hundred  thousand  horse. 

The  Grand  Khan  proceeded  with  such  celerity^  that  in  twenty-five 
days,  by  forced  marches  day  and  night,  he  arrived  near  a  range  of 
hills,  on  the  other  side  of  which  Nayan  lay  encamped,  having  no  in- 
telligence of  the  Khan's  approach,  the  passes  having  been  secured. 
The  Emperor  allowed  his  troops  two  days'  rest  When,  early  in  the 
morning  they  ascended  the  hills,  they  found  Nayan  negligently  posted. 
He  was  asleep  in  his  tent,  accompanied  by  one  of  his  wives.  He  now 
lamented  that  his  junction  with  Kaidu  had  not  been  effected. 

The  Grand  Khan  took  his  station  In  a  large  wooden  castle,  borne  up- 
on the  backs  of  four  elephants*,  whose  bodies  were  protected  with 
coverings  of  thick  leather  hardened  by  fire,  over  which  were  housings 
of  cloth  of  gold.  The  castle  contained  many  cross-bow  men  and 
archers;  and  on  the  top  of  it  was  hoisted  the  imperial  standard, 
adorned  with  representations  of  the  sun  and  moon. 

A  fierce  and  bloody  conflict  was  for  a  long  time  undecided.  At 
length  Nayan,  being  nearly  surrounded,  attempted  to  escape,  but  was 
made  prisoner  and  conducted  to  the  Grtuid  Khan,  who  gave  orders  for 
his  being  put  to  death.  He  was  smothered  between  two  carpets  and 
shaken  till  ^e  spirit  had  departed  Arom  his  body,  in  order  that  the 
sun  and  air  should  not  witness  the  shedding  of  imperial  blood.    Those 

*  It  appears  that  it  is  an  old  custom  in  Persia,  to  use  four  elephants  a-breast. 
"  The  senate  decreed  Gbrdian  III.  to  represent  him  triumphing  after  the  Vet- 
■ian  mode,  with  chariots  drawn  with  four  elephants."     Augustan  Hist.  Vol.  II.  ' 
page  65. 



of  tbe  troops  which  sUrrived,  awore  alkigiance  to  Kublat.     Nayan  had     CHAP, 
ubdergone  the  ceremony  of  baptism,  and  a  vast  number  of  Christiana   ■•^>^-mt^ 
were  among  the  shun*.     This  battle  was  fought  about  half  way  be- 
tween Pekin  and  Siberia.     The  Emperor,  aft^  the  battle,  retired  to 

Timur  Kaan,  grandaon  of  Kublai,  viceroy  of  Yunan,  Bangalla,  and  A.D.  1289. 
the  countries  called  India  beyond  the  Ganges,  was  occupied  with  the 
great  war  against  Kaidu,  on  the  river  Irtlshf. 

TheGrand  Khan  failedinhia  attempts  on  Java.  "Java,"  says  Maun- 
devile,  "  is  nearly  two  thousand  miles  in  circuit;  the  king  is  rich  and 
mighty.  He  hath  under  htm  seven  other  isles  about  him.  Spices  are 
more  plentiful  here  than  in  any  other  country;  ginger,  cloves,  canelle, 
zedewalle,  nutmegs,  and  mace;  and  know  well,  that  the  nutmegs  bear 
the  mace :  for.  as  the  nut  of  the  hazel  hath  a  husk,  so  it  is  with  the  nut- 
meg and  mace.  All  things  are  in  plenty,  save  wine.  The  palace  is  mar- 
vellous and  rich ;  the  chambers  and  halls  are  square,  and  ibe  walls  are 
covered  with  plates  of  gold  and  silver,  with  stories  of  battles  of 
knights  enleved,  (the  glossary  says,  this  means  mkUd,  but  perhaps  it 
should  be  in  reH^^ ;  the  crowns  and  circles  about  their  heads,  are  of 
precious  stmies  and  pearls.  No  one  would  believe  the  riches  of  tiie 
palace  who  had  not  seen  it.  And  know  well,  that  the  king  of  this  isle 
is  so  mighty,  that  he  hath  many  times  overcome  the  Great  Khan  of  Ca- 
thay in  battle,  who  is  the  greatest  Emperor  under  the  firmament ;  for 
they  have  often  been  at  war,  because  the  Great  Khan  would  con- 
strain bim  to  hold  his  land  of  him ;  but  the  king  hath  at  all  times  de- 
fended himself  well  against  him  |. 

*  M.  Polo,  p.  868,  wbere  there  ia  a  description  of  the  battle, 
t  For  the  iiiTamon  of  Siberia,  see  Chap.  V. 

t  Voyage  and  Travsile  of  Sir  John  Maundevile,  Knt.  from  the  year  ISSS,  to 
1S56.    Thia  aoconnt  seems  to  decide,  that  it  was  Java,  and  not'JSomeo,  as  has 

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CHAP.  The  Emperor  Kublai  died,  aged  eighty.  He  had  four  wives  of  the 
i^.a-Y'**^  first  rank,  by  whom  he  had  twenty  sons.  Genghis,  who  was  the  eU- 
*  est,  and  was  to  inherit  the  empire,  having  died,  his  son,  Timor  Kaan, 
succeeded  to  the  vast  dominions  of  bis  grand&ther.  Seven  of  the  le- 
gitimate sons  were  placed  at  the  head  of  extensive  kingdoms  and 
provinces.  His  Majesty  had  twenty-five  sons  by  his  concubines,  all  of 
whom  were  placed  in  the  rank  of  nobles,  and  employed  in  the  military 

The  Empresses  had  separate  courts.  None' of  them  fewer  than 
three  hundred  female  attendants  of  great  beauty,  with  a  multitude  of 
ladies  of  the  bed  chamber;  youths  as  pt^es,  and  other  eunuchs;  so 
that  the  number  of  persons  attached  to  their  respective  courts, 
amounted  to  ten  thousand. 

His  Majesty's  concubines  are  from  a  province  named  Ungut*,  dis- 
tinguished for  perfumes  and  the  beauty  of  the  inhabitantsf .  Every 
year  four  or  five  hundred  of  the  handsomest  young  women  are  select- 
ed; and  the  khan  makes  choice  of  thirty  or  forty  of  those  who  are 
most  perfect  in  symmetry  of  person,  the  most  beautiful  in  features, 
hair,  countenance,  eyebrows,  &c.  The  remainder  are  instructed  in 
cookery,  dress-making,  and  other  suitable  wotks.     The  Grand  Rhan 

been  aupposed  by  PurcI^aB  and  others,  which  Kublai  and  his  Buccessors  attempt- 
ed to  conquer.  Mr.  Marsden  inclines  to  think  Marco  Polo  was  not  in  error  when 
he  says,  "  the  Grand  Khan  failed  in  his  attempt  on  Java."  See  M.  Polo,  B.  HI. 
Ch.  yn.  Is  not  this  strong  proof  of  the  correctness  of  Polo;  and  of  the  truth  of 
some  parts  of  the  Englishman's  book  ? 

*  Supposed  to  be  Igboors,  or  Yugures.     M.  Polo,  note  5^.     See  Sir  WiUiam 
Jones,  Vol.  1.  p.  53. 
'  f  Khoten  b  in  these,  parts.     "  When  thy  charming  letter  was  brought  to  me, 

I  said,  '  Is  it  the  zephyr  that  breathes  frcm  the  gardens,  or  is  it  the  sky  burning 
wood  of  aloes  on  the  censer  of  the  sun?  oi  is  it  a  caravan  of  musk  coming  from 
Khoten  { * "  From  a  Persian  poet.  Sir  William  Jones,  VoL  V .  p.  578.  The  Asia- 
tics perfiime  their  letters,  and  send  them  in  bags  of  aatin  or  '^w""'"^ 

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bettowB  them  in  marriage  on  th^  nobility,  witb  handiome  portions.    CHAP. 
The  &then  of  these  children  feel  gratified  at  the  khan's  condescend-  ■•^^'■^v' 
ing  to  make  choice  of  Uieir  daughters  for  himself;  or  matching  them 
more  nobly  than  they  themflelTes  hare  the  power  to  do  *. 


The  empire  attained '  its  greatest  extent  at  about  the  period  of  the 
completion  of  the  conquest  of  China,  in  1 280.  There  were  nnder  that 
division  of  the  empire,  governed  by  the  Grand  Khan  and  his  viceroys, 
the  whole  of  China — All  India  eastward  of  the  SurhampooUr  \ — 
Thibet — ^TangutJ — Mantchu  Tartary— Corea — and  all  the  eastern 
division  of  Siberia,  to  ttie  Straits  of  Anian,  (now  Behring*B),  and  to  the 
Arctic  Sea. 

Seven  stms  of  Kublai,  and  other  viceroys  governed,  each,  extensive 
regions.  The  account  of  the  subordinate  governments  is  extremely 
defective.  Marco  Polo  was  governor  of  Yan-^i,  a  large  city,  and  its 
dependencies,  for  three  years. 

Kaidu,  (now  in  rebellion),  nephew  of  Rublai,  possessed,  as  viceroy, 
the  countries  around  Almaligh  and  the  central  regions  of  Siberia,  to 
the  Northern  Ocean. 

Sheibani.  or  his  descendants,  reigned  at  Sibir,  over  the  western  di- 
vision of  Siberia.    Sheibani  was  the  cousin  of  Kublai. 

Capschac  was  governed  by  a  descendant  of  Batou.    This  division 

•  M.  Polo,  B.  II.  Ch.  IV.  and  V. 

t  See  De  Cfuines,  Vol.  I.  p.  173,  and  Vol  IV.  p.  19S. 

t  Tangut  and  Thibet  are  supposed  to  be  the  same,  by  some  aathon:  the  ex- 
act geography  of  these  immense  regions  is  but  imperfectly  known  even  now. 

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CEIAF.    now  contained  the  Crimea,  the  countries  north  of  the  Caspiui  and 
1^-v^^^^  Lake  Aral;  nori;hward,  by  the  Volga,  up  to  the  Arctic  Ocean;   weBt- 
ward,  to  the  Tanais  or  Don ;  Southward,  to  Caucasus:    all  Russia  be^ 
iDg  tributary. 

Zagatai's  descendants  reigned  over  Transoxiana  or  Marerulnere, 
the  country  of  the  Tugures  or  Igors,  Cashgar,  Badachafaan,  and 

Abaca  Khan,  son  of  Hulacou,  mounted  the  throne  of  Persia  by  or- 
der of  his  uncle-  the  Grand  Khan  Knblai.  Hulacou  with  three  hun- 
dred thousand  troops  had  taken  Bagdat,  and  put  an  end  to  the  Califs 
of  the  race  of  Abbas*.  The  territories  under  Abaca  comprised  Per< 
sia  to  the  Indus,  Syria,  Mesopotamia,  Chaldea,  and  Anatoliaf. 

The  death  of  Kublai  weakened  rapidly  the  allegiance  of  these  mo- 
narchs  to  his  successors. 

Hindostan  was  then  too  powerful  to  be  subdued.  Formidable  at- 
tempts had  been  made,  but  had  failed.  While  Hulacou  was  preparing 
an  immense  army,  (with  which  he  took  Bagdat),  he  sent  an  ambassa- 
dor to  Delhi.  The  Emperor  Balin  sent  out  the  rizier  to  give  him  a 
distinguished  reception,  with  fifty  thousand  foreign  cavalry,  two  hun- 
dred thousand  infantr}'  in  arms,  two  thousand  chain  elephants  of  war, 
and  three  thousand  carriages  of  combustibles,  or  fireworks  {.     The 

*  When  Bagdat  fell  to  the  great  anny  of  Hulacou,  Mustasim  BiUah  was  calif. 
He  had  hoarded  immense  treasures :  Hulacou  ordered  that  he  should  be  shut  up 
in  his  treasury  in  the  midst  of  his  riches;  and  where,  by  an  ironical  refinement  of 
cruelty,  he  was  starved  to  death.  Abul  Ghazi,  Vol.  I.  p.  185.  The  £ast  India 
trade  had  enriched  Bagdat,  through  Bussorah,  which  was  founded  by  the  Calif 
Omar,  and  became  a  place  of  trade  hardly  inferior  to  Alexandria.  Robertson  on 
India,  p.  93. 

t  Petifl  de  la  Croix  p.  402.     See  also  Mezeray,  A.  D.  124©. 

X  This  took  place  the  year  after  Kublai  became  Crrand  Khan.  Hulacou  was 
his  brother. 

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ambassador  was  eonducted  to  the  palace.     The  court  was  magnificent    CHAP. 
and  goigeous.     All  the  omrahs,  judges,  priestsi,  and  great  men,  were  ^^-v^../ 
present;  besides  five  princes  of  Persian  Irac,  Chorassan.and  Maverul- 
nere,  who  had  taken  refuge  from  the  arms  of  the  Mongols*. 

With  the  exceptions  of  Hindostan  and  Arabia,  the  continent  of  Asia 
and  part  of  Europe  were  under  the  domination  of  the  Grand  Khan. 
"  Rublai,  says  Gaubil,  was  now  master  of  China,  Pegu,  Thibet,  Great 
and  Little  Tartary,  Turkestan,  and  the  country  of  the  Jgours ;  Siam, 
Cochin  China,  TonquiUj  and  the  Cores,  paid  him  tribute.  The  princes 
of  the  blood  of  Genghis,  who  reigned  in  Muscovy,  Assyria,  Persia, 
Korassan,  and  Transoxiana,  did  nothing  without  his  consentf?. 

"  Kublai,  at  his  coming  to  the  crown  of  China,  made  no  change 
in  the  ministers  or  in  the  laws  and  customs.  He  won  his  subjects  so 
much  by  his  sincere  conduct,  his  equity,  the  protection  he  gave  to  men 
of  letters,  and  by  his  tender  affection  for  his  people,  that,  even  at  pre- 
sent, the  administration  of  this  Tartar  family  is  called  the  teue  govern- 

The  army  and  establishment  of  vessels  for  the  conveyance  of  sol- 
diers, were  limited  only  by  the  necessity  that  required  them.  Ships 
with  four  masts  were  built  so  large  as  to  employ  a  crew  of  two  hun- 
dred and  fifty  men,  and  to  carry  stores  and  provisions  for  two  years  ^ 
These  were  for  a  voyage  to  Persia.  Five  thousand  vessels  are  some- 
times seen  in  one  port,  firom  two  hundred  to  five  hundred  tons  bur- 
then |).  Kublai  had  an  extraordinary  passion  to  make  himself  known 
to  foreign  kings,  to  engage  them  to  send  him  all  kinds  of  rarities.    In 

'   •  Dow'a  Hindostan,  Vol.  I.  p.  190. 
t  Note  378  in  M&rco  Polo. 
t  Du  Hal4e,  Vol.  I.  p.  215. 
S  M.  Polo,  p.  29.     . 
H  M.  Polo,  B.  II.  Ch.  LXIII.  and  the  notet  from  varioui  authoritiet. 

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September,  1286,  advice  was  received  froto  the  MubOafiifs  'bf  Fokl^ 
■-  that  Bhips  from  nin^-mne/oreigHMngd(mu  iters  atrweA  At  Tw^^ 
fti  in  that  provinee.  These  kingdomg  ttre  treated  as  tHinktiUifi  bit  bnfy 
eight  are  mentioned  in  history,  and  under  naines  unkflotra'to  Eti'rb- 
peoBfi.  Those  spoken  of  here  -are,  Bfalacca,  Sumatra,  Pen-ko-la  or 
Bengalt'end  from  Cape  Comoiin  to  the  Persian  Gulf,  Ceylon  *,  Tiugtfr, 

'  The  current  money  of  the  Empercfr  is  made  of  the  baVkof'ihe'mtS- 
herry  tree,  reduced  to  a  pulp,  made  hard,  black,  and  stamped.  To 
counterfeit  or  refuse  it  is  death.  Foreigners  receive  it  for  tb^  mei^ 
chandise,  and  pay  H  for  their  purchases  in  the  kh&n^  enlpici^.  Tt'fs 
exchanged  if  worn  or  damaged;  and  bullion  Tor  manufai^ures  Is  given 
for  it  at  the  mint.  It  may  therefore  be  affirmed  thiit  tfo  Monarch  h^ 
80  nctensive  a  command  of  treasul^  as  the  Grand  Khan  X. 

No  Emperor  or  human  being  is  equal  to  Knblai  Khan,  for  the  con- 
venienee  and  i)M:ility  of  his  posting  establishment :  it  is  Scarcely  powi- 
ble  to  describe  it.  Two  hundred  thousand  horses  and  ten  thousand 
buildings,  with  stiftable  furniture,  are  kept  up.  Hiere  are  foot  post^ 
men  at  every  three  miles;  8o  Uiat  fruit  gathered  at  Pekin  is  received 
St  Shangtu  flie  evening  of  the  tiext  day;  which  by  thie  <stihii.ry  mode 
would  require  ten  days.  .  The  horsemen  Hde  two  hundt^d,  and  sotee- 
times  two  fauttdred  and  'flify  miles  in  a  day,  on  rtAiellions  or  otbet  tik-- 
gent  occasions  §. 

*  Sender-oas,  King  of  Ceylon,  being  reported  to  posaess  a  ruby,  brilliant  beyond 
descriptioil,  asponinlengfli,  ihi.  aa  tiiick  as  a  man's  aim;  'tb'e  Oranid  KhanKub- 
lai  sent  ambassadors  with  a  request  tbat  the  king  would  yield  him  the  ruby,  for 
which  the  khan  would  pay  the  valu«  of  a  city.  The  king's  answer  was,  that,  being 
a  jewel  handed  down  to  him  by  his  predecessors,  he  would  not  sell  it  for  all  the 
treasures  in  the  universe.  M.  Polo,  B.  III.  Ch.  XIX.  in  note  1S51,  it  is  conjectur- 
ed that  it  may  have  been  a  lump  of  coloured  crystal. 

t  Modem  Univ.  Hist.  Vol.  U.  p.  387.  M.  Polo,  note  1806. 

t  M.  Polo,  p.  S53. 

$  M.  Polo,  B.  II.  Ch.  XX.  where  there  is  a  long  description  of  the  establishment. 

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Ift  HtB  DMrnth  of  January,  I290>  Kubbi  sent  mathematiciam^  (at    CHAP, 
wbich  he  had  wipbefs  from  the  west  as  well  as  those  -of  China),  to  kfti-  '-.^^v'^ 
tn4e  6^  nqrthi  >nd  to  IS"  south,  in  Goohui  China,  to  observe  the-  lata* 
tudes  of  the  prmcipal  cities  in  Tartary,  China,  Corea,  and   other 
places*.    Many  astronomical  iQBtruments  were  made  on  a  large  scde, 
and  at  immeufe  cost;  there  was  a  gnomon  of  forty  feetf. 

Rare  books  were  sought  for  ia  foreign  countries;  all  good  boob 
that  could  be  procured  were  trausUted  into  the  Mmigol  language,  and 
extensiTe  libraries  were  formed  {. 

When '  Kjiblai  had  overtiirown  Nayan,  understanding  that  the 
Christians  obsejrved  their  yearly  solemnity  of  £aster,  he  caused  them 
all  to  come  unto  him,  and  bring  the  book  of  the  •  four  goepehiy  which  - 
he.incensed  often  with  great  ceDera(Miies«  deTouUjr  kisnng  it,  and  can- 
8«d  the  barons  to  do  the  like.  And  this  he  obserreth  always  at  Christ-: 
mas  .  and, Easter.  The  like  he  did  in  the  chief  feasts  of  the  Saxaoens, . 
Jews,  and  Idolaters;  because,  as  he  said—"  Those  four  prophets  were 
rttverenced  of  all  the  wwld— Jesus,  Mahomet,  Afosea,  and  SagonMm- 
barlan$,  the  first  Idol  of  the  Pagans:  and  I,  (saith  he),  do  honour  to 
them  911,  and  pray  him  which  is  the  greatest  in  Hearea  and  truest,  to 

•  In  1@78  Co-eheou-kiBgibuiidtlte  obliquity  of  the  ecliptic  to  be    IBS  S2.lfi 

1290  Choja Nassir-oddin .  .  .     3330    0 

1463  Ulug  Beg,  great  grandson  of  Tamerlane 33  30  17  ' 

1505  Copeniciu 89  08  M 

1627  Kepler 23  8030, 

1800  Mr.  Pond,  (Vid.  Bees's  Cyc.  "Ecliptic")     83  27  56,5 

t  Hist  des  Huns,  Vol  III.  B.  XVI. 

t  Modern  Vniv.  HUt.  Vol.  II.  p  380.  Witk  respect  to  the  iMeratenen  of  the  ' 
Mongols  themselves  before  their  conquests,  the  curious  reader  is  referred  to  Sir 
W.  Jones's  fifth  discourse  on  the  Tartars,  in  bis  first  volume,  page  51 . 

g  Polo,  p.  274.  Mr  Marsden,  note  512,  supposes  tbis  to  be  one  of  the  nanjeBof 
Budda,  who  is  called  also  Fo  and  Somonacodom.     Kublai  sacrificed  to  Fo;  and 
was  attached  to  the  Lamas  of  Tibet  and  the  Bonzaa  of  China ;  which  drew  on  him 
the  censures  of  the  followers  of  Confucius. 
K  3 



CHAP,    help  me."    Yel  he  had  the  best  opinion  of  the  Christian  &ith,  because 
■_r-,-^_-  it  contained  nothing  but  goodness :  and  he  would  not  suffer  the  Christ- 
ians to  carry  before  them  the  cross,  on  which  so  great  a  man  as  Christ 
was  crucified  •. 

Kublai  being  informed  that  the  barks  which  brought  to  court  the 
tribute  of  the  southern  provinces,  or  carried  on  the  trade  of  the  empire 
hy  sea,  often  suffered  shipwreck,  he  caused  the  great  canal  to  be  made; 
it  is  tluree  hundred  leagues  in  length.  Above  nine  thousand  imperial 
barks  transport,  with  ease  and  at  a  small  expense,  the  tribute  of  grain, 
stuffs,  &c.  which  is  annually  paid  to  the  Emperor.  Had  this  been  the 
only  advantage  this  prince  procured  for  China,  he  would  have  been 
worthy  of  the  high  praises  which  the  Chinese  give  himf. 

On  the  commencement  of  the  year,  which  is  the  first  of  February, 
the  Grand  Khan  and  all  his  subjects  clothe  themselves  in  white.  AU 
the  landholders  send  valuable  presents  of  gold,  silver,  precious  stones, 
and  white  cloth;  great  numbers  of  beautiful  white  horses  are  present- 
ed on  this  occasion.  If  the  present  be  from  a  province,  nine  times 
nine  of  horses,  gold,  &c.  are  presented.  Thus,  at  this  festival,  a  hun- 
dred thousand  horses  are  received.  AU  the  Grand  Khan's  elephants, 
of  which  he  has  five  thousand,  are  exhibited  in  procession,  covered  with 
housings  of  cloth,  fancifully  and  richly  worked  with  gold  and  silk  in 
figures  of  birds  and  beasts.  Each  of  these  supports,  upon  its  should- 
ers».two  coffers  filled  with  vessels  of  plate  and  other  apparatus  for  the 
use  of  the  court.  Then  follows  a  train  of  camels  laden  with  furniture. 
The  whole  passes  in  review  before  the  Emperor.  On  this  occasion  a 
tamed  lion  is  conducted  into  the  presence  of  his  Majesty,  which  is 
taught  to  lay  itself  down  at  his  feet. 

At  Shangtu,  or  Cayandu,  the  khan  hath  an  admirable  summer  pa- 

*  Furchas,  Vol  I.  p.  417. 
t  Du  Htld.',  Vol  I.  p.  215. 



lace  and  a  noble  park,  sixteen  miles  in  circuit;  where  he  rides  about, 
and  enjoys  hunting  and  hawking.  Small  leopards  are  carried  on  > 
horseback  behind  their  keepers ;  and  the  Emperor,  when  he  pleases, 
commands  them  to  be  shpped  at  stags,  &llow-deer,  or  goats;  which  he 
^ves  to  his  hawks.  There  is  here  a  beautiful  grove  of  trees  and  a 
royal  pavilion*. 


"  The  Grand  Khan  hath  many  solemn  feasts  every  year ;  at  each 
of  which  there  are  great  multitudes  of  people,  well  arrayed  by  thou- 
sands, hundreds,  and  tens. 

First,  there  are  four  thousand  barons,  mighty  and  rich,  to  govern 
the  feasts  and  serve  the  Emperor.  They  are  held  in  halls  and  tents 
made  of  doth-of-gold,  and  of  tartaries  full  nobly.  All  the  barons 
wear  golden  crowns  richly  adorned  with  precious  stones  and  orient 
pearls;  and  are  clothed  in  dresses  of  gold,  so  perfectly  that  no  man 
can  amend  it,  all  dubbed  with  pearls  and  gems.  These  barons  are  di- 
vided into  four  companies;  each  thousand  being  dressed  in  one  colour. 
The  first  thousand  in  gold  and  green,  die  second  in  gold  and  red,  the 
third  in  purple,  the  fourth  in  yellow.  They  walk  two  and  two  full  or- 
derly, without  saying  a  word,  only  by  inclining  towards  the  Emperor; 
each  bearing  a  tablet  of  jasper,  crystal,  or  ivory;  preceded  by  minstrels, 
soundingtheir  instruments  of  divers  melody;  tbos  passes  each  thou- 

•  Marco  Polo,  p.  250,  and  B.  II.  Ch  XIL  where  theae  feaats  are  described.  Sir 
John  Maundevile'a  deecriptioiiB  will  be  given  in  this  Vol.  — perhaps  about  for^ 
years  afterwards.  Both  Polo's  and  MaundeTile's  accounts  are  strongly  corroborat- 
ted  by  Grosier,  (See  his  Hist.  Vol.  II.  p.  106),  who  lived  many  years  in  China* 

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7j9„  SQJ^)f  ANJO.  MApraJflCENT.  B^NQJIil??'. 

^^^r>  ™?.^    On  one  side  of  the  EJ^i^ppifor's  .t^^lpflit;  Ae  pJuJoq^^p  p(:p((tro7,. 

Every.Qnehath  b^Qfe,Ium^lidpi,astro^b^$>.  sfdiete^,  ekpO^t  y^m)%: 
of  jgold  fijll.  of  ,gra,Yel,  sand^  burning  .cpafs,.  vi»tfip.  oU  or,,  y^pe;  aj^ 
some,  noble  clftcks,  Theif,tbe  officer:?  oj^l^r  silence,  ^othef  ^swth,. 
'  Every  man  do  reverence  to  the  Emperor,  who  is  God's  sopf.  and  s^-, 
vereign  lord  of  the  world:'  and  they  all  bow  down  to  the  earth.  When 
they  rise,  another  saith — '  Put  your  little  finger  in  your  ears.*  Anothra* 
saith: — 'Put  your  hands  before  your  mputh,!  Another — 'Put  your 
hand  upon  your  head.'  I  asked  the  meaning  of  all  this,  and  one  of 
the  .mfi^ters  tpld  ,me,  they  w^)^  ^^,  tokens  of  fidelity  to  tl^^  ,Em- 
ff^T — that  n^  one  would  betray  him  for,  gjit^  nor  keep  secret  any 
mischief  intended  him,  though  it  were  by  his  own  iather,  brother,  or 
son-  The  Emperor  doth  nothing  withput  th^  counsel  of  the  philoso- 
phers. Again  the  minsb%ls  do  their  minstrelsy,  with,  all,  the  melody 
they  c^  devise.  Then  all  the  lords  of  the  imperial  blood,,  richly  ap-, 
parelledf  .on  white  steeds,  make  their  presents  to  the  Emperor  of  white 
hoi^B,  each  after  the  other.  Then,  the  barons  prese;pt  jewels  and 
other  things.according  to  their  means.  Thep  the  religious  men  and 
huyyers;.  each  priests  sQmethlng.  Then  the  most  dignified. prelate, 
giveth  his  blessing  an^  saith  an  or^on..  Then  the  minstrels  do.  their 
craft  Afterwards  they  bring  before  the  Eknperor,  lions,  leopards  and 
otffejr.beaats;  eagles,  vulture^, fowls,  fish,  and.serpents.  The  jugglery 
and  fnchaptf^.  follow.  Theymake  to  appear  in  the  air,  to  every  one's 
sc^pg,  the:  siw.and  the  mo^n;  they  then  make  it  quite  dark,  and  af- 
terwards a  bright  sunshine.  Next  appear  the  fairest  damsels  in  the 
wprld,  richly  arrayed,  who  dance.  Then  .others  with  milk  of  divers 
beasts  in  golden  cups,  which  they  hand  to  the  lords  and  ladies.  Thai 
knights  in  arms  joust  full  lustily  and  fiercely ;  and  break  their  spears 



'ihd  truncheobs  Into'sptinters,  W^ich  9y  about  ^e  ball:  they  tlien  hunt     CliAP. 
the  hart  and  the  boar  with  bounds  running  open  mouthed.  v.«»-y-^ 

This  great  KKan  hath>  altogether,  a  hundr«ed  and  thirty  thousand 
ndinstreb.  "jhiey  are  iiariured  by  all  tbe  kings  and  lords  under  him; 
and 'ibis  is  the'reason  he  bath  so  great  a  multiititie.  He  batb  certain 
men  to 'keep  the  ostriches,  ger-falcons,  sparrow-bawks,  gentil-fiUcons, 
and  others;  well-speaking  popinjays,  and  singing  birds.  He  bath 
^d  beasts,  such  as  tuiie  and  other  elepliiants,  baboons,  apes,  marmo- 
sets, and  divers  others;  all  of  wbich  are  maintained  by  a  hundred  and 
fifty  thouaind  keepers  *. 

He  hath  two  hundred  Christian  physicians;  and  of  Christian  leech- 
es, two  hundred  and  ten,  and  twenty  Saracen.  His  common  houae- 
^hold  is  without  number. 

'the  filban's  money  is  made  of  all  values,  of  leather  or  paper,  which 
is  changed  when  much  worn,  and  therefore  he  may  expend  oiitrage- 
ously.  Of  his  gold  and  silver  he  maketb  the  ceilings,  pillars,  and 
floors  of  his  pialaces,  anid  other  tbingsf ." 

"  ^e  Emperor  dwells  in  summer  at  Saduz,  towards  the  north,  and 
coldenougb;  in  wint»,  at'Cambalecb;  but  bis  chief  residence  is  in 
Caydou  or  in  Jong,  where  it  is  temperate. 

When  bis  Majesty  removeth  from  one  country  to  'another,  he  goeth 
in  the  midst  of  four  hosts  innumerable ;  he  keeping  at  a  moderate  dis- 
tance. I^e  wears  a  pbun  dress  and  has  few  attendants,  that  he  may  not 
easily  be  known.  Or  else  be  rides  in  a  clmriot  with  'four  wheels,  upon 
which  is  a  fair  chamber  of  sweet  smelling  lignum  ^oes;  wbich  is  with- 
in covered  with  plates  of  fine  gold,  dubbed  with  precious  stones  and 

*  Wliatever  the  eiact  numbers  we^e,  the;  miut  hsre  been  immenBe,  by  the  ac- 
counts of  Shah'Robk's  ambassadors,  Marco  Polo  and  others  bo  nearly  agreeing. 
t  Sir  John  Maundevile,  p.  878. 

y  Google 

CHAP.        They  hold  it  a  great  sin  to  Bmite  a  hone  with  £he  handle  of  a  whip 

v.^-v-*^-'  or  with  a  bridte>  to  break  one  bone  with  another,  or  to  idsy  ehit^ 

dren.  *  *  *  Whoerer  maketh  water  in  his  honse  ahall  larriy  be  slafai. 

*  *  *  When  they  commit  tin,  they  most  be  shrives  of  their  priests; 
and  pay  a  great  sum  of  silver  for  their  penance,  and  pass  tiirongh  fire. 

*  *  *  If  any  man  he  taken  in  adultery  or  fornication,  anon  they  slay 
him.  *  *  *  The  men  and  women  are  all  right  good  archers,  both  on 
foot  and  at  speed  on  horseback.  ■  *  *  The  women  make  dotfaes, 
boots,  houses,  plonks,  chariots,  and  other  things.  The  men  make 
bows,  arrows,  and  armour.  The  women  wear  breeches  as  well  as  the 
men.  •  •  •  They^  ere  all  obedient  to  the  Khan.  •  •  ♦  They  fight  not 
nor  chide  with  one  another.  •  •  •  There  are  no  thefts  nor  mbberies 
in  the  country.  •  •  •  They  all  worship  each  other,  but  do  no  tcvet- 
ence  to  strangers,  except  they  be  great  princes.  *  *  * 

They  eat  hounds,  lions,  lyberdefl,  mares,  foals,  assee,  rats,  mice,  and 
all  bewsts,  great  and  small,  except  swine.  *  *  *  They  eat  little  bread 
except  at  the  court  of  great  lords.  Th^  have  generally  neither  peas, 
nor  beans,  nor  potages,  but  m^e  broth  of  flesh.  Chity  the  great 
-lords  have  towels  to  mpe  their  hands.  They  live  full  wretdiecBy; 
and  eat  but  oince  a  day,  and  that  eyen  at  courts.  **  * 

All  their  hist  and  imagination,  ie  U>  put  all  lands  under  their  subjeo> 
tion.  When  before  a  w^led  town,  they  promise  to  the  besieged  all 
they  can  ask ;  and  when  ,they  yield,  they  shiy  them  and  souce  their  ean 
in  vinegar,  and,  thereof,  tkei  tnaien  gret  tervysefor  fordif*f."  "  When 
I  "WBS  diere,  the  Emperor^  name  was  Thiaut  Khan,  and  hie  ddest 
son's  Tossoeti  '''^  wbm  h»  lieooaee  Emperor  will  add  Khan;  be- 
sides whom,  the  Empsror  bad  twelve  sobs.    He  had  three  Empresees. 

t  Sir  John  Maundevile,  p.  278  to  308.     . 

X  The  Chinese  History  doei  not  give  the  Tartar  names.  Shun-ti  reij^ned  from 
1S37  to  1369.    Kublai's  Chinese  name  was  Shi-tsu.    Du  Halde. 



The  TartAH  have  midr  a  lAtf  odled  Ca^n.  (Shangtu),  H  bath  CHAP, 
tiwelve  gates,  and  is  twenty  miles  round.  Hera  fs  the  Tesidence  of  tlie  x^-v^./ 
OtttA  Khan,  whose  palaee  is  two  aoilea  in  circvit,  with  many  other 
{Mlacn.  In  the  garden  of  the  roy^  palaee  thwe  is  a  great  hfll,  npoh 
iriiidi  tiiere  is  another  pahux,  the  loost  fair  and  rich  that  any  nun 
may  devise;  and  all  about  the  pdace  and  hill  are  many  trees  and  di- 
vers  fruits,  and  great  and  deep  ditches,  with  wild  geese,  swans,  and  he- 
nns  without  number.  The  large  garden  is  fuU  of  wild  beasts,  so  that 
the  Emperor  cm  see  them  chased  from  hfa  window. 

The  haH  has  twenty-four  pillars  of  gold,  and  is  lined  with  red  sweet- 
smeHing  panther  skins,  of  the  most  brilliant  o^ur,  and  more  v^dnable 
than  gold.  In  the  midst  is  a  Mountour  for  the  Great  Khan,  wrought 
of  gold,  pearls  and  gems,  with  serpents  of  gold  at  the  four  comers;  all 
encircled  by  nets  of  silk  and  gold.  The  Emperor's  throne  is  of  fine 
foedoas  rtones,  bordened  with  pearls,  gold,  and  gems.  The  steps  are 
^  gold  inlaid  witii  prerious  stones.  On  the  left  is  a  lower  jasper  seat 
set  wltfa  gens,  for  the  Em^«ss ;  «noth«-  lower,  similar,  tax  the  second 
wife;  and  a  still  lower  for  the  third  wife;  for  he  ^ways  has  three  wives 
with  him.  Cta  the  ri^t,  on  a  seat  below  that  of  the  Ea^eror,  aite  hia 
eldest  son  and  heir.  The  lords  sit  on  the  right,  the  eovrt  ladies  en  the 
left.  The  Emperor  sits  alone  at  a  table  made  of  crystal,  lignum  ^oes, 
ivory,  gold,  amethyata,  and  otiier  gems.  The  Empresses,  the  priaee, 
and  great  lords,  have  each  a  separate  table;  every  table  worth  a  huge 
treasure.  Under  the  Emperor's  table  ave  iirar  aemetarics  to  write  his 
words,  for  he  must  never  revcfce  litem.  At  solemn  feasts  men  bring  be- 
fore the  Emperor  great  tables  of  gold,  whereon  are  golden  peacocks 
and  other  birds  richly  enamdled,  which  sing  and  dap  thak  wiiqga, 
whet3ter  by  necronumcy  I  wot  not ;  but  H  is  a  fiur  sSgfat  to  behold.  In 
auhtilty  they  pass  all  men  under  heaven.  I  tried  to  learn  this  crafil;, 
but  the  master  told  me  he  had  made  a  row  to  God,te  teaiAkoolyi* 



his  SOD.  There  is  a  viae  which  spreads  all  about  the  hall,  made  all  tia-  . 
'  turally  in  colours,  with  evsry  kind  of  precious  gem.  All  the  drinking 
vessels  are  set  with  jewels  and  are  ^  of  gold ;  ulver  they  make  no 
price  of  except  for  pillars  and  pavements.  The  hall  door  is  guarded 
b)r  many  barons  all  completely  armed.  My  fellows  and  I,  with  onr 
yeomen,  served  this  Emperor  as  soldiers  for  fifteen  montlu  against 
the  king  of  Mancy,  having  desire  to  see  all  his  governance.  We 
found  it  more  rich  and  marvellous  than  we  had  heard  of.  He  who 
will  may  believe  me  or  not,  for  no  man,  nor  I  myself,  till  I  saw  it, 
would  believe  it*."  (Marco  Polo,  p.  251,  mentions  that  Eublai  had 
a  stud  at  Shangtu  often  thousand  horses  and  mares,  as  white  as  snow). 

"  The  palace  of  the  Cirand  Khan  Kublai.  near  Pekin,  is  the  most  ex- 
tensive that  has  ever  been  known ;  (this  astonishing  palace  is  described 
atgreatlength):  not  far  Irom  the  outside  wall,  which  isasquare  of  eight 
miles  on  each  side,  is  an  artificial  mount  of  earth,  full  a  himdred  paces 
high,  and  a  mile  in  circuit  at  the  base :  it  is  plaiUed  with  the  most  beauti- 
ful ever-green  trees;  which,  however  large  and  heavy  they  may  be,  are 
dug  up  with  the  roots  and  earth  about  them,  and  are  brought  from  the 
most  distant  countri»  upon  the  backs  of  elephants  f. 

•  Sir  John  Maundevile,  Ch.  XX.   to  XXHI.     The  reader  is  referred  to  the 
embasay  from  Shah  Rohk  in  Ch.  IV.  and  to  the  accounts  given  by  Bell  and 
others,  which  confirm  Maundevile  and  Marco  Polo  in  moat  particulars ;  although   - 
an  Emperor  of  China  is,  compared  with  a  Grand  Khan,  a  very  mBignificant  per- 
sonage. See  also  Grosier's  descriptions,  which  are  very  similar. 

t  In  1720  the  Emperor  Kam-hi  or  Kaog-hi,  sixty-eight  yearc  of  age,  and  in 
the  mxtieth  of  his  reign,  gave  a  hunting  entertainment  in  this  park  to  Ismailof, 
the  Russian  ambassador  from  the  Czar  Peter.  "  We  continued  the  sport  till  four 
o'clock,  when  we  came  to  a  high  artificial  mount,  on  the  top  of  which  were  ten  or 



On  the  moant  there  is  an  ornamented  paviliDn  ^itirely  green. 
Within  the  park  are  various  wild  beasts,  swans  and  other  aquatic  birds,  v 
To  this  place,  which  is  called  the  Green  Mountain,  the  Grand  Khan 
often  retires  to  treat  of  the  aSaiis  of  the  empire*." 

twelve  tentB  for  the  imperial  &mil]r.  The  emperor  from  this  viewed  all  the  tents 
in  the  plain  and  a  great  way  into  the  forest.  After  dinner  the  Emperor  sent  to  ' 
compliment  the  ambassador  and  inform  him,  ^at  he  had  kept  three  tigers,  which 
should  be  baited,  for  his  entertainment.  The  bill  was  surrounded  by  several 
ranks  of  guards  armed  with  spears;  and  a  guard  was  placed  before  the  ambassa- 
dor's and  other  tents,  to  secure  the  encampment  from  the  fiiry  of  these  fierce 
beasts.  The  first  tiger  was  let  out  of  his  cage  by  a  man  upon  a  fleet  horse,  who 
opened  the  door  by  means  of  a  rope.  He  rode  off.  The  tiger  came  out,  and  de- 
%hted  with  his  liberty  began  rolling  himself  upon  the  grass :  he  then  rose,  growl- 
ed, and  walked  about.  The  Emperor  fired  bullets  with  his  matchlock  at  him 
twice,  with  good  tarn,  but  he  was  too  distant.  His  Majesty  sent  to  the  ambassa- 
dor to  try  his  gun :  he  walked  towards  the  animal,  accompanied  by  ten  men  armed 
with  spears,  and,  at  a  convenient  distance,  shot  the  tiger  dead.  The  second  was 
let  out  in  the  same  manner,  and  rolled  upon  the  grass  like  the  first.  The  man 
shot  at  turn  with  a  blunt  arrow,  to  rouse  him-,  when  he  furiously  pursued  the 
horseman,  who  narrowly  escaped  within  the  ranks ;  and  the  tiger,  endeavouring  to 
leap  over  the  men's  heads,  was  killed  at  the  foot  of  the  mount.  The  third,  as 
soon  as  he  was  set  at  Uberty,  made  towards  the  Emperor's  tent,  and  was,  in  like 
manner,  killed  with  the  spears.  The  Emperor  was,  in  his  youth,  fond  of  bunting 
these  creatures  in  the  woods  of  Tartary,  but  now  confines  himself  vrithin  this 
forest,  where  there  is  game  enough  to  gratify  any  sportsman :  it  is  of  great  extent, 
and  all  enclosed  within  a  high  wall  of  brick:  after  travelling  about  as  much  as 
fifteen  miles,  I  saw  no  endof  it.  Besides  tigers,  we  saw  panthers,  leopards,  linzes, 
boars,  deer,  hares,  partridges,  quuls,  pheasants,  &c.  We  aQ  formed  a  semicir- 
cle, in  the  centre  of  which  was  the  Emperor,  with  eight  or  ten  of  his  sons  and 
grandsons  on  his  left,  and  the  ambassador  on  his  right,  about  fifty  paces  distant. 
Close  by  him  were  the  master  of  die  chase  with  grey  hounds,  and  the  grand  fid- 
coner  with  hawks;  many  of  these  beautifid  birds  were  as  white  as  doves,  having 
one  or  two  black  feathers  in  their  wings  or  tails.  They  are  brought  from  Siberia, 
or  places  north  of  the  river  Amoor :  they  generally  raked  the  pheasants  while 
flying,  but  if  they  took  to  the  reeds  or  bushes  they  soon  caught  them."  (Bell, 
Ch.  XI.) 

•  Marco  Polo,  B.  U.  Ch.  VI.  De  Guinea,  Vol.  HI.  p.  14«. 




Whbn  Kublai  has  resided  the  usual  time  in  the  metropolis,  in  March 
he  proceeds,  in  a  north-east  direction,  to  within  two  days  journey  of 
the  ocean*;  attended  by  full  ten  thousand  falconers,  who  carry  a  vast 
namber  of  ger-falcons,  peregrine  falcons,  and  sakers,  to  pursue  the  game 
along  the  banks  of  the  rivers.  The  &lconers  are  divided  into  parties, 
and  follow  the  game  in  various  directions. 

There  are  about  teu  thousand  men  to  seek  and  mark  the  haunts  of 
the  game.  Every  bird  belonging  to  the  Emperor  or  the  nobles,  has 
a  small  silver  label  fastened  to  ite  leg,  with  the  name  of  the  owner  en- 
graved upon  it.  On  account  of  the  narrowness  of  the  passes  in  some 
parts  oi  the  country  wha%  the  Grand  Khan  pursues  the  chase,  he  is 
foome  upon  two  elephants  only;  sometimes  on  a  single  one :  but  other- 
wise, he  makes  use  of  four,  upon  the  backs  of  which  is  placed  a  pavi- 
lion of  wood  handsomely  carved;  the  inside  being  lined  with  cloth  t^ 
gold,  and  the  outside  covered  with  the  skins  of  tigers:  a  mode  of 
conveyance  rendered  necessary,  in  consequence  of  his  Majesty  being 
troubled  with  the  gout. 

In  the  pavilion  there  are  always  twelve  of  the  best  ger-falcons,  and 
his  Majesty  has  twelve  of  the  officers  of  the  court  to  bear  him  com- 

*  Kang-hi,  in  1683,  proceeded  to  Eastern  Titrtary,  a  thouBand  miles  to  the 
□orth-east,  probably  to  near  the  same  place.'  Sixty  tigers,  .besides  bears,  stag^ 
and  bales,  in  vast  numbers,  were  killed.  He  had  his  court  with  him,  and  more 
than  seventy  thousand  persons  in  his  retinue.     Du  Halde,  VoL  IL  p.  S69. 

y  Google 


When  ennes  or  otfaer  birds  are  per«aTed«  his  Majestj  orders  the 
gei^fiileoiiB  to  be  let  fly;   and,  after  a  struggle,  they  orerpower  the  < 
game;  which  the  Gtand  Khan,  as  he  lies  upon  his  coodi,  views  with 
extreme  sotisfiiction. 

The  tent  of  his  Majesty  is  so  large,  that  ten  thousand  soldiers  might 
be  drawn  up  under  it>  wtthoat  incommoding  the  nobles  in  the  halls 
and  chambers,  attiie  audience.  Near  to  the  Emperor's  tent,  are  those 
of  his  ladies,  who  bare  then  ger-&lcons,  hawks,  birds,  and  beasts.— 
The  outsides  of  the  tents  are  covered  with  skins  of  tigers,  joined  so 
w^  as  to  keep  out  the  wind  and  rain :  within,  they  are  lined  with  the 
richest  ermines,  sables,  and  other  furs;  the  tent  ropes  are  of  silk. 
There  are  more  than  ten  thousand  tents  for  the  Emperor's  sons,  the 
nobles,  life  guards,  and  the  falconers.  His  Majesty  takes  his  whole 
fiunily  and  household,  phyncians,  astrtmomers,  8ec  So  great  is  the 
assemUage,  that  it  is  quite  incredible;  and  a  spectator  m^ht  conceiTe 
himself  to  be  in  a  populous  city. 

By  the  lakes,  storks,  swans,  herons,  and  a  variety  of  birds  are  takoi. 
The  exceUence  and  extent  of  the  sport  is  so  great  as  not  to  be  ex- 
pressed: and  the  Emperor  enjoys  himself  to  a  degree  that  no  pemm, 
who  is  not  an  eye  witness,  can  conoeiTe. 

No  prince,  or  other  person,  is  permitted  to  kill  hares,  roebucks,  &!• 
low  deer,  stags,  or  my  beasts  of  that  kind,  Cor  the  six  months  from 
March  to  October. 

The  Emperor  returns  by  the  sune  road,  continuing  the  sport  dnring 
the  whole  journey  •. 

At  the  city  of  Changanor,  or  the  white  lake,  the  Khan  has  a  palace 
which  he  is  fond  of  visiting.  There  are  there  great  numbers  of  phea- 
sants and  partridges;   cranes  of  five  sorts,  the  first  as  black  as  crows, 

•  Marco  Polo,  Book  H.  Ch.  XVL 



with  long  wings ;  the  second  white,  the  feathers  of  the  wings  fiill  of  eyes 
J  like  the  peacock's,  of  a  gold  colour,  very  bright,  the.head  red  and  black, 
the  neck  black  and  white,  and  longer  wiAgs  than  the  first;  the  third 
are  the  size  of  the  Italian ;  the  fourth  small,  strewed  with  red  and 
azure;  the  fifth  large,  grey,  with  the  head  red  and  black.  There  is 
a  valley  near  the  city,  which  is  much  frequented  by  partridges  and 
quails.  The  Grand  Khan  orders  millet,  panicum,  and  other  grain,  to 
be  sown  along  the  sides  of  the  valley,  every  season,  with  strict  com- 
mands, that  no  person  shall  dare  to  reap  the  seed.  His  Majesty  al- 
ways finds  abundant  sport  in  this  country.  In  winter,  when,  in  con- 
sequence of  the  severity  of  the  cold,  he  does  not  reside  there,  camel 
4oads  of  birds  are  sent  to  the  court,  wherever  it  may  be*.  At  Pekin 
there  is  a  market  for^oKen  provisions. 

The  Grand  Khan  keeps  leopards  and  Ijrnxesf,  for  the  chasing  of 
deer;  and  also  tigers  for  seizing  boars,  wild  oxen  and  asses,  bears, 
Bt^^,  and  other  beasts.  The  tigers  are  conveyed  in  cages  placed  up- 
on cars,  and  a  little  dog  is  confined  with  them,  with  which  they  ber 
come  familiarized,  and  their  fury  is  thereby  abated.  They  are  led  op- 
posite the  wind,  in  order  that  the  game  may  not  scent  them.  It  is  an 
admirable  sight  when  the  tiger  is  let  loose  in  pursuit  of  the  animal,  to 
observe  the  savage  eagerness  and  speed  with  which  he  overtakes  it. 
His  Majesty  has  eagles  also,  which  are  trained  to  stoop  at  wolves; 
they  are  of  great  size  and  strength:  no  wolf  however  large  can  escape 
their  talons  J.     Wild  horses  are  taken  by  the  Tartars,  by  the  use  of 

*  Marco  Polo,  p.  248.  Some  of  the  birds  described  are  probably  herons  or 
storks.     Note  461. 

t  The  Emperor  Akbar,  on  bis  hunting  expeditions,  was  accompanied  by  a  tbou> 
sand  of  these  animals.     Ayeen  Akbari,  Vol.  I.  p.  S40. 

X  M.  Polo,  p.  338,  and  note  638.  The  eagle  the  Tartan  use,  is  the  kanikush, 
or  aqtala  numa.    Strablenberg,  p.  3dd 

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hawkR  trained  to  that  pnrpose.  They  seize  on  the  neck  of  the  horse,  CHAP, 
beat  him  and  tire  him  by  Ms  chafing,  so  that  he  becomes  an  easy  prey  '^-in^v-*-' 
to  the  master  of  the  bird,  who  rides  with  his  bow,  arrow,  and  sword  ^. 
The  Emperor  has  in  his  service  two  brothers  named  Bayan  and 
Mingon,  who  are  masters  of  the  chase;  having  charge  of  the  hounds, 
fleet  and  slow,  and  of  the  mastifib.  Each  of  the  brothers  has  under 
bis  OTders  ten  thousand  chasseurs;  the  ten  thousand  under  one  bro- 
ther wearing  a  red  imiform,  and  the  others  a  sky  bine,  when  on  duty. 
The  dogs  of  different  descriptions  which  accompany  them  to  the  field 
are  not  fewer  than  five  thousand.  The  one  brother  takes  his  ground 
to  the  right,  and  the  other  to  the  left  of  the  Emperor.  They  advance 
in  regular  order,  till  they  have  enclofied  a  tract  of  country  to  the  ext^t 
of  a  day's  march.  It  is  a  beautiful  and  an  exhilirating  sight  to  watch 
the  exertions  of  the  huntsmen,  and  the  sagacity  of  the  dogs,  when  the 
Emperor  is  within  the  circle  engaged  in  the  sport,  and  they  are  seen 
pursuing  the  stags,  bears,  and  other  animals  in  every  direction.  The 
brothers  are  under  an  engagement  to  furnish  the  court  datl;/  for  six 
months,  from  October  to  March,  with  a  thousand  head  of  game,  quails 
being  ezceptedf. 


The  princes  who  had  been  overthrown  by  Genghis  Khan,  his  sons 
and  grandsons,  sought  refuge  in  Hindostan,  which  was  under  the  Pa- 
tan  or  Afghan  Emperors.  In  the  thirteenth  century  many  attempts 
were  made  to  subdue  Hindostan,  but  they  all  failed. 

•  Purchas,  VoL  I.  p.  480.  f  M.  Polo,  B.  II.  Ch.  XV. 



CHAP.        An  army  of  Mongol  Tartars  made  an  incarslon  into  Bengal  by  way 

^^^vj^  of  Chitta  and  Thibet.    They  were  defeated  and  driven  back  by  a  large 
*  army* 

A.D.  1243.  The  Mongols  crossed  the  Indus  and  invested  Outch.  Masaood  IV. 
headed  his  troops  and  marched  against  tliem.    They  retreated. 

A.D.  1365.  The  Emperor  of  Hindostan,  Balin,  was  so  &moas  for  generosity, 
that  all  the  princes  vanquished  by  the  Mongols,  sought  his  protecticm: 
there  came  upwards  of  twenty  of  these  unfortunate  sovereigns  from 
Turquestan,  Maver-ul-nere,  Chorassan,  Persian  Irac,  Azerfoijan,  Per- 
sia Proper,  Asia  Minor,  and  Syria.  They  had  a  princely  allowance^ 
and  palaces  for  their  residence  allotted  them.  Balin's  court  was  ex- 
tremely munificent.  In  the  retinue  of  these  princes  were  the  mofit 
&mou8  men  for  learning,  war.  arts  and  sciences,  that  Asia  produced. 
Philosophers,  poets  and  divines  formed  a  society  every  night  in  the 
house  of  the  heir  apparent  to  the  empire.    The  horse-guards  in  the 

*  Chitta  has  not  been  fouAd  on  any  map.  The  wrfter'a  conjebturt  is,  'tiutt  tlds 
iavaaion  may  have  been  by  the  passes  of  Deltamcotta  and  Coos  Beliar ;  for  we  - 
find  that,  in  the  year  1773,  "  the  British  troops  and  the  Bootaners  first  met,  and 
nothing  could  exceed  their  mutual  surprize:  (a  disputed  succession  of  a  Rajah 
at  Coos  Behar,  had  caused  one  party  to  apply  for  support  to  the  British ;  the  other 
to  the  Bootan  government).  The  Bootaners,  who  had  never  met  any  but  naked 
and  timid  Hindoos,  saw  for  the  first  time  a  body  of  men  clothed,  armed,  moving  in 
tegular  order,  and  led  on  by  men  of  complexion,  dress,  and  features,  such  as  they 
had  bevet  iMheid.  Tke  aHfOety,  atid  mcevsant  fire  of  the  musketry,  astonished 
them  beyond  any  idea  which  they  could  have  conceived.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
British  troops  found  themselves  on  a  sudden  engaged  with  a  race  of  men  unlike 
,tiB  thtAr  former  opponents  ih  ladia,  uncouth  in  their  appeartuice,  and  fierce  in 
Atkt  atsaolt,  wrapped  up  in  fiirst«nd  armed  with  bows  asd  arrows,  aad  otb» 
weapons  peculiar  to  tfaem.  The  place  was  carried,  and  many  arms  and  other 
things  taken;  images  in  clay,  in  gold,  in  silver,  and  in  enamel  were  sent  to  Calcut- 
ta, eSi  which  appeared  perfectly  Tartar.  The  &me  of  our  exploits  in  the  war 
reached  the  court  of  Thibet,  and  awakened  the  attention  of  the  Tayshoo  Lama." 
Letter  from  John  Stewart,  Esq.  F.  R.  S.  to  Sir  John  Pringle,  Bt.  P.  R.  S.  Uni- 
versal  Magazine,  June,  HTS. 

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cavalcade  of  tfae  Enperor  coosisted  of  athousancl  noble  Tartan,  upon    CHAP. 
tbe  finest  Persian  ateeds,  in  splendid  anoour.  wiUt  richly  emtooidered  v..»-v-^«-^ 
saddles,  and  bridles  of  silrw.    The  state  elephants  were  caparisoned 
in  purple  and  gold;  and  the  train  was  not  leas  than  a  hundred  thou- 
sand man. 

The  M(^uls  inrade  Hindostan  with  twenty  thousand  horse,  hut  are  -^D-  l^SS*  * 
repulsed  from  Lahore. 

Another  invanon  is  frustrated.  A..p.  1286. 

The  King  of  Persia,  in  subordination  to  his  cousin,  Kublai,  the  A.D.  1891. 
Emperor  of  Tartary,  inTaded  Hindostan  with  ten  tomans  (one  hun- 
dred thousand)  of  Moguls.  Feroee  II.  moved  forward  to  oppose 
him.  Both  armies  encamped  for  fire  days  on  the  sides  of  a  stream 
on  the  frontiers  of  Biram,  and  their  advanced  posts  skirmished.  On 
the  sixth  morning,  they  fought  upon  a  plain.  The  Moguls  were  de- 
feated, many  chiefe  killed,  and  a  thousand  men  taken  prisoners,  be- 
sides two  omrahs,  and  several  officers  of  rank.  Tlie  Emperor  was 
afraid  to  pursue  his  victory,  and  offered  them  peaee,  on  condition  of 
evacuating  his  dominions.  They  gladly  accepted  the  terras,  and  pre- 
sents were  exchanged.  "When  they  were  retreating,  Allagu,  a  grand- 
son of  Crenghis,  joined  Ferose  with  three  thousand  men.  They  all  be- 
came mussulmans,  and  their  chief  was  honoured  with  one  of  Ferose's 
daughters  in  marriage. 

Advices  came  to  Delhi,  that  Dova,  Ring  of  Maver-ul-nere,  had  sent  A.D.  1296. 
an  army  of  a  hundred  thousand  Moguls  to  conquer  Punjab,  Moultan,  . 
and  the  provinces  near  the  mouth  of  the  Indus.  Alia  I.  sent  his  brother 
EHch  with  a  great  force  to  expel  them.  The  Moguls  were  defeated 
with  the  loss  of  twelve  thousand  men,  and  many  great  officers. 
Nnmbers  of  prisoners  of  all  ranks  were  taken;  and  some  days  afteiu 
wards  put  to  the  sword,  not  sparing  the  women  and  children,  who  had 
been  taken  in  the  Mogul  camp. 



CHAP.  Cnttulich,  the  son  of  Dova,  king  of  Maverrul-^iere,  with  two  faun- 
\..-^v'^<-'  dred  thousand  Mongols,  proceeded  towards  Delhi  without  opp<»ition. 
'  The  whole  country  had  crowded  int6  that  city.  Alia  I.  marched  out, 
at  the  Budaoon  gate,  with  three  hundred  thousand  horae,  two  thousand 
seven  hundred  elephante,  and  foot  without  numher.  With  the  choic- 
est elephants  a  tremendous  line  was  formed  in  front  of  Alla's  army. 
Ziffer  commanded  the  right  wing,  and,  by  his  impetuous  and  judicious 
conduct,  the  Moguls  were  defeated.  He  was  at  one  time  surrounded ; 
the  enemy  admired  his  extraordinary  bravery,  and  called  out  to  him  to 
submit:  he  refused,  and  was  cut  to  pieces  with  his  friends  who  were 
around  him.    The  Moguls  retreated. 

Alia  esteemed  the  death  of  Ziffer  a  second  victory,  and  expressed 
his  satis&ction  thereat:  so  great  was  his  jealousy  and  so  base  his  in-' 

Many  other  invasions  were  repelled,  till  TamerUne  vanquished 
Mahmoud,  in  1398 ;  when  most  of  the  provinces  declared  themselves 
independent.  In  1525,  the  Mogul,  Baber,  mounted  the  throne  at 
Delhi;  and  thus  ended  the  line  of  Patau,  Afghan,  or  Ghiznian  so- 
vereigns f. 

A.D.  1869,  There  wfere  nine  Grand  Khans,  or  Emperors,  of  the  Mongol  dynas- 
ty, on  the  throne  of  China.  Shun-ti,  the  last,  reigned  thirty-five  years. 
He  was  effeminate  and  indolent:  his  love  of  pleasure  made  him  wholly 
neglect  the  a£&irs  of  state.  He  sent  for  the  Lamas  from  Tartary ;  who 
introduced  their  idolatry:   and,  to  indulge  his  vicious  inclinatiotts, 

t  See  Dow'8  Ipndostan,  Vol.  I.  p.  179,  &e. 


placed  a  coknpany  of  young  female  dancers  in  the  palace,  who  entirely 
enervated  the  little  courage  that  remained  in  him.    By  this  conduct 
a  rebellion  was  excited,  and  headed  by  a  Chinese  named  Chu,  who  had 
been  a  serrant  in  a  monastery  of  Bonzas. 

He  gained  many  advantages  over  the  Mongols.  Shun-ti  abandoned 
Pekin,  on  the  27th  of  August,  1369,  with  his  family  and  his  army:  he 
was  pursued  and  driven  towards  the  north. 

In  two  years,  the  last  of  the  Ywen  dynasty  in  China  died  of  grief 
for  the  loss  of  his  empire*. 

•  Du  Halde,  VoL  U.  p.  217.     De  Guines.     No  particulars  of  the  battles,  or  of 
the  retreats,  have  been  met  with. 

Digitized  by  njOOQIC 


Of  the  Employment  of  El^hantsfrom  the  earUett  times  m  China 

PcTKo Tur<m Sciftkia -Turquestan — — Gazna 

Thibet Assam;  from  which  Countries  they  may  Aooe 

been  introduced  into  Siberia. 

CHAP      ^^^  these  countries  were  subject  to  the  Graod  Khans,  in  the  thir- 
III.        teenth  and  fourteenth  centuries. 


About  eleven  hundred  years  before  the  Christian  era,  the  metropolis 
of  the  Emperor  V u  Yang,  was  Singan,  the  capital  of  Shensi,  the  western 
Chinese  province,  and  contiguous  to  the  territories  of  Assam*.  Both 
the  country  and  the  metropolis  were  called  Chin.  A  king  of  this  terri- 
tory, which  was  gradually  extended  to  the  east  and  west,  (and  therefore 
comprised  Assam,  a  region  where  elephants  are  exceedingly  abundant; 
so  much  so,  that  most  persons  keep  one  to  carry  their  wives,  and  one 
is  buried  in  the  tombs  of  the  chiefs),  makes  a  figure  in  the  Shahoa- 
mah,  among  the  allies  of  Afrasiab,  mounted  on  a  white  elephantf . 
This  is,  possibly,  the  first  mention,  in  history,  of  elephants  being  used 
in  warfare  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Siberia;  it  may  be  the  same  histo- 
ry as  the  following: 

*  Meer  Jumla,  in  the  reiga  of  Aurungzeb,  invaded  Assam,  to  lat.  SS^ .    Dow, 
VoI.IH.  P.S57. 
t  Du  lUde,  Vol.  I.  p.  168.    Sir  W.  Jones,  VII.  Disc.  Vol.  I.  p.  101. 

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"  The  jey  of  Afraaiab  at  these  soccessea  knew  no  bounds;  he  re-  ^'J^* 
mdred  on  an  attack  of  the  nmin  bod;f  of  the  Persians,  which  was  com-  v.^y^,^ 
uiandod  by  Kai  RhooiTDO*  and  Roostum;  who,  on  their  part,  adopted 
every  means  they  coidd  to  repair  their  misfortune.  Tooe  was  itdeas-  ' 
od  from  his  conftiaaent*.  and  sent,  at  the  head  of  a  fresh  army,  to 
meet  l^eraih-Wisa,  wiUi  whom  he  had  m  action  which  lasted  seven 
days;  but>  terminating  unfavourably,  he  was  forced  to  retreat  to  the 
m^mitaiBS  of  Hamavi,  where  his  force  was  surroaaded  and  in  great 
danger,  until  relieved  by  Roostum;  who, after  a  number  of  sii^;le  com* 
bats,  in  all  of  which  he  was  successful,  obtained  a  great  victory  and 
Made  prnoner  the  Emperor  of  China,  one  of  Afrasiab's  chief  idliee. 
This  monarch  is  represented  as  riding  on  a  wfdte  tl^hant.  The  Chi- 
nese army  dispersed,  and  Roostimi  immediately  marched  in  person  af- 
ter Afrasiab,  who  fled  to  his  capital;  the  conquest  of  which  was  only 
retarded  for  a  short  time  by  the  arrival  of  Pooladwund,  the  chief  of 
Khoten,  who  fought  with  great  valour,  and  discomfited  several  of  the 
most  renowned  of  the  Persians;  but  waft  at  last  overthrown  by  Roos- 
tum. Afrasiab,  destitute  <tf  all  resource  and  support,  fled  from  his  ter- 
ritories; wfaidi  were  divided  by  Roostum  among  the  leaders  of  the 
Persian  annyf ,  Before  Alexander  the  Great,  Transoxiana  was  hi- 
habited  by  a  nation  known  by  the  generic  names  of  Gretse  and  Massa- 
IgetK.    Afrasiab  was  probably  nooarch  (A  these  tribes  %■* 

*  "  C^lioarau  is,  without  fear  of  contradiction,  the  Cyrus  of  Xenophon,  and 
the  hero  of  the  oldest  political  and  moral  romance."  Sir  W,  Jones,  Vol.  I.  p.  75. 
It  is  impossible  to  reconcUe  dates  and  events.  Different  histories  agree  in  the 
UiCU.  Sir  Wiffiam  Jones,  Vol.  V.  p.  691,  supposes  that  Afrasiab  may  have  been 
a  common  name  for  the  kings  of  Astatic  Tartary. 

t  Cyrus  replied — "  My  paternal  kingdom  reaches  northward  to  those  parts 
which  are  not  habitable,  through  cold."    Xen.  Exp.  of  Cyr.  p.  32. 

%  Sir  John  Malcohn's  History  of  Persia,  Vol  I.  pp.  46  and  134.    There  baring 



CHAP.  Among  the  Armenian  nobles,  there  appeared,  as  an  ally,  Mamgo,  who 
i-^-v-^  was  a  Scythian,  and  the  horde  which  acknowledged  his  authority  had  en- 
camped a  very  few  years  before  on  the  skirts  of  the  CUnese  empire,  (at 
the  latter  part  of  the  third  century),  which  at  that  time  extended  at  Jar 
as  Sogdiana.  Mungo,  with  his  followers,  having  quarrelled  with  Tip- 
dates,  retired  to  the  bank  of  the  Oxus,  and  implored  the  protection  of  Ssr 
por.  The  Emperor  of  China  claimed  the  fugitive,  and  alleged  the 
rights  of  sovereignty.  Vou-ti,  the  first  Emperor  of  the  seventh  dy- 
.  nasty,  called  Tsin,  who  then  reigned  in  China,  had  political  transac- 
tions with  Fergana,  a  province  of  Sogdiana,  and  is  said  to  have  re- 
ceived a  Roman  embassy.  In  Uiose  ages,  the  Chinese  kept  a  garrison 
at  Cashgar;  and  one  of  their,  generals,  about  the  time  of  Trajan, 
marched  as  &r  as  the  Caspian  Seaf. 

'  In  the  seventh  century  before  Christ,  Ogus  Khan,  (whose  residence 
in  summer  was  about  the  mountains  of  Ulug-tag  and  Kitzig-tag,  in  Si- 
beria, and  in  winter,  at  the  foot  of  the  mountains  to  the  norUi  of  the 
river  Sirr),  conquered  Kitai,  Tangut,  and  a  people  between  Kitai 
and  the  Indies,  who  are  as  black  as  Indians;  and,  drawing  to  the 
south,  towards  the  sea  coast,  among  the  mountains,  he  was  checked 
by  a  brave  and  warlike  people^.  Cabul,  Cashmere,  and  a  greAt  num- 
ber of  other  countries,  were  subdued  by  Ogus,  whose  conquests 
were  nearly  as  extensive  as  those  of  Genghis;,  and  whose  name  is 

been  more  than  one  monarch  of  the  name  of  Afrasiab,  and  alsoof  Rustoom,  agreat 
confusion  and  obscurity  in  the  Persian,  Indian,  and  Greek  chronology,  has  been 
created,  as  will  appear  in  this  chapter. 

t  Gibbon,  Chap.  XIII.  note  59. 

i  Abul  Ghazi,  Vol.  I.  p.  15.     The  black  people  correspond  precisely  with  the 

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r  in  the  east,  as  that  of  Csesar  in  the  west.  IJlug-tag,  Uie  CHAP. 
icaideDce  of  Ogus,  is  between  the  sources  of  the  rivers  Tobol  and  '^.^■^X^ 
AhUuto,  in  Siberiaf. 

In  the  year  231  B.  C.  that  vastest  monument  of  human  labour,  the 
Chinese  wall,  was  built,  to  keep  out  the  Tartars.  *  *  *  In  the  year  117 
B.  C.  Vu-ti  guned  fonr  great  victories  over  the  Tartars  of  the  north 
west  (of  China),  and  drove  them  so  far  into  their  deserts  that  they 
dnrst  not  again  appear  for  more  than  1200  years.  Yu-ti  carried  his 
victorious  arms  into  the  kingdoms  of  Pegu^Siam,  Cambodia,  and  Ben- 
gal^ he  built  several  cities  there,  and  divided  those  countries  amongst 
the  generals  who  had  conquered  them.  These  Chinese  soon  contract- 
ed the  manners  and  inclinations  of  the  Tartars,  and  proved  in  time  the 
greatest  enemies  of  their  mother  country  J. 

••  The  first  civil  country  eastward  is  that  of  the  Seres,  (Soli,  Cap. 

Assamese.  A  note  says,  the  others  ate,  undoubtedly,  tiie  countries  of  Tunquin 
and  Cochin  Chins;  But  they  are  more  probably  Ava,  Pegu,  Aracan,  8k.  The 
brave  and  warlike  people  appear  to  be  the  Burmans  and  Peguans. 

t  Thereismuchconfusionaboutthe  period  of  Ogus.  StraMenberg,  p.  46,  sup- 
poses him  to  have  flourished  eighty  years  before  the  prophet  Ezekiel,  and  that 
he  might  be  the  Madysa  of  Herodotus,  who,  in  a  great  battle,  gained  the  empire 
of  Asia  from  the  Medes.  See  Herodotus,  Clio,  Ch.  CIV.  See  the  Translator's 
Preface  to  Abul  Gbazi ;  and  Sir  W.  Jones's  Fifth  Discourse.  I'he  Persians  are 
eztremdy  ignorant  of  their  early  history ;  the  probability  is,  that  Ogus  flourished 
in  the  seventh  or  eighth  century  before  the  Christian  era. 

J  DuHalde,  VoM.pp.^,  172,  177.  yol.ll.p.g65.  This  Bengal  is  probab- 
ly the  eastern  or  lesser  Bangalla,  a  description  of  which  will  be  found  in  the  se- 
T«ath  Chapter  of  these  Researches. 

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LIII.)  the  quietest  and  mildest  of  men,  fleeing  the  commevoe  of 
^,  other  nations,,  bartering  yet  with  such  as-  resort  to  them.  None 
fcnoweth  sacrifices,  but  every  one  is  judge  to  himself  of  that  which  ii 
right.  They  tell,  that  the  commonwealth  is  governed  by  a  councfl 
of  five  thousand,  every  one  of  whom  findeth  an  elephant  to  the  com- 
monwealth. (Jo.  Boem,  Lib.  II.  Ch.  9.  Strabo,  Lib.  XV.)  The 
chief  city,  by  Ptolemy,  is  placed  in  1 77"  1 5 '  and  38'  86 '  •.  This  re- 
gion he  limiteth  on  the  west  with  Scythia  eastra  Ifiuaon;  on  the  eaflt 
with  teira  irtepgniia,  and  likewise  on  the  north,  (here  some  place 
the  promontory  Tabin,  there  the  Eastern  Ocean);  on  the  south,  with 
part  of  India  extra  Gangem:  our  siHcs  have  the  name  of  this  region. 
The  Seres  are  supposed  to  inhabit  the  country  now  called  Cathay,  which 
name  Niger  deriveth  ft-om  a  Scytiiian  nation  called  Chatis'f. 

In  the  thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centories  of  the  Christian  era,  the 
Mongol  Grand  Rhans  who  resided  at  Pekin,  and  the  viceroys  thdr 
relations  in  Shensi,  Ynnan,&c.  possessed  many  thousands  of  elephants: 
those  animals  being  a  considerable  part  of  the  war  eitablishment. — 
Since  that  period,  elephants  appear  to  have  been  kept  for  parade,  htmt- 
ing,  and  as  beasts  of  burthen.  "  Ships,  on  the  Kiang-keou,  we  drawn 
by  elephants  to  Quinsay  {." 

*  It  b  veD  known,  that  a  true  knowledge  of  the  longitadea  haa  not  very  kiag 
been  oscertuned.    Pekin  ia  only  134^  from  FetTo. 
t  Purcha«,Vol.l.p.899. 
t  Vincent  le  Blanc,  p.  103. 



Emmuel  Carvaliui  was  at  Cambiilu»  (Pekm).  in  the  year  1598r  CHAP, 
wfaen  the  SUnpckor  had  four  hundred  elephants,  which  were  brought  v^^^-v^ak^ 
from  Bfahcok  and  Pegu  f. 

When  Ux.  Bdl  was  at  Pekio,  he  says  X — "  After  dinner  we  saw  the 
kuge  dei^ants  richly  caparisoned  in  gold  and  silver  stu£b.  Each 
had  a  driver.  We  rtood  about  an  hour  admiring  these  sagacious  ani- 
mali>  who,  passing  before  us  at  equal  distances,  retunied  again  behind 
the  stables,  and  so  on,  round  and  round,  till  there  seemed  to  be  no 
end  of  the  procession,  llie  plot,  howeim-,  was  diacorered  by  the 
features  and  dress  of  the  riders:  the  chief  keeper  told  us  there  were 
only  sixty  of  them.  The  Enq>eror  keeps  them  only  for  show,  and 
makes  no  use  of  them,  at  least  in  these  northern  parts.  Some  of 
them  kndt  and  made  obeisance  to  us;  others  sucked  up  water  from 
vessels,  and  spouted  it  through  their  trunks  among  the  mob,  or  wher* 
ew  the  rid«  directed." 

"  The  Emperor's  life  guards  were  clothed  in  red  calico,  printed 
with  red  figures,  and  wore  small  hats  with  y^ow  feathers.  Iliey 
were  armed  yn&  acymUars  and  lances.  There  were  eight  white  aad- 
dle  horses,  fof  show.  In  the  IJiird  court  of  state,  wore  four  extnor* 
dhiarily  lai^  eleplumta,  one  of  which  was  wkste.  TVy  wece  all  oft- 
Tered  wiA  ridi  embratdeied  cloths,  and  their  tuappfngs,  faridle«> 
cmppeis,  &c.  were  fimsMrnted  witii  sHver  and  ffllt:  «tt1beir1aackswMa 

t  PurcluM,  VoL  I.  p.4e2.  {  Oaip.  IX. 


92  INDIA  PAYS  TRIBUTE  TO  PERSIA,  B.  C.  1429. 

CHAP,  fine  carved  wooden  castle,  spacioud  enough  for  eight  penoas.  'Being 
\.«.-Y-«,^  got  out  of  the  court,  I  mounted  one  of  the  Emperor^s  waggnis  wift 
two  wheeb,  and  was  drawn  to  my  apartment  by  an  ctophant.  There 
were  ten  persons  on  each  aide,  with  a  rope  in  their  hands  fiutened  to 
the  elephant's  mopth,  to  lead  him;  and,  on  his  neck,  sat  a  man  with 
an  iron  hook  to  guide  him.  He  weat  but  his  ordinary  rate,  which 
obliged  the  men  to  run,  to  keep  up  with  him.  In  the  Emperor's  sta- 
bles there  were  fourteen  elephants:  they  made  them  roar,  sing  tike  a 
Canary  bird,  neigh,  imitate  a  trumpet,  go  down  on  their  knees,  &c. — 
All  these  elephants  were  extraordinarily  large,  and  the  teeth  of  some  ;a 
fiiU  fitthom  long.  The  Mandarines  told  me,  that  the  king  of  Siam 
annually  sends  several  by  way  of  tribute  f." 

Thus  we  find,  that  firoin  the  earliest  history  to  the  present  i 
the  Chinese  have  always  possessed  numerous  elephants;  and  that 
they  have,  from  the  begimiing,  had  wars  with  the  Tartars  in  and 
about  Siberia. 


Pebsia  had  wars  in  very  early  times  with  Hindostan.  Towards  the 
dose  of  the  era  of  the  royal  dynasty  of  the  Marajas,  the  first  invasion 
of  India  by  the  Persians  is  placed.  A  prince  of  the  blood  royal  of 
Lidia,  being  disgusted  with  the  reigning  prince,  fled  to  Persia,  whose 
king  was  called  Feredon:  he  espoused  the  cause  (rf  the  prince,inTaded 
Hindostan,  and  carried  on  a  war  with  that  empire  for  ten  years.    The 

t  labranfB  Ides.    HarrU's  Voy.  VoL  II.  p.  946. 



Ibr^a  ceded  part  oi  his  dommions  to  the  fa^tive  prince,  who  was  his 
oefdiew.  A  trthnte  toas  sent  to  the  king  <jf  Persia,  and  the  empire  of  '^ 
Lidia  seems  ever  after  to  dqwnd  in  some  measure  on  Persia.  During 
this  war  the  governors  of  Ceylon  and  of  the  Camatic  rebelled.  The 
Persians  threatened  a  second  invasion,  to  prevent  which  all  the  pro- 
TincM  on  the  Indus  were  ceded  to  the  king  of  Persia.  When  the 
Morajas  fiuuily  became  extinct,  Kesror^a  mounted  the  throne  of  In- 
dia, as  near  as  can  be  computed,  in  the  year  1429,  before  Christ.  He 
solicited  the  aid  of  his  lord  paramount,  the  king  of  Persia.  Kesrorajo, 
assisted  by  Persian  troops,  subdued  Ceylon  and  the  Decan,  he  con- 
tinned  the  tribute  to  Persia,  and  his  dynasty  reigned  in  the  capital  of  ' 
Oud  for  two  hundred  and  twenty  years. 

In  1209,  B.  C.  Ferosra  was  on  the  Indian  throne.  He  neglected 
war,  and  expended  the  revenues  on  devotees  and  enthusiasts,  and  in 
building  religious  temples.  Nevertheless,  Persia  being  invaded  by  the 
Tartars,  he  took  tiiat  opportunity  to  recover  the  provinces  on  the  In- 
dus. It  is  said  that  the  Punjab  remained  in  possession  of  the  Indian 
monturchs  till  the  reign  of  Kei-kobad,  king  of  Persia.  In  his  time,  Rns- 
tum  I>ista,king  of  Seistan,  (Segistan),  the  Hercules  ofthe  Elast, invad- 
ed the  northern  provinces  of  India,  and  drove  thelast  prince  ofthe  dy- 
nasty of  Ferosra,  to  the  mountains  of  Turiutt,  and  from  thence  to  the 
confines  of  Bengal  and  Orissa,  where  he  died.  Rustum  rused  to  the 
throne,  Snraja,  a  man  of  abilities,  and  restored  the  power  of  the  em- 
pire, B.  C.  1072.  Kinoge  was  buOt  by  one  of  this  family.  The  tri- 
bute continued  to  be  paid  to  Persia. 

In  the  eighth  century  before  the  Christian  era,  Sincol,  a  native  of 
Kinoge,  rebelled,  defeated  the  imperial  army,  and  mounted  the  tiirone. 
He  rebuilt  the  capital  of  Bengal,  Lucnouti  or  Goura,  which  became 
an  amazingly  magnificent  city.  Sinool  refused  to  pay  the  tribute  to 
Persia.    Pieran,  a  Persiao  general,  invaded  India  with  fifty  thousand 



horse:  he  was  beaten  b^  Sincol;  and  posted  himself  in  a  strong  fadd. 
From  this  place  he  sent  letters  to  his  king,  Afrasiab^  who  reigned  also 
orer  great  part  of  Tartary ;  he  was  then  on  the  borders  of  China.  He 
came  to  battle  witii  Sincol,  and,  with  one  hundred  thousand  horse, 
pursued  him  to  Croura.  Sincol  retreated  to  the  monntahiB.  He 
thought  it  most  prudent  to  beg  peace  and  fbrgiTen^s:  he  tberefioare 
went  to  the  camp,  in  the  character  of  a  suppliant,  witb  a  sword  and  a 
coffin  carried  before  him,  to  shew  that  his  life  was  at  the  king's  disposal. 
Sincol  was  carried  to  Tartary,  as  a  hostage  for  the  obedience  of  his 
son  Rohata,  who  was  placed  upon  the  throne  oi  Hindostan.  Sincol 
died  B.  C.  731.  Rohata  had  sent  to  Persia  one-third  of  his  revenues, 
as  tribute,  and  to  support  his  father.  Sincol's  dynasty  held  the  seep* 
tre  eighty-one  years. 

Maraja,  a  Rajaput  chief,  now  succeeded  to  the  empire.  He  was 
contemporary  with  Hystaspes,  &tber  of  Darius,  who  mounted  the  Per- 
sian throne  after  the  death  of  Smerdis,  by  the  Hindoo  chronology,  B. 
C  586;  which  agrees  almost  exactly  with  that  established  by  Sir  Isaac 
Newton.  Maraja  reigped  forty  years.  Kedaraja,  his  nephew,  suc- 
ceeded him. 

The  mountaineers  of  Cabul  and  Candahar,  now  called  Afghans  w 
Patans,  recovered  all  the  provinces  on  the  Indus.  JTei-chund,  ihe 
commander  in  chief  of  Kedar^Vs  armies,  succeeded  him.  He  reign- 
ed sixty  years.  Jei-chund  pnnctnally  paid  the  Persian  tribute.  Deln, 
brother  of  Jei'Chund,  seized  the  throne  from  his  nephew,  Jei-ohuud's 
eldest  SOD.  He  built  the  city  which  bears  his  name,  Delhi.  In  the 
reign  of  Delu,  Pfaoor,  a  prince  of  his  own  family,  rebelled  against  the 
Emperor,  marched  to  Kinoge,  defeated  his  sovereign,  and  confined  him 
in  the  fort  of  Rhotas.  Pfaoor  extended  his  power  irom  sea  to  sea,  and 
restored  the  empire  to  its  pristine  dignity.  He  died  after  a  long  reign, 
and  hA  the  empire  to  his  son,  Phoor  II.  who,  in  consequence  of  the 



tnraUesln  Persia,  n^^eoted  to  pay  the  tribute;  fafr  was  the  Poms  van-    OIAF. 
quished  hj  Alexander  the  Greatf .  .    i.^y^i 

The  hero  Aoostam,  m  the  battle  in  which  he  slew  the  king  of  Ma- 
xenderan,  is  sud  to  have  killed  a  number  of  elephants.  We  must  oonr 
dude,  firom  both  the  andent  history  and  the  sculptures  of  Persia*  that 
this  animal  once  abounded  in  that  kingdran.  The  province  of  Maaen- 
deran  is,  from  cUmate  and  abunduice  of  vegetation,  more  fitrourable  to 
their  support  than  any  other  in  the  empire  J. 

The  Bides  ot  the  arch  (at  Tackt-i-Bostan)  are  covered  with  repre- 
eentations,  in  baa  relieC  of  the  boar  hunt.  Some  are  mounted  on 
horses,  and  othen  on  elephants.  The  ponderous  elephuits,  with  their 
riders,  phmge  tiirough  the  marshy  bushes  in  every  direction.  An  up- 
right compartment,  on  one  side  of  the  chase,  is  dedicated  to  the  canx> 
ing  of  the  spool ;  and  the  division  opposite,  to  a  range  of  elephuits  in 
pursuit  of  the  deer  §. 

The  army  of  Artaxeraes  conasted  of  a  hundred  and  twenty  thou- 
sand horse,  seven  hundred  elephants  with  towers  fiUed  with  archers. 

t  3ee  Dow's  Hmdostan,  IntrodncUoiL  The  reader  Is  requested  to  enntse 
Mme  iinr  lepetttxaiB,  od  the  oonrideratioa  of  Tuious  hisbmes  coofinaing  eMh 
other  as  to  events ;  but  to  elucidate  the  periodB  of  most  of  them  appears  hopeless, 
till  Alexander's  invasion  of  India. 

t  Sir  John  Malcolm's  History,  VoL  hf.  86, 

S  Sir  R.  K.  Porter's  Traveta  m  Persia,  VoL  11.  p.  79,  and  plate  LXIII. 



^rn^^'     °^°  *'^^"  backs;  and  one  thousand  eight  hundred  chariota  aimed 
v-i*-v--«-'  with  ficythesf. 

Elephuits  are  used  all  over  the  east,  in  the  amusements  of  the 
chase;  and  hmiting  was  always  a  royal  sport  in  Persia.  Alexandor 
the  Great,  when  he  was  there,  killed  a  fierce  lion,  and  was  compli- 
mented hy  the  Lacedemonian  ambassadors.  Philotas,  son  of  Parme- 
nio,  had  hunting  nets  that  would  enclose  the  space  of  a  hundred  fur- 
longs J. 

As  to  ettgles,  hawks,  &1cons,  and  other  birds  of  prey,  there  is  no 
country  where  they  have  more,  or  where  they  are  better  instructed, 
than  in  Persia.  The  Shah  has  eight  hundred  or  a  thousand  of  them; 
and  there  is  no  man  of  any  figure,  without  his  hawks  and  &Icoheni. 
The  hawks  are  taught  not  only  to  fly  at  birds,  but  at  hares,  deer,  and 
dl  manner  of  wild  beasts.  By  fixing  themselves  on  the  head  of  the 
animal,  and  beating  him  with  their  wings,  he  is  so  terrified  and  dis- 
tracted, that  the  dogs  and  huntsmen,  which  follow,  have  very  little  dif- 
ficulty in  taking  him§. 

We  had  a  sight  of  prince  Polagi's  elephant,  and  were  astonished 
at  his  monstrous  bulk;  he  exceeded  the  height  of  any  two  men,  and 
was  much  larger  than  any  we  saw  at  Ispahan,  where  there  was  a  great 
number  of  them;  he  was  governed  by  a  little  boy. 

f  Gibbon  supposes  this  force  much  exaggerated  by  Alexander  Severus. 
t  Plutarch.  §  Harris's  Voy.  Vol.  II.  p.  887. 




ThCTe  were  driven  into  the  enclosure  thirty-two  wild  asses,  at 
whidi  the  king  discharged  some  halls,  and  shot  some  arrows.  He 
then  permitted  the  amhassadors  and  lords  to  shoot  at  them.    The 

■  beasts  having  sometimes  ten,  or  more,  arrows  shot  into  their  bodies, 
would  &11  a  biting  and  running  at  one  another  in  a  strange  manner.. 
Having  killed  all  that  were  wounded,  thirty  more  wild  asses  were 
let  in;  which  were  killed  and  laid  in  a  row  before  the  king, to  be  sent 
to  the  court  kitchen  at  Ispahan.     The  Persians  highly  esteem  the 

,  flesh.  On  the  26th  Not.  (16S7),  the  king  (Shah  Sefi)  returned  from 
the  hunting  so  drunk,  as  also  were  most  of  the  lords,  that  they  could 
hardly  sit  their  horses  f. 

At  the  great  himts  of  lions,  leopards,  tigers,  panthers,  ounces,  boars, 
stags,  hyaenas,  &c.  they  make  use  of  the  yourze,  (hunting  leopard). 
When  they  are  too  large  to  be  carried  behind  the  rider  upon  a  horse, 
they  are  placed  in  an  iron  cage,  and  carried  upon  an  elephant;  and 
thence  leap  upon  their  prey^.  The  ordinary  number  of  animals 
slaughtered  is  seven  or  eight  hundred,  but  they  relate  that  as  many  as 
fourteen  thousand  have  been  killed  sometimes  §. 

t  Ambassador's  TroTek,  pp.  191.  212,  SIS. 

X  Such  importance  have  the  Persians  always  attached  to  these  sports,  that  they 
record  in  their  history,  that — "  Hushing,  probably  contemporary  with  Minos,  and 
king  of  Persia,  B.  C.  865,  was  the  first  who  bred  dogs  and  leopards  for  hunting, 
and  introduced  the  &shion  of  wearing  the  furs  of  wild  beaats  in  winter."  Sir  Wil- 
liam Jones,  Vol.  V.  p.  688. 

S  Voyage  de  Chardin,  en  Perse,  Vol  II.  p.  83. 



Tb«  mjoy  from  BaAavia  nude  bis  public  «ntry  into  Ispohiw,  pre- 
eeded  by  bU  eleph«ato*  wbicfa  the  governor  bad  iieat  to  the  laqg^ 
A.  D.  1717 1- 

The  Kbaa  (of  Shaioadiie).  desiroiu  to  let  the  smbassadoni  see  how 
expert  he  was  in  shooting,  bid  them  obseire  one  of  -the  Iwnpa  that 
8to6d  near  thew,  to  see.  whether  he  «truqk  it  out  with  the  first  inuakeb< 
shot,  which  he  did  twioe  following.  On  the  27th)  he*  being  engaged 
in  business,  sent  us  his  huntsmen,  his  bounds,  and  bis  bawka;  aa  aim 
a  leopard,  which,  being  excellently  taught,  started  with  as  much  swift- 
ness as  a  greyhound,  and  gave  us  all  the  satisfaction  which  bunting 
could  afford.  He  discovered  no  bare  which  he  took  no^  and  dUQO  on 
at  the  least  call  with  more  command  than  any  setting  dog.  leaping  vp 
b^ind  the  person  who  had  the  ordering  of  him.  Olearius,  pp.  IW, 

Every  day,  at  Delhi,  were  given  combaUtof  elephants,  bulb,  lions, 
and  other  wild  beasts. 

On  the  26tb  of  March,  and  following  days,  the  commissaries  secured 
treasures  in  precious  jewels  beyond  conception :  fifteen  crores  (a  hun- 
dred and  fifty  millions)  of  rupees,  horses,  and  elephants  innumerable. 
Nadir  apprised  iht  king  of  Bohors,  that,  as  that  empire  belonged  te 

t  B^  of  Antermoi^. 



the  descendants  of  Crenghis  Khan,  he  was  resolved  to  secure  its  tran- 
quillity, for  which  purpose  he  should  visit  it.  He  sent  at  this  time 
fourteen  chain  elephants  and  other  presents  to  the  Emperor  of  Rus- 
sia. Tbe  saptured  artillery  and  elephants  were  sent  from  Cakni  to 

At  Hesdnhd,  (A.  D.  1740),  an  ambassador  fircnn  India,  presented  t« 
Kadir  Shtdt,  letten  anignii^  oertain  rerenues,  and  muij  cham  el»- 

His  Majesty  sent  to  the  Grrand  Seignior  a  throne  of  solid  gold,  or- 
namented with  large  pea^,  and  two  ehain  elephants  that  had  been 
taught,  at  the  sound  of  instruments,  to  dance*.  Nadir  %ah  brought 
three  hundred  elephants  from  Delhi  to  Persia  "f. 

The  king  of  P«rsiaVi  elephants  are  much  iaxg&t  than  those  exhibited 
m  Eurc^:  they  were  richly  caparisoned,  and  mounted  by  Tndiaiis. 
Their  bodies  weve  painted  with  various  oohmrs,  while  their  tounkii^ 
tails,  and  tusks,  were  guilded.  A  diild  makes  them  obey  his  ovdMBi, 
and  they  are  trained  to  kneel  in  the  maimer  of  camels;  to  salute  the 
king  with  their  proboscis;  to  cry  out;  to  ^ake  their  ears  when  they 
«re  ordered;  in  short,  to  raise  themselves  on  their  hiod  l^s.  A 
group  of  tumblers  dexterously  mounted  the  largest  of  the  king's  de- 
j^uints,  and  the  young  rope  dancer  gave  us  aew  darms,  by  making  an 
extremdy  dsngepous  leap  bKkwards  from  the  crupper  of  the  sad- 

•  Sir  W.  Joobb'b  Work«,  life  of  Nadir  Sbah,  Vol  V. 
t  Universal  Magazine,  January,  1754. 

%  Tancoign's  Journey  into  Persia,  with  the  embassy  of  General  Gardaue,  1807. 



BcTBZBNA,  the  first  leader  of  the  Tarks,  A.  D.  545,  (whose  reai- 
dence  was  by  the  Altai,  or  Golden  Mountains,  near  the  river  Irtish, 
in  latitude  49  by  the  learned  Chinese  accounts,)  married  a  Chinese 
princess.  In  the  course  of  fifty  years,  the  Turks  made  war  upon  the 
Persians,  Chinese,  and  Romans;  and  their  conque»t»  extended  to  tie 
/roxen  ocean.  The  Chinese  bought  off  these  conquerors  by  tribute. 
The  Turks  subdued  the  Ogars  on  the  banks  of  the  Til  (Volga)  and 
dew  immense  numbers.  They  made  a  treaty  with  Justinian,  the 
Roman  Emperor,  who  sent  ambassadors  to  the  Altai  mountains. 
They  were  feasted  in  tents  with  embroidered  silk  hangings,  the  royal 
seat  was  of  gold,  and  also  the  cups  and  vessels  out  of  which  they  drank. 
A  bed  of  massy  gold  was  raised  upon  four  golden  peacocks.  Silver 
statues,  diahea  taid  basons,  of  admirable  workmanship,  were  ostent^ 
tiously  piled  up  upon  waggons.  When  Disabal  had  celebrated  the 
obsequies  of  his  father,  he  was  saluted  by  the  ambassadors,  from  Con- 
stantinople, of  the  Emperor  Tiberius,  who  proposed  an  invasion  of 
Persia.  The  Grand  Khan  answered  them  by  putting  his  ten  fingers 
to  his  mouth,  "  You  Romans,"  said  he,  **  speak  with  as  many  tongues 
of  deceit  and  perjury.  A  Turk  disdains  a  falsehood.  You  precipi- 
tate your  allies  into  danger;  you  favour  my  fugitives,  the  Ogars.  I 
know  their  route  and  am  acquainted  with  the  course  of  the  Neister, 
the  Danube,  and  the  Hebrus.  The  most  warlike  nations,  from  the 
rising  to  the  setting  sun,  have  yielded  to  the  Turks."  Disabal  sent 
ambassadors  to  the  Emperor  Maurice,  styling  himself  lord  of  the  seven 
climates,  master  of  the  seven  races.  The  south  boundary  of  the 
Turks  was  the  Oxus  *. 

*  See  CHbbon's  Roman  Empire,  Ch.  XLII. 



*'  CHA.OANDB,  the  ScTthian  king,  sent  ambassadors  to  tbe  Emperor 
MsuritiuB,  (who  died  A.  D.  602).  He  styled  himself  governor  of 
seven  nations.  He  conquered  the  Abdele,  the  Avarea,  and  the  Ogar 
nation,  which  dwell  by  the  river  Til  or  Volga.  He  conquered  also 
the  king  (^  Ct^h,  in  which  war  he  slew  three  hundred  thousand 
people.  He  subdued  also  the  Turks  at  the  hill  Icar,  four  hundred 
miles  distant  from  the  Golden  Mountain,  which  is  in  the  east,  rich  in 
fertility  and  store  of  cattle,  aai  which  the  greatest  Chagan  among  the 
Turks  always  possesseth.  They  call  their  priests  Taisau,  that  is,  the 
son  oi  God.  lliis  city  is  divided  by  a  stream ;  they  say  it  was  built 
by  Alexander  when  he  had  overcome  the  Sogdians  and  Bactrians. 
The  king's  wives,  shining  with  jewels,  are  carried  in  golden  chariots, 
each  drawn  with,  one  bull;  the  bridles  embossed  with  gold.  Fame 
attributeth  another  city,  not  far  from  hence,  to  Alexander,  called  Chub- 
dan;  the  prince  whereof  being  dead,  his  wives  in  black,  with  shaven 
heads,  continually  mourn,  and  may  never  forsake  the  sepulchre. 
They  have  many  elephants;  and  traffic  with  the  northern  Indians, 
who  make  silk.  Thus  much  I  thought  worth  adding  out  of  Simocat- 
ta,  for  better  knowledge  of  the  Turkish,  I'artarian,  and  Scythian 
history  f." 

"  As  I  have  pointed  out  the  course  of  the  Irtish  till  it  reaches  Tobolsk^ 
sa^  Mr.  Bell,  I  will  mention  what  I  have  heard  from  an  ingenious 
gentleman,  who  fills  a  public  place  in  Siberia,  about  the  Kontaisha,  or 

t  Purchas,  Vol.  I.  p.  397,  Chaganue  is,  no  doubt,  the  Latmiam  for  khan  of 


prince  of  the  Ka]mucs.  His  territories  are  bounded  on  the  North 
i  by  the  Russian  power,  (sae  map,  flag  23X  hy  China  on  the  east,  and  by 
the  Great  Mogul  on  the  south.  He  is  able  to  bring  into  the  field,  at 
a  ehoTt  fraTQing>  a  hundred  thovund  fattf se-mm,  all  able-bodi«4  nien, 
well  mounted,  and  armed  with  bows  and  arfows,  lanoes  and  sabres. 
They  live  in  teats  all  the  year,  r Anoving  at  their  oanvenieBOe.  Thii 
is  the  most  ancient  and  pleAsant  manner  of  life.  It  is  enteitainiDg  to 
hear  tb6m  commisermte  those  who  are  confined  to  one  place  of  abode, 
and  obliged  to  support  thenraelres  by  labour.  There  are  always  some 
thousands  enoamped  near  the  Kontftisha,  who  treat  him  with  great 
reneration  and  respect.  He  is  attentive  to  the  interests  of  his  peo- 
ple, and  as  assiduous  in  the  administration  of  justice,  as  if  they  were 
his  own  children.  A  person  may  travel  in  bis  dominions  with  greaier 
safety  to  his  person  and  effects  than  in  many  otlKr  countries.  The 
deputy  fn>m  the  governor  of  Siberia,  with  his  servants,  were  admitted 
into  the  tent,  wheK  the  Rontaisha  sat  with  his  queen  and  several 
children  about  him.  He  desired  all  of  them  to  sit  down,  on  carpets  or 
mats.  They  Were  entert»iued  with  tea  before  dinner:  and  after  It 
the  Kontaisha  dismissed  the  deputy  in  a  friendly  manner,  telling  him 
be  wonld  giv«  him  the  answer  to  the  goveraor's  letter  the  next  day, 
whidi  he  punctually  performed.  They  write  with  brevity  attd  per- 
spicuity. I  have  seen  some  of  th^r  letters  translated,  whidi  pleased 
me  extremely :  they  use  no  tedious  preambles  or  disgusting  repetitions. 
The  Kontaisha  some  time  ago  claimed  and  took  possession  of  some 
.towns  on  the  Chinese  frontier.  The  Emperor  sent  an  army  of  three 
hundred  thousand  men,  under  tlie  command  of  his  fourteenth  son,  the 
best  genenJ  of  all  his  children.  The  Kontaisha  defeated  th«a  in 
several  acticma,  and  peace  was  concluded.  The  Chinese  had  martdied 
from  the  west  of  China  through  a  desert  and  barren  country,  encum- 
bered with  artillery,  and  heavy  carriages  with  provisions  for  die  whole 



ani^  I  I9  wbieh  %h^  tbrw  ww  vwfih  diminished.  On  Iheir  tpproftc^ 
iritku  A  fvv-  cUyif  mardt  9I  th«  Kontavbfl,  he  sent  out  dotadtmentt  v 
of  light  horse  to  set  fire  to  the  gfera*  laj  w«3t«  .the  oountrf  ,  nod  dU< 
tract  them  day  and  night  with  alamis.  This  is  their  ancieat  practice, 
by  which  they  deprive  their  enemies  of  provisions,  while  they  have 
always  spare  horses  to  kill  and  eat.  lliia  must  be  the  same  prince 
vin9i  ifl  oallffd  thQ  Grwt  Chaw  of  Tfutery-  M  no  Gtir«p9ana  tnvel 
thxoogh  tkift  ^ovmtxy,  our  mvpfi  muit  be  yery  «m»Q«4w."  Jwnwy  to 
Pekin,  1720,  Ch.  II. 

Tke  feffwjistg  m  pariumioriy  trnparttnU,  m  9cmmtt  of  pnmng  fkat 
^it^kant*  viU  hw  in  the  tevtrest  cold.  We  o^m  find  tkat  Tivmr 
^  not  iwe  tmif  tikj^imita,  althongi  "  M»  troopt  were  ahHged  to  dig 
for  water,  tuio  or  three  ettbite  through  the  iee;  at,  from  the  ew^s  atier- 
mg  Sagittarim  to  hi*  ewmtg  (hM  (fPiseet,  utaggoH*,  men,  and  heastt 
imM  pem  ff«y  ptwt  eiiier  ^  the  Gihon  or  the  Sihon.  fforpn  and 
men  perished,  aome  toeing  their  kandt,  feet,  eera,  or  noaee  *." 

The  king  of  Gwihgar  met  Mamood'a  army  fiv«  fenongs  irom  BaUch, 
w  B«lc.  Mamood  iM;rengthened  bit  fine  wiUi  five  husdred  ohida  «fo- 
pbmits.  Some  chosen  aquadronew  uvl«r  the  oommaml  of  Elich,  h»r* 
ing  thrown  his  ocvrtre  into  diswder,  Mamood  mounts  an  elephant 
and  violently  aseaolted  EUch,  The  ctWixbaaf:  afiaed  the  itandard 
b««T«ff  with  )m  truDk.  snd  tossed  him  aloft  ii^  the  air.  Mamood 
tlwu  prewtd  £wwivd,  and  totally  deleated  tiie  king.  It  was  winter, 
and  he  pursued  the  «i«ny  two  dayai  thoi^h,  on  aooount  of  the  incle- 
mency  of  the  season,  the  troops  were  hardly  capable  of  mbtion.  On 
the  third  night,  a  great  storm  of  wind  and  snow  overtook  the  Ghiz- 

?  Sherefeddm.  Vol.  11.  p,  87$. 



CHAP,    nian  amy  in  the  desert.    The  troops  were  obliged  to  lie  in  the  snow; 
\.«i-v^«^  and  in  the  morning,  some  hundreds  of  men  and  horses  were  found  tb 
have  perished  with  cold.  A.D.  1007f. 

Mamood  had  a  white  elephant,  and,  when  mounted  upon  that  ani- 
mal during  an  engagement,  he  esteemed  it  as  a  certain  pledge  of  vic- 
tory J. 

Mamood,  returning  to  BaHch,  gave  the  government  of  Herat  to  his 
son.  Masaood.  Hethen  marched  with  a  hundred  and  thirty  thousand 
horse  and  foot,  through  the  mountains  behind  Cashmere,  by  way  of 
Thibet,  to  Kinoge. 

The  Indian  prince  submitted,  and  paid  the  plunder  of  the  city,  and 
fifty  elephants.  The  Sultan  proceeded  to  Mavin,  on  the  Jumna,  which 
surrendered.     He  found  much  spoil,  and  seventy  elephants  of  war. 

At  Mutra,  he  captured  five  great  idols  of  pure  gold,  and  above  one 
hundred  of  silver;  and  loaded  a  hundred  camels  with  bullion.  From 
the  Raja  Jundroy  he  took  three  hundred  and  fifty  elephants,  fifty- 
Uu-ee  thousand  captives,  jewels,  pearls,  and  precious  effects,  which 
could  not  be  properly  estimated:  nor  was  the  private  spoil  less. 
Jundroy  had  an  elephant  of  a  most  uncommon  size,  such  as  had  never 
before  been  seen  In  Hindostan;  nor  was  he  more  remarkable  for  his 
enormous  bulk,  than  for  his  docility  and  courage.     Mamood,  having 

t  Dow,  Vol.  I.  p.4€.    No  instance  has  been  met  with  of  an  elephant  being  kill- 
ed by  the  cold. 
t  D'Herbelot,  Vol-II.  p.4l. 



^leard  much  of  this  elepfasnt.  Bent  to  ihe  lUja,  o£feriiig  him  advanta-  ^Yit^' 
geous  terms  of  peace,  and  a  great  sum  of  money  for  this  animal.  But  •^•.^■y^^mJ 
the  obstinacy  of  Jundroy  would  never  listen  to  any  terms  with  the 
musaulmans;  so  that  Mamood,  with  regret,  was  obliged  to  desist 
The  elephant,  however,  happened  one  night  to  break  loose  from  his 
keepers,  and  went  into  the  Ghiznian  camp ;  where  he  permitted  him- 
sdf  to  be  mounted  and  brought  before  the  king;  who  received  him 
with  great  joy,  and  named  him  "  The  Gift  of  God,"  because  he  came 
by  accident  into  his  hands.  •  *  •  The  king,  on  his  return  to  Ghisni, 
ordered  a  magmficent  mosqiie  of  marble,  of  such  beauty,  as  struck 
every  beholder  with  astonishment  and  {Measure.  It  was  adorned  with 
such  el^^t  carpets,  chandeliers,  and  otlKr  ornaments,  of  silver  and 
gold,  that  it  became  known  by  the  name  of  "  The  Celestial  Bride." 
Near  this  mosque,  he  founded  an  univeTsity^  which  he  furnished  with  a 
vast  collection  of  curious  bof^,  in  various  languages ;  and  with  nar- 
tund  and  artificial  curiosities.  He  appropriated  a  sufficient  iund  for 
the  maintenance  of  the  students,  and  learned  men,  who  were  appointed 
to  instruct  the  youth  in  the  sciencesf . 

In  the  year  1024,  Mamood  marched  to  Balicfa  with  fifty-five  thou- 
sand chosen  horse,  and  thirteen  hundred  elephants,  to  expel  Tigg^ 
from  the  government  of  Uaverulaere,  for  oppressing  the  people,  who 
had  complained  to  the  king  of  his  tyranny.  Kudir,  king  of  Tiu^ues- 
tan,  paid  Mamood  a  visit,  and  was  received  with  joy  and  friendship, 
with  whom  Mamood  entered  into  a  treaty;  and  the  monarchs,  on 

t  Dow'g  HmdMtui,  Vol,  I,  p.  59. 




but  was  oTcrtaken,  and  confined  for  Ufis];. 

OF  BOCTAN,  A.  D.  1669. 

From  Crorackpour  to  the  foot  of  the  idgk  moontauu,  is  eight  or 
nine  dajrs  jouroey;  during  which,  the  oaravan  luffera  great  hardships, 
the  country  being  nothing  but  wide  forests,  fyi  of  wild  elephants.  Six 
leagues  bejond  Gcnruokptnir,  you  enter  Napaul :  which  territories  ex- 
tend to  the  fr<HitieTs  of  Boutao.  The  Raja  resides  at  the  city  of  Na- , 
paul,  and  he  pays  the  Mogul  every  year  an  elephant  for  homage,  It 
took  the  caravan  eight  days  to  cross  the  mountains  of  Naugrocot. 
Women  came  down,  to  carry  the  traveHen  upon  a  cushion  fixed  on 
their  backs;  three  women  to  cany  one  man.  The  luggage  and  provi- 
sions M<e  laden  up<m  goats,  which  carry  one  hundred  and  fifty  pounds 
weight  each.  After  you  have  passed  the  mountains,  you  may  travd 
to  Boutan  upon  oxen,  camels,  horses,  or  palanquins.  The  men  and 
women  are  clad,  in  summer,  with  fustian  or  hempen  cloth,  in  winter 
with  a  thick  cloth  almost  like  felt.  Had  the  natives  of  Boutan  as 
much  art  as  the  Muscovites  in  killing  the  martin,  they  might  vend 
great  siores  of  those  rich  furs,  conndering  what  a  number  there  is  in 
tiat  country.  There  are  always  fifty  de^ihants  kept  about  the  king 
of  Boidw'a  house;  and  twenty-five  cameb,  each  with  a  piece  of  artil- 
lery upon  its  back,  which  carries  a  half-pound  baU.  No  king  in  the 
world  is  more  feared,  lespeoted,  and  adored-  They  assured  me,  as  a 
truth,  that  iriien  hia  majesty  has  done  the  deeds  oi  nature,  they  care- 
fully collect  the  ordure,  dry  it,  powder  it,  and  carry  it  in  a  box  like 

t  We  may  reasonably  pieamne  diat  ri^hants  foimed  a  part  of  these  presenta. 
t  Dow,  Vol.Lp.65. 



taaff,  to  present  to  tlwir  friend^  in  imall  qnantitias  u  a  gnat  nntj,  ^^^' 
to  stiew  upon  iheir  meat  Tbej  have  no  one  to  fear  but  the  <..«-v-^^ 
Mogul  t  and  from  turn  they  are  fenced  with  high,  steep,  cra;^  and 
snowy  mountains.  Northward,  nothing  but  vast  forests  and  snow; 
East  and  West,  nothing  but  bitter  wat«;  and  as  for  the  lUjaa  near 
them,  they  are  princes  of  little  force.  In  the  year  1659,  the  Duke  of 
Muscovy's  ambassador  passed  through  this  country  to  the  king  of 


In  ih.e  year  1638,  the  Tatars  of  Assam  JnTaded  Bengal.  They 
rushed  down  the  Burhampooter  in  armed  boats,  to  where  it  falls  into 
the  Ganges  below  Dacca.  They  pkmdered  the  northern  districts, 
and  took  several  small  forts.  Islam,  governor  of  Bengal,  defeated 
them,  and  killed  four  thousand;  and  eaptured  five  hundred  of  their 
wmed  vessels.  Fifteen  forts,  and  the  king  of  Assam's  son  in  law,  fell 
into  his  hands.  He  reduced  the  province  of  Cochagi,  and  invaded 
that  of  Buldive.  The  latter  was  very  obstinately  defended.  Few  pass* 
es  led  into  it,  being  environed  with  mountains.  The  Subadar  at  last 
forced  the  passes,  and  the  enemy  fled  to  tix  mountains.  The  sove> 
reign  of  Buldive,  harassed  with  fetigue  and  vexation,  died.  The 
unfortunate  Assamites  beheld,  from  their  hilla  and  woods,  the  smok* 
of  their  burning  towns.  But  Islam  having  burnt  the  grain,  inadvert- 
ently, the  scarcity  ob%ed  him  to  retreat.  He  suffered  incredible 
hardahipa  by  the  badness  of  the  roads  and  the  torrents  from  the  hills; 

•  TaTemier,  P.  II.  B.  III.  Ch  XV.  At  Chunnuiiog  in  Thibet,  Lat.  30»  44f,iSx. 
Bogle,  in  1774,  found  Fahrenheit's  thermometer  in  his  rown  S9  degrees  belowtbe 
freezing  point  While  Mr.  B.  was  at  that  place,  aeveral  Mongols  and  Calmucs  ar- 
med from  Siberia,  with  whom  the  Tayshbo  Lama  conversed* 

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CHAP,    besides  which,  the  rainy  season  produced  a  distemper  in  the  imperial 
v^^'v'o^^  army.    Thibet  was  at  the  same  t^e  reduced  by  Ziffer.    The  news  of 
this  doable  conquest  greatly  pleased  the  Emperor,  no  Mahomedan 
prince  in  India  having  before  erer  penetrated  into  those  countries  f. 

Aurchozebb's  general,  Meer  Jumla,  invaded  Assam,  and  brought 
from  thence  several  iron  cannons,  and  store  of  excellent  powder,  both 
made  in  that  country.  He  landed  his  array  in  the  29*''  or  SO"*  degree 
of  latitude,  having  sailed  up  the  mouth  of  the  Ganges,  that  comes  from 
Lake  Chiamay,  and  burnt  and  sacked  all  wherever  he  came,  to  the  35th 
degree  X :  there  he  understood  that  the  king  of  Assam  was  in  the  field, 
with  a  more  powerful  army  than  he  expected;  he  therefore  retreated 
to  the  south-west,  and  besieged  and  plundered  the  city  of  Aroo,  where 
are  the  tombs  of  their  sovereigns.  He  found  great  wealth.  They  bury 
with  their  kings  idols  of  gold  and  silver,  one  dephani^,  twelve  camels, 
six  horses,  many  hounds.  All  his  beloved  wives,  and  the  principal  offi- 
cers, poison  themselves,  to  be  buried  with  him.  At  Kenneroof.  the 
king  keeps  his  court.  It  is  a  rich  and  abundant  country.  All 
the  natives  live  at  their  ease;  every  one  has  a  house  by  himself;  and 
in  the  middle  of  his  ground  a  fountain,  encompassed  with  trees;  and, 
most  commonly,  every  one  an  elephant  to  carry  his  wife  ||. 

t  Dow's  HindoBtan,  Vol.  III.  p.  16^. 

X  A  long  account  of  this  invasion  is  in  Dow's  Hist.  Vol.  HI.  p.  357.  A.  D.  1G65. 

§  Aldiough  there  is  no  direct  evidence  that  Assam  was  conquered  by  the 
Grand  Khans,  as  the  surrounding  states  were  all  reduced,  it  ia  not  probable  that 
Assam  escaped  the  general  &te.     See  M.  Polo,  note  887. 

I  Taremier,  Part  U.  B.  III.  Ch.  XVII.  See  also  Sir  W.  Jones's  Supplement, 
VoL  I.  p.  231. 


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TIMUB.      BEO 

,  initizedbyGoOQle 

OB.  T  A  M[  K  18,  I,  A  3S  3E  " 


Sketch  of  the  life  of  Timur  Bee,  or  Tamerlane. His  Battles 

in  Siberia Russia Hindostan Syria Georgia 

Asia  Minor, Elephants. Extraordinary  Splendour 

,  of  his  Court. His  Death. Ruin.of  his  Empwe. Em- 

hasiy  from  his  son.  Shah  Rohk^  to  the  Emperor  of  China. 
Origin  of  the  Gypsies. 

J.  IMUR  Bee,  or  Tamerlane,  was  descendedj  m  tlte  female  line,  from 

Gei^his  Khan.    He  was  bom  at  Sebzar  in  the  territory  of  Kesh,  near        rv. 

Samarcand,  in  the  year  1336.  ^-^  9 

Tbe  empire  of  Turquestan  and  Transoxiana  was  given  by  Genghis  ^'^'  ^^^ 
Khan  to  his  son  Zagatai :  his  descendant,  Saltan  Cazan,  succeeded  to 
the  throne  in  1332.     He  proved  a  cruel  tyrant,  and  fell  in  the  field  of 
battle  in  1346.     Confederate  chiefe  placed  other  princes,  successively, 
upon  the  throne;  but,  through  dissentions  among  the  chiefs,  the  whole 
country  became  a  scene  of  anarchy  and  despair.     During  these  trou- 
bles, Togluc  Timur  Khan,kingoftheGetes*,whowasdescendedfrom  .  _   ,^„ 
Zagatai,  resolved  to  make  himself  master  of  the  country,  to  which,  as 
hereditary  Grand  Khan,  his  birth  gave  him  a  just  title ;  and  he  levied 
an  army  for  that  purpose. 
Hadgi  Berlat,  (the  name  of  a  noble  tribe)  to  whom  and  his  ancestors 

*  Gete  or  Qeta  sppesrs,  throughout,  to  include  Central  and  Western  Siberia, 
M  well  as  Casbgar.    See  Chap.  Y. 

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the  town  of  Kesh  and  its  dependencies  had  always  belonged,  was  the 
'  uncle  of  Timur.  He  was  one  of  the  confederate  princes,  and  levied  as 
many  troops  in  the  cities  of  Kesh  and  Carshi  as  he  could,  in  order  to 
assist  in  repelling  the  invasion;  but,  changing  his  resolution,  he 
marched  to  Chorassan. 

Timur's  father,  Tragai,  had  just  paid  the  debt  of  nature;  and  his 
uncle,  Hadgi  Berlas,  having  fled,  Timur  conceived  himself  to  be  the 
only  person  who  could  put  a  stop  to  the  insult,  with  which  a  foreign 
army  threatened  his  unhappy  country.  He  repaired  to  his  uncle,  re- 
presented the  dangers  that  awaited  them,  and  proposed  going  to  the 
king  of  the  Getes  to  ofl'er  his'services,  by  which  he  hoped  to  avert  the 
impending  ruin.  ETadgi  Berlas  embraced  him,  and,  feeling  persuaded 
that  his  nephew  was  inspired  by  Heaven,  approved  of  his  project. 

Timur  set  out,  and  at  Cuzar  he  met  the  conductor  of  the  scouts  of 
the  king;  to  whom  be  behaved  so  handsomely  that  Hadgi  Yesouri, 
which  was  the  conductor's  name,  promised  not  to  commit  any  hostili- 
ties before  a  conference  was  had  with  the  three  Mongol  princes  who 
had  gone  forward.  Timur  returned  to  Kesh,  where  the  princes  had 
arrived.  They  expressed  great  pleasure  at  his  having  submitted  to 
the  Grand  Khan,  and  gave  him  the  command  of  a  toman  (ten  thou- 
sand) which  was  formerly  under  his  ancestor  Caratchar**.  They  also 
gave  him  the  principality  of  Resh,  with  all  its  dependencies*  Peace 
was  thus  restored ;  and  it  was  said  of  Timur,  that  at  the  sight  of  him 
alone  sorrow  was  changed  into  joy. 

Dissentions  arising  among  the  princes,  they  returned  with  all  their 
troops  to  the  king,  who  was  at  Tashkund. 

Tmur's  person  is  described  as  tall  and  well  formed,  and  that  nar 
ture  had  set  in  his  eyes  such  majesty,  that  men  could  scarcely  endure 

•  On  this  subject  see  page  33  of  Timur's  IiutitutM. 



to  look  on  them.    He  wore  his  hsir  long,  contrary  to  tbe  Tartarian    ^^^'- 
custom,  pretending  that  his  mother  was  of  the  race  of  Sampson  *.     He  '^^^v'^m' 
was  grave  and  modest  in  hia  deportment,  a  strict  obserrer  of  his  word, 
and  rigidly  attached  to  the  religion  and  law  of  Mahometf . 

Timur^  conntry  had  begun  to  enjoy  the  benefits  of  ids  clemency 
and  justice,  when  he  heard  that  his  uncle  was  on  his  retnm  to  Keah, 
with  hostile  intentions.  On  which  Timur,  joined  by  prince  Keser, 
marched,  and  at  Akiar  a  bloody  battle  took  place  in  &vor  of  Timur; 
but,  for  some  reason,  not  related,  'Hmut's  troops  deserted  him,  and 
went  over  to  his  uncle;  leaving  with  Timor  only  the  prince  Yakou. 
Keser,  on  ^aa,  also  deserted  Timur,  entertdning  jealoosy  and  a  bad 
opinion  of  him. 

The  Mongol  Khan,  king  of  Gete,  again  invaded  Transoziana  with  A.D.  1360. 
a  great  army;  on  his  arrival  at  Ck^^de,  Bayarad  the  prince  of  that 
pUce  went  to  pay  his  respects.  Hadgi  Berlas  followed  his  example. 
Bayazid  being  seized  and  put  to  death,  Hadgi  Berlas  took  the  alarm, 
and  fled  to  Keah;  whence  he  again  advanced  with  some  troops.  The 
Khan  sent  the  regiment  of  Cashmir  in  pursuit  of  Berlas,  who  was  do* 
feated;  and,  on  his  retreat  to  Chorassan,  he  was  assassinated  by  rob- 
bers.    Timur  pnnished  the  assassins. 

A  prince  of  distinction,  fine  genius,  and  prudence,  named  Mir  Ha- 
med,  who  was  in  favour  with  the  Khan,  and  the  friend  of  Timur,  pro. 
cured  his  invitation  to  the  court  at  Samarcand.    Timur  was  received 

•  The  portrait  in  this  yolume  is  from  «n  Indian  dntwing  in  the  posMSsim  of 
the  writer.     Timur  was  sixty-tliree  years  of  age  when  at  Dellii. 

t  Sea  Purchas,  VoL  I.  p.  4«4,  and  the  French  Editor's  Prefcce  to  Sherefeddb. 
The  reader  will  bear  in  mind,  throughout  this  life,  that  the  lion'*  portrait  is  pamt- 
ed  principally  by  his  own  artist.  Slierefeddin,  however,  is  not  more  partial  than 
Timur's  enemies,  the  Turks  and  Arabs,  are  ial&e  and  abusive.  His  history  is  the 
most  authentic  of  any.    See  Cribbon,  Ch.  LXV. 



graciously,  and  confirmed  in  the  command  of  his  tnx^,  and  in  the 
^  aorereignty  of  Kesh. 

The  empire  having  sulnnitted  to  the  aathority  of  To^ac  Timur, 
the  Grand  Khan,  he  gave  the  government  of  the  country  to  his  son, 
EKas  Coga  Aglen ;  and  appointed  Bikidgek  and  other  lords  to  attend 
the  person  of  the  prince.  Timur  Bee,  on  account  of  his  wisdom,  had 
in  charge  the  principal  administration  of  the  affiurs  of  state.  Bikid- 
gek, by  his  insolent  conduct,  and  opposition  to  the  commands  of  the 
Khan  himself,  caused  Timur  Bee  to  quit  Samarcand.  He  went  to  seek 
the  emir  Hussein,  and  at  last  met  him  in  the  desert  of  Kirac.  The  two 
princes  discovered  that  the  governor  of  that  district  designed  to  seize 
them ;  on  which  they  departed  with  only  sixty  men.  Tekil,  the  go- 
vernor, pursued  them  with  a  thousand  horse,  and  overtook  them.  Ti- 
mor and  his  friends  defended  themsdves  with  such  desperate  vigour 
and  heroism,  that  they  killed  or  wounded  all  their  assailants  except 
fifty;  by  which  their  own  party  was  reduced  to  seven.  Hussein 
rushed  full  speed  upon  Tekil,  and  was  surrounded,  when  Timur  cut 
in  amongst  them,  and  Hussein  disengaged  himself.  Tekil's  party  re- 
turned to  the  charge,  and  Hussein's  horse,  pierced  with  an  arrow,  fell 
tmder  him.  The  princess,  his  wife,  instantly  dismounted  and  brought 
him  her  horse.  Timur,  with  his  sword  in  one  hand  and  his  bow  in 
the  other,  was  in  a  moment  present,  and  shot  Tekil  in  the  face :  he 
fell  from  his  horse,  and  Timur  transfixed  him  to  the  earth  with  a  half- 
pike,  which  he  had  snatched  from  the  ground.  Thus  ended  the  perfi- 
.dy  and  ambition  of  Tekil. 

Timur  made  Hussein  remount  his  hOrse,  and  they  re-entered  the  de- 
sert. Three  of  the  seven  soldiers  left  them.  In  this  extremity,  they 
agreed,  for  safety,  to  separate,  that  they  might  not  be  known.  Timur 
went  forward  with  his  wife,  Turcan  Aga,  sister  of  Hussein;  and  only 
one  faithful  servant.    After  they  had  passed  the  desert,  they  were  sur- 



nnnded  by  a  horde  of  Turcomans*.  Timur,  having  had  time  to  CHAP, 
hide  his  wife  in  a  pit,  rushed  on  them ;  when  one  of  them  knew  him,  •^^^-v^^^-' 
and  instantly  apologized.  They  feasted  Timur,  who  next  day  pre> 
sented  them  with  a  large  ruby,  and  some  embroidered  armour  of  great 
value.  The  chief  presented  Timur  with  three  horses,  and  gave  him 
Sarag  Coulangi  to  serve  him  as  a  gnide.  In  this  condition  Tunnr 
went  to  join  Emir  Hussein,  who  had  taken  another  road.  After  they 
met,  they  got  OiflT  their  horses,  and  passed  twelve  days  at  a  place  called 
Mahmoudi,  in  a  desert.  Here  they  were  discovered,  surprised,  and. 
led  to  Macan,  where  Ali  Bei  imprisoned  them  sixty-two  days  in  a 
filthy  dark  chamber,  ftill  of  vermin.  Mehemed,  the  brother  of  Air  Bei, 
warned  him  of  the  imprudence  of  treating  these  lords  with  so  much 
indignity;  when  he,  reluctantly,  gave  them  their  liberty,  a  poor  lean 
horse,  and  an  old  camel.  The  prince  of  Sandger,  hearing  of  his  iriend 
Timor's  distress,  testified  his  sorrow,  and  sent  him  acceptable  succours. 
Emir  Hussein  now  departed  towarib  Hirmen,  and  Timur  to  Kesh. 

Timur  and  Hussein  went  to  the  assistance  of  the  prince  of  Seistan: 
and  having  rendered  him  much  service,  on  their  return  they  met  a 
great  company  of  Seghzians,  with  whom  they  had  a  hot  encounter ; 
when  Timur  was  dangerously  wounded  in  the  hand,  wkieh  wot  there- 
by lamed  for  l^e  f , 

Timur  had  many  other  reverses  and  instances  of  success:  when  the  A.D.  1S62. 

*  TurcomanB  are  iaid  to  be  descended  &om  the  ancient  infaabitanta  of  Turkes-i 
tan.     See  Abul  Ghazi,  Vol.  II.  p.  ASS. 

f  "And  vheit  I  lav  that  the  ruler  of  Seistan  fulfilled  not  his  engagements,  I 
was  without  remedy ;  and  I  advanced  towards  them  and  gave  them  battle.  And 
an  UTOW  came  and  pierced  my  arm ;  and  another  arrow  came  upon  my  foot,  but 
in  the  end  I  obtained  the  victory  over  them.  And  when  I  saw  that  the  air  and  the 
water  of  that  country  suited  not  with  me,  I  departed  from  thence,  and  I  came 
back  to  Kumunsur ;  and  I  sojourned  in  that  land  for  two  months,  untB  my 
wounds  were  heated."    Timur's  Institutes,  p.  46. 

y  Google 


CHAP.     Grand  Khan  died,  and  was  saccewled  b^  Ui  son  diaa  Goja.    Timur: 

^^■v^  and  Htuaein,  being  joined  by  their  friendB,  attacked  the  army  of  E3iaa 
and  defeated  it,  taking  the  king  and  many  princes  prisoners.  Th« 
king,  assisted  by  some  Turkish  soldiersj  who  knew  hi»,.  escaped  to 
Gete.       , 

A.  D.  1864.  Tameriane  takes  Samarcand  witlumt  resistance.  Cabuldiah  A^ea; 
descended  from  Genghis,  was  elected  Grand  Khan.  Atthehattleof  th« 
Slonghs,  Tamerlane  is  defeated  bj  the  king  of  the  Getes,  who  be- 
sieges Samarcand,  but  is  repulsed. 

The  Emir  Hussein  and  Tamorlane  quarrel — the  troops  of  Um 
Emir  are  defeated — the  king  of  the  Cretes  marches  to  Tashkund. 

A.D.  1367.  The  Emir  and  Tamerlane  are  reconciled  and  join  their  forces — Dia* 
sentiona  arise  among  the  lords  in  the  army  of  the  Getes,  and  the  amy 

A.D.  1369.  Tinur  and  the  Emir  Hussein  were  again  at  enmit^t;  and  in  a  great 
battle,the  latter  was  killed;  two  (^  his  sons  were  burnt  and  their  ashes 
oast  into  the  air  *.  Othws  fled  into  India,  where  they  perished. 
.  Four  of  the  princesses  of  his  sera^o  were  taken  into  that  of  Timur. 
Hussein's  treasures  were  seized,  and  his  country  of  Badackshan  sub* 
jected  to  Tamerlane;  who  was,  now,  aged  thirty-four,  crowned  Env- 
peror  of  Zagatai.  According  to  custom,  handfuls  of  gold  and  jewels 
were  showered  upon  his  head. 

*  "  AdcI  there  was  relationship  between  me  and  Ameer  Hossein;  and  although 
I  treated  him  with  lundneaa,  he  was  not  my  friend;  and  he  even  took  from  me 
the  country  of  Bullukh  and  the  castle  of  Shaudumaon.  And  I  also,  tor  the  sake 
of  his  sister,  who  was  in  my  house,  regarded  it  not.  And  I  shewed  sacb  kind- 
ness unto  him,  that  the  Ameers,  who  were  in  a  state  of  ennuty  with  me,  submitted, 
to  my  authority.  But  Ameer  Hossein  stiD  acted  towards  roe  wiA  treachery  and 
fraud,  and  sought  to  overthrow  me :  even  until  I  resolved  that  I  would  force  him 
to  sabmiseion  by  the  edge  of  the  sword."  "  And  by  experience  it  was  known  t« 
ne  that  a  wise  enemy  is  preferable  to  a  fbofish  fiiend.*  Timor's  Institutefl,  p* 
87  and  SS7. 



TknuT  retaros  ftom  B»lc  to  Samftn^ad,  buUds  a  eutie  mA  fotixeas,  CHAP, 
lad  makes  it  the,  o^ttal  of  hit  empire ;  whtn  vast  numbers  seitivA  s^^y-^ 
under  his  moderate  and  just  goremment. 

After  maay  jean  passed  in  campaigns,  at  length,  the  kingdom  of  A.  D.  1387. 
Carisme  was  reduced,  and  llmur  returned  to  SimuTcaikd.  ElxcHedby 
a  fiatherty  lore  t»  his  chiMren,  he  gave  orders  far  preparations  for  a 
Mptial  fent  This  great  city  was  adorned  with  tiie  most  magnifiwiit 
stuf&,  and  bnukdked  candlestkte,  in  the  public  streets.  Spacious 
tanis  were  prepared  In  the  Baghi  Behidrt,  or  Grarden  of  Paradise,  and 
the  ground  was  covered  with  the  richest  carpets,  adorned  with  peisris 
and  preciooB  stones.  The  Mireas,  Mehemet  Saltan,  Pir  MehemcA, 
and  Shah  Rohk,  were  married  to  princemes  as  beautiful  as  Houris.  Me- 
hnnet  Saltan  was  imtaUed  Grand  Khan  of  Zagatai :  and  thus  the 
evown  of  this  vast  empire  was  settled  in  Timor's  fiuaUy.  The  Eat- 
pexw  passed  tlie  winter  with  M  possible  fdidty  and  contMtment. 

Tocetoiidi  Khan*,  whom  Timur  had  placed  upon  the  throne  «(A.D.  1S88. 
Cepduic,  showed  marira  of  ic^ratitade,  insomudi  ikat  he  levied  a 
great  army,  composed  of  the  troops  of  Russia,  Orcaseia,  Bulgaria, 
Capdiac,  Crim,  Ca£b,  £!Uan,  Azac,  Bachgorod,  and  Museovy.  Poets 
liftve  compared  this  army  to  the  leaves  f  of  the  thickest  trees,  or  drop* 
of  tain  in  an  impetueiv  storm.  The  Emperor  no  sooner  heard  «f 
Tocatmidi  having  tal»n  the  6(M,  than  he  marched  at  the  head  of  the 
troope  of  Samarcand  and  Kesh  {.  The  winter  was  so  coM  Aat  the 
•Ofn  were  almost  frosoi  to  death. 

*  Often  Bpelt  Toctamisb,  Touctummiflli. 
t  Ifia  legions        •         •        • 
Thkk  as  autBmittl  Ibbtcs  that  stro?  lite  iMooka 
OfValflmbrosa.  •         *         •      Paraihaelmt.  (See  note, p.  liS.) 
X  "  For  tfie  private  soldiers  I  ordained  that  on  an  expedition,  every  eighteenmea 
should  take  one  tent;  and  that  each  man  should  be  supplied  with  two  horses, 
a  bow  and  quiver  of  arrows,  wkh  a  swoBd,  a  saw,  an  axe,  an  awl;  with  thread, 
ten  needles,  and  a  leathern  knapsack."     Institutes,  p.  S95. 
Q  3 



CHAP.        Bichmich  Aglen,  king  of  Carisme,  who  had  fled  to  Tocataiich.cotn- 

v«^-v'<«b-'  manded  his  army;  and  nOw  arrired,  and  i^camped  at  Ajouc  Zemouc, 
near  Cogende,  on  the  Sihon. 

Timur  resolved  to  give  him  batUe.  The  lords  of  his  council  fell  on 
their  knees,  and  besought  him  to  wait  till  the  troops  of  the  provinces 
arrived:  but,  as  he  was  not  ignorant  of  the  proverb,  that  delays 
are  dangerous,  and  that  we  ought  never  to  put  off  till  to-morrow  what 
we  are  able  to  do  to-day,  their  remonstrance  was  useless. 

Timur  marched  with  the  household  troops.  The  snow  was  so  deep 
that  it  touched  the  horses'  bellies.  Mirza  Omar  Ch«k,  with  the 
troops  of  Andecan,  joined  him.  A  detachment  was  sent  to  fell  on  the 
enemy's  rear,  and  prevent  their  flight.  The  next  sun-risiog  discover- 
ed to  them  the  army  of  the  enemy.  Nothing  now  was  heard  but  the 
great  cry,  Sirount  tbenoiseof  kettle  drums,  the  clashing  of  scimitars, 
the  neighing  of  horses,  and  the  shouts  of  the  soldiers.  The  conflict 
was  terrible  and  bloody.  Timur  was  victorious.  The  enemy  fled; 
and  being  intercepted  by  the  detachment  at  the  rear,  and  pursued  by 
the  army,  they. were  surrounded;  and  no  quarter  being  given*  the 
slaughter  was  very  great.  The  celebrated  Airde  Birdi,  secretary  of 
state,  was  taken  prisoner,  and  instantly  made  himself  known,  to  save 
his  head.  He  was  conducted  to  Timur;  and,  informing  the  Emperor 
of  the  state  of  Tocatmich,  was  pardoned  and  received  into  fevour*. 

A.D.  1389.  In  February,  Timur  decamped  and  marched  to  Samarcand.  In  the 
spring,  Capchac  was  again  invaded;  but  at  the  approach  of  Timur's 
Army,  the  enemy  fled,  and.  were  pursued  to  the  deserts.  The  army 
^ebcamped  at  Alcouchoun,  a  village  in  Capchac.  The  Emperor  de- 
siring to  pursue  the  war  against  Tocatmish,  the  lords  of  bis  council 
humbly  represented  the  better  policy  of  first  reducing  the  king  of  tiie 

*  The  secretariea  wrote  in  the  Igurion  character. 

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GM«s.    The  ISmpetm,  coninnced  hy  their  reaioning,  consented;  and    CHAP. 
the  army  oaicfaed  £rom  Alcoochoun  to  invade  Uie  countries  of  Kezec  >^^-y-^ 
Coja  Aglen«.  king  of  the  .Getes  andMoguitstan,  and  of  prince  Anca- 

■  Timor,  in.  the  autumn,  resolved  to  make  war  on  Capchac ;  and  set 
Ont  to  visit  the  tomb  of  Cheik  Maslahet,  both  from  a  religious  and  po- 
litical motive;  in  order  to  accomplish  hia  designs.  At  Tashkund  he 
lay  dangerously  sick  for  forty  days.  The  great  lords  were  seised  with 
consternation;  and  prayers  were  (^red  to  the  Almighty.  People 
feared  that  his  swurd  would  no  loi^^  be  able  to  protect  the  weak,  or 
keep  the  powerful  within  bounds:  that  houses  would  be  plundered, 
and  the  cloisters,  where  true  chastity  is  preserved,  would  be  broken 
open.  He  was  restored.  He  reviewed  his  army  and  put  it  in  order. 
He  distributed  all  the  silver  money  that  was  in  the  treasury  amoi^  the 

The  13th  of  Sefer,  the  sun  being  in  the  eighth  degree  of  Aquarius,  A.D.  1391. 
Ximur  departed.  He  sent  away  all  the  ladies  except  his  favorite  S\d- 
taness  Tchulpan  Mule  Aga,  daughter  oi  Hadgi  Bei,  prince  of  the 
Getes,  who  in  this  journey  had  the  h<nior  of  privately  conversing  with 
Ihe  Emperor.  An  ambassador  arrived  from  Tocatmich, '  king  of  Oap- 
chac,  with  a  present  of  nine  horses  of  surprising  sttiftness.  Timur 
accuses  the  king  of  ingratitude,  and  threatens  vei^eance,  unless  the 
king  be  sincere;  In  which  case  he  must  send  Ali  Bei,  to  treat  with  his 
jgreat  Emirs;  when  he  will  do  what  is  consistent  with  his  dignity  and 
the  present  conjuncture. 

The  army  marched  forward,  the  horses  were  fotigued,  and  water  was 
'flcaioe;  on  the  9th  of  April,  they  encamped  at  Olouc  Tacf.    Timur 

*  For  an  account  of  this  invasimi  of  Siberia,  see  Chap.  Y. 
t  Or  Ulug  Tag.     This  must  be  th«  Steppe  of  I«him.     See  Explanation  of  tlie 
Map,  Flag,  No.  1. 



tsccnded  a  xnooBtaiii,  and  hlw  ivith  schaiXBtiaB  tbaae  rtaA  pUu,  wlik^ 
<  fiDrthefar  space  and  verdure,  TCHmibled  the  Ma.  He  oidBued  a  atoas 
obelisk  to  be  erected,  and  iaicribed  the  day  oa  which  Timur^  Mih  W» 
army,  arrived  there,  as  a  lasting  monument  to  posterity.  They  otoh* 
.td  the  nanjouo,  which  nms  into  the  Tic,  and  srrired  at  AaAongoiL — 
Hiey  had  mard^  four  mcmths  from  Tadikaiid,  and  had  neither  met 
a  man,  nor  seen  any  culdvated  land.  Yictaab  were  so  dear,  that  a 
dieep  sold  for  a  hundred  dinars  copeghi*.  ProTisions  wn«  allotted 
with  economy,  and  a  general  hunt  ordered  fl»r  two  days;  a  Tariety  of 
beasts  and  birds  were  chased.  Timur  slew  a  nnmbev  of  fitwte,  «nt«> 
lopes,  uid  roebucks,  till  hie  dinner  hour,  which  was  two  hours  and  a  hid^ 
before  noon;  and  then  returned  to  his  tent.  The  soldknrB  then  dew 
soch  vest  nomben  that  they  sheeted  the  fat,  and  left  the  lean  aninnda : 
among  them  thrae  was  a  sort  of  stags  htrger  than  bnffiidoes,  of  which 
they  killed  a  great  many.     They  had  never  seen  the  like  before. 

Hm  hunting  being  finished,  Tlmur  was  desirous  to  know  the-ez- 
ad  «tate  of  the  troops.  He  ordered  then  to  be  placed  by  tomans,  or 
ten  thousands,  and  squadrons ;  and  that  every  scddier  should  have  his 
lance,  war  chd),  po^nard,  leathern  bndder,  faia  sabre  on  his  left  «id«, 
and  a  half  sabre  oa  his  right ;  and  that  thur  horses  should  be  oovcfed 
with  tiger  skinsf . 

The  Emperor  then  mounted  hb  horse,  clothed  in  his  royal  robes: 
upon  his  head  was  a  golden  crown,  enriched  with  rnbies ;  in  his  hand  a 
OMce  of  gdd,  ihe  t(^  of  it  shaped  Uke  an  ox's  head.  He  reviewed 
the  left  wing,  which  he  found  in  good  order :  he  passed  before  Uie  first 
rank,  wfaic^  was  composed  of  the  toman  of  Birdi  Bei.  This  general 
leaped  off  his  horse,  and  took  notice  to  Timur  of  the  looks,  statupe, 

*  A  dinar  copeghi  is  above  six  shillings. 

t  The  tiger  skin  being  a  Di&t^  of  difltmctiOn,  diis  must  be  understood  as  allud- 
'  tag  to  the  officers  only.     Tigers'  skins  are  much  esteemed.     Le  Blanc,  p.  159, 
Bays,  they  send  from  Samarcand  to  Casubi  in  Pegu  to  purchase  them. 

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mnMun,mitiAdinmfOtimio\^bnt  faethoiMIotthialtiMaiAndkiss-    CHAP. 

«l  tke  earib,  *ad  8ud-*~"  Xi«t  all  the  wotld  be  obedieiit  fo  Timorl  -,^-J--^_,* 

Onr  headi  and  oar  lirea  lAall  ahra^  be  ready  to  be  sacrificed  at  the 
&et  of  tbe  hone  q£  his  M^icstyt"  Timm  anawend,  and  applauded 
the  Bej ;  wiahing  that,  through  the  ralmir  of  this  brave  man,  and  thoie 
who  are  like  him,  the  empire  mi^t  continue  always  flourishing.  The 
AhperiMr  ezafaomed  each  emnpany  belonging  to  Birdi  Bei'a  touan. — '■ 
He  then  rode  towards  the  toman  of  Codadad  Hussein!,  and  found  thelf 
stature  and  equipment  to  his  satisfaction.  He  testified  his  frieodship 
for  that  commando'f  for  Hat  good  order  in  which  he  saw  hia  toman. 

Cheik  Timour,  at  the  head  of  the  hazares  (corps  of  one  thousand) 
of  the  hord  of  Sddoa,  came  next  in  order  of  battle:  these  were  armed 
with  bows  and  arrows,  scymitars,  dubs,  and  nets  to  catch  men.  Then 
followed  the  large  army  of  Omar  Cheik,  son  of  Timur,  and  prince  of 
AndecaD,  whose  ensigns  were  all  displayed.  This  corps,  being  so  nn- 
merous,  detained  the  Emperor  a  long  while.  The  prince  congratulat- 
ed his  nuyesty  on  the  extent  of  his  conquests.  The  Emperor  was 
lavish  in  the  praise  of  his  son,  and  aud, "  I  pray  God,  that  fortune  be 
at  your  disposal,  and  that  it  may  tdways  give  yon  the  advimtage  over 
your  enemies."  Timur  was  overjoyed,  and  advanced  to  the  tomans 
and  squadrons  of  Hahmoud  Khan,  the  Emir  SoUman  Shah,  and  Me- 
hemed  Sultan  Behadur  his  grandson,  and  surveyed  them  with  satisfac- 
tion. Two  days,  ttovtx_  morning  till  evening,  were  required  for  this 
review.  The  guards  which  made  np  the  main  body;  were  ranged  in 
hazares  and  tomans,  commanded  by  several  emiis  and  great  generals. 
Timor  ap^dauded  their  exact  order;  and  all  admired  the  good-conduct 
of  the  invincible  Thnur*. 

*  It  appears  highly  probable  that  Milton  has  taken  Timur  in  some  instances 
as  his  prototype  for  Satan.  >  The  allusions  to  Timur  and  Cyrus  in  the  Paradise 
Lost,  are  munerous.    1  findinPurchas,Vol.I.  p.  4€I.ddEdit,     "  Alhacen  Arabs 

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The  Emperor's  son  Mdwmet,  on  his  knees,  asked  ibe  hoimtf  of 
conunatading  the  scouts.  Timur  approved  his  zeal  at  so  tender  an 
age,  reminded  him  that  he  had  need  of  great  presence  of  mind,  a  strong 
constitution  and  perfect  activity,  in  an  employ,  on  which  the  security 
of  the  army  entirely  dependedf . 

hath  written  a  historie  of  Timur,  now  extant  in  English."  This  is,  howevtr,  a  book 
of  very  doubtful  authority,  aa  the  author  describes  an  iuvasion  of  China  by  Timur. 
In  the  king  of  France's  Library,  No.  1499,  there  was  a  general  history  of  Asia, 
written  by  Bin  Abdallatif  of  Casbin,  in  the  Persian  language,  up  to  the  year  1514, 
which  had  been  translated  by  Monsieur  Oomin,  into  Latin;  and  Theroioti  hit  oh- 
cle,  had  it  printed ;  (this  must  mean  N.  M.  Thevenot,  keeper  of  the  king's  hbrary. 
See  life  of  Genghis,  p.  413).  Sherefeddin,  whose  work  the  writer  has  principally 
made  use  of,  finished  his  life  of  Timur  in  14^,  and  Bin  Abdallatif,  his  country- 
man, no  doubt,  would  copy  from  it;  therefore  Milton,  at  any  rate,  had  the  means 
of  knowing  &oni  these  sources  the  particulars  of  Timur's  life.  The  translation 
by  Petis  de  la  Croix  was  published  many  years  after  Milton's  death,  which  was  in 
1674.  This  Petia  de  la  Croix  (son  of  the  author  of  the  life  of  Oenghis  Khan,)  was 
horn  in  1654,  and  his  history  of  Timur  was  not  finished  till  after  the  death  of  Col- 
bert,  in  1683.  A  better  model  than  the  Destroying  Prince,  as  Timur  has  been 
called,  could  not  be  found. 

"  Ten  thousand  banner  rise  into  the  air 

With  orient  colours  waving :  with  them  rose . 

A  forest  huge  of  spears ;  and  thronging  helms 

Appear'd,  and  serried  shields  in  thick  array 

Of  depth  immeasurable.     •     *    •    • 

Advanc'd  in  view  they  stand,  a  horrid  front 

Of  dreadful  length  and  dazzling  arms,     *     * 

Awaiting  what  commands  their  migbty  chi^ 

Had  to  impose.     He  through  the  armed  files 

Darts  his  experienc'd  eye,  and  soon  traverse 

The  whole  battalion  views,  their  order  due," 

Their  visages  and  stature.     •     •     • 

*    *    *    "    And  now  his  heart 

Distends  with  pride."  Paradtae  Lott,  Book  T. 

■t Here  he  had  need 

All  circumspection,  and  we  now  no  less 

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'  The  prince,  with  some  great  emirs,  departed  on  the  24th  of  April ;  and 
for  two  days,  though  they  saw  mahj  fires,  they  met  not  with  one  per-  < 
mm.  A  TiircomaD.  who  knew  those  deserts,  was  sent  out  in  another 
direction,  and  wandered  without  finding  any  one  for  some  days;  at 
length,  ten  men  in  armour  were  s^n  to  enter  a  wood;  they  were  pur- 
sued, some  slain,  and  some  brought  to  the  Emperor. 

Timur  decamped,  and  on  the  11th  of  May  reached  the  rirer  Tic, 
which  runs  into  the  Caspian;  and  on  the  17th  the  river  Yaik*.  There 
were  many  encounters  between  some  small  corps  which  advanced,  and 
superior  numbers  of  the  enemy ;  in  one  of  which  the  emir  Acoutmer 
distinguished  hinlself  so  heroically  in  his  &11,  that  his  children  were 
exempted  firom  punishment  for  crimes,  except  they  were  committed 
nine  times. 

The  army' continuing  to  advance,  had  now  arrived  so  far  towards 
the  pole,  that  the  morning  rays  appeared  in  the  east  before  the  sun 
was  entirely  set  The  king  of  Capchac  still  retreated,  though  there 
were  daily  skirmishes  with  the  scouts,  who  always  avoided  fighting 
when  they  could ;  but  sought  to  surprise  those  of  Timur.  The  emir 
Omar  Cheik  was  sent  with  twenty  thousand  horse  to  seek  Tocatmish ; 
on  the  morrow  he  came  up  with  the  scouts.  Timur,  being  apprised 
of  this,  after  six  days  bad  weather,  ranged  his  army  in  seven  bodies, 
as  if  by  inspiration  from  Crodj  it  npt  being  usual.  The  princes  and 
emirs  wore  coats  of  mail,  or  breast-plates  of  iron,  and  all  of  them 
polished  helmets. 

Choice  in  our  sufirage;  for,  on  whom  we  send, 
The  weight  of  all  and  our  last  hope  relieB." 

Far.  Zott,  B.  II.  413. 
*  "  I  ordained  that  in  the  field,  each  of  the  twelve  select  emirs  should,  with 
twelve  thousand  horsemen  completely  armed,  for  the  space  of  one  day  and  one 
night,  when  marching  and  when  haltii^,  be  ready  upon  guard."    bistitutes  of 
Timur,  p.  £99. 



Tocatmish  Khoa's  army  was  drawn  up  in  a  main  body  with  two  wings, 

I  and  completely  umed.    All  his  chief  commanders  were  of  the  impeiiil 

blood  of  Tonsohi,  or  of  other  Ulustrioas  Mt^uls.    They  ranged  them* 

selves  in  a  half  moon ;  and  iken  came  in  view.    The  Capchac  army 

Otttnnmbered  that  of  the  Emperor. 

Timnr  addre^ed  himself  to  God  by  prayer.  Haring  remounted 
his  horse,  all  the  army  displayed  their  ensigns  and  standards,  crying 
out.  Alia  Akbar!  Souroon!  At  the  sound  of  kettle  drums  and  of  the 
terrible  trumpet,  (Kerrenai)  *,  the  battle  commenced.  Never  before 
was  tiiere  so  great  a  confusion  between  heaven  and  earthf .  Both 
sides  began  with  half-pikes,  swords,  and  iron  clubs.  Tocatmish's 
left  wing  withstood  the  attack  bravely,  but  was  entirely  defeated. 
The  right  wing  was  overpowered.  Timur  had  routed  the  main  bod^ 
but  Tocatmish  traversed  Timui's  army  with  many  squadrons,  and  re- 
solved on  maintaining  his  ground. 

Timur,  being  informed  of  this,  went  after  him;  and  at  sight  of  the 
imperial  standard,  Tocatmish,  in  despair,  fled.  His  generals  followed 
his  example;  and  in  the  pursuit,  there  was  a  terrible  slaughter:  for 
SoTtj  leagues,  the  plains  were  covered  with  the  slain.  Iltus  was  the 
ingratitude  of  the  king  of  Capchac  punished.  Timur  dismounting, 
fell  upon  his  fhce,  and  returned  thanks  to  the  Ring  of  kings  X.    Seven 

*  The  kerreiui,  or  great  trumpet,  waa  fifteen  feet  in  length.  P.  delaCn^, 
p.  160. 

t  "  All  in  a  moment  through  the  gloom  were  seen 
Ten  thousand  banners  rise  into  the  air 
With  orient  colours  waving :     •     •    • 
Sonorous  metal  blowing  martial  sounds: 
At  which  the  untrersal  host  up  sent 
A  shont  Aat  tore  HelTs  coneave,  and  beyond 
ftighted  the  reign  of  Chaos  and  tAd.  Night"    Pttradise  Lott,  B,  I. 

t  l^ur,  in  his  Institutes,  says,  page  ISl,  "  The  design  which  I  formed  in  de- 
feating Toctumish  Khan,  was  this :   when  my  armies  were  weakened  by  a  pur- 

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out  of  evoy  ten  caTaby,  were  dispatched  to  destroy  the  conquered; 
they  pursued  them  to  the  Volga,  and  upon  its  islands,  where  thej  cut  < 
tiiem  to  pieces,  not  being  able  to  cross*.  The  women,. children,  and 
spoil  captured,  it  would  be  difficult  to  ennmerate.  Three  princes  of 
the  blood  of  TooBchi  sought  refuge  with  Timur,  who  gave  them  let- 
ten  patent  to  gorem  their  herds,  free  of  tlw  tax  called  "  Gan."  Two 
of  them  afterwards  revolted  f. 

Timur  returned  southward,  and  encamped  on  the  plain  Otirtoupa, 
<m  the  bank  of  the  Volga,  remarkable  for  its  verdure  and  pure  air. 
His  camp  was  three  leagues  on  every  side,  and  the  imperial  throne 
was  fixed  in  his  tent.  All  the  camp  and  the  pavilions  were  ornament- 
ed, uid  hung  with  curtuns  of  brocade  covered  with  gold  flowers. 
Among  tiie  slaves  were  many  beantifhl  girls;  some  were  retained  for 
the  Emperor's  ser^lio:  and  five  thousand  of  the  finest  youths,  for 

suit  of  fire  months  in  the  Dusht  of  Kipcfaauk,  famine  and  scarcity  were  very 
gnat  in  my  amy,  even  bo  that,  for  many  days,-my  people  Ihred  on  &e  flesh  of  the 
beasts  of  the  forests,  and  on  the  eggs  of  the  birds  of  the  desert.  And  Toctumish 
Khan  with  an  army  more  numerous  than  the  ants  and  the  locusts,  came  upon  me, 
and  opposed  me  face  to  &ce.  And  my  people  were  an  hungered,  and  the  army  of 
Toctiunish  Khan  were  fiiU.  And  my  chiefs  and  my  ameers  set  not  their  hearts 
upon  battle  imttl  my  sons  and  grandsons  came,  and  kneeled  down  and  devoted  their 
lives  unto  me :  and  at  this  time  the  standard  bearer  of  Toctumish  plotted  secredy 
with  me.  And  I  found  that  it  was  good  Aat  I  should  assault  the  foe;  and  that 
when  the  two  armies  w»e  engaged,  the  standard-bearer  of  Toctumish  Khan 
should  invert  his  standard.  And  when  the  flames  of  war  and  slaughter  ascended 
high,  I  commanded  that  the  tents  should  be  pitched,  and  that  Aey  should  prepare 
victuals.  And  at  this  time  the  stuuUrd  of  ToctomiBh  Khan  was  inverted;  and 
Toctumish,  dismayed  and  confounded,  gave  the  tribe  of  Touschi  to  the  wind  of 
desolation,  and  turned  his  back  on  the  field  of  slaughter,  and  fled." 

*  The  Russians  perhaps  know  where  &is  dreadful  battle  was  fought. 

t  **  And  I  ttttcced  execnrtions  npon  then,  because,  unmkidful  of  that  wkich 
they  owed  to  their  lord,  they  had  thrown  aside  their  honour  and  their  duty,  and 
come  in  unto  me;  I  said  to  myself,  what  fidehty  have  they  observed  to  their  liege 
lord?  what  fidelity  will  they  shew  unto  mef  Timur's  Institutes,"  p.  175. 



CIIAP.    posts  in  the  household.    The  plain  of  Oartoupa  was .  the  seat  of  the. 

Vm^-y'^,^  empire  of  Touschi*,  son  of  the  great  Genghis. 

A  solemn  and  magnificent  feast  ^ras  prepared.  Meats  and  li- 
quors were  served  np  in  Tessels  of  gold  and  jewels,  hj  the  hands  of. 
the  most  beautiful  of  the  women.  Timur's  handsomest  ladies  attended, 
him;  and  each  lord  had  his  own,  with  the  cup  in  her  hand,  to.accompanjr 
the  voices  and  airs  of  the  musicians.  Songs  of  love  and  war  were 
sung,  and  to  the  tune  Rihara  was  performed  Fatehnama  Capchae, 
or  the  Triumph  of  Capchae.  Twenty-six  days  were  thus  parsed  in 
pleasure  foy  the  whole  army. 

Timur  returned  to  Samarcand,  where  he  was  received  with  great 
feastings  and  joy.     He  then   crossed  the  Sihon,  and  encamped  at 

A.D.  139Z.  Tashkund,  in  the  plain  of  Barsin ;  where  the  army  from  Capchae  ar- 
rived after  a  campaign  of  eleven  months.  This  vast  plain  was  cover- 
ed with  the  flocks  and  other  prodigious  booty.  A  share  of  the  beautiful 
young  prisoners  of  both  sexes  was  given  to  the  imperial  f^Uy  and 
the  chief  nobility.  Mirza  Pir  Mehemet,  son  of  Gehanghir,  was  ap- 
pointed governor  of  the  country,  from  Gazna,  and  Cabul,  and  Candahu-, 
to  the  Indies. 

A.D.  1893.  The  Emperor  departed  for  a  long  campugn.  When  he  was  at  Joui- 
^y  ^-  dez,  near  Bocara,  he  was  much  afflicted,  having  a  disorder  which  he 
had  concealed  a  long  time.  The  Empresses,  and  his  sons,  and  the 
best  Turkish  and  Arabian  physicians,  arrived  in  the  camp.  The  Al- 
coran was  read.  The  finest  horses  in  the  Imperial  stables  were  sa- 
crificed, and  presents  sent  to  the  tombs  of  the  great  Chieks.  God,  the 
only  true  physician,  restored  the  Emperor  to  health;  and  he  took 
horse  and  shewed  himself  to  his  people  on  the  20th  June. 
Timur,  with  a  vast  army,  took  Bagdat  from  the  Mogul  sovereign. 

•  Serai. 


Tfae.Emperor  renuinedthere'twomonthB.  In  this  expedition .Timur 
rode  tweniy-seVen  leagues  of  three  miles  each,  on  the  10th  October, 
without  getting  off  his  horse.  The  army  suffered  excessively  from 
heat  and  thirst;  all  the  wines  in  the  city  were  seized,  and  cast  into  tiie 

Timnr  proceeded  to  Geor^a,  where  he  was  joined  by  the  Imperial  Sept.  9. 
fiimily.  On  the  a6th  of  Cfaawal  the  army  arrived  at  Cars,,  in  Georgia^ 
where  the  Emperor  encunped  in  a  very  agreeable  plain  with  green 
meadows, .  springs,  and  rivulets  of  water  as  clear  as  ciystal,  shady 
groves,  delicious  Iruit  trees,  variety  of  balsams  and  flowers,  and 
zephyrs,  so  charming  that  they  seemed  to  meet  together  to  receive 
tiie  gpreatest  Emperor  in  the  universe.  Timur'a  troops  had  plundered 
all  those  of  a  di^rent  religicm,  who  would  not  submit;  his  sole  inten- 
tion -in  this  war  being  God's  glory,  and  every  day  some  considerable 
blessing  was  showered  on  him.  At  this  happy  place  was  bom  a  son 
to  Shah  Rohk,  at  which  the  court  and  army  were  transported  with 
joy.  The  physiognomy  of  the  in&nt  prognosticated  the  height  of 
grandeur  to  which  he  should  in  time  arrive,  as  his  horoscope  signified 
that  he  should  ascend  the  throne,  and  be  the  heir  of  his  father's  crown. 
Timur  testified  his  joy  by  presents  of  gold,  silver,  and  curious  stuffi. 
All  the  IcH-ds  of  the  court  spread  gold  and  precious  stones  upon  the  - 
child.  Many  great  lords  were  elevated  to  considerable  posts,  and  de- 
livered the  poor  from  their  miseries;  and  the  people  were  exempted 
firom  taxes  for  a  whole  year.  The  skilful  astrologer,  Monlla  Abdallah 
Lessan  predicted  that  the  crbwn  would  for  ever  remain  in  the  family 
of  this  infant,  who  would  be  endowed  with  many  virtues:  and,  that  he 
might  have  for  his  patron  that  prophet  who  was  God's  chief  favorite, 
the  Emperor  ordered  him  to  be  called  Ibrahim  *.  Sultan. 

*  Abraham. 



Next  Aaj  at  gun-rise  Timur  decamped,  and  the  tents  were  pildbed 
in  the  i^ain  of  Minecgheni,  where  he  received  news  of  the  great  suc- 
cess of  the  emirs,  who  had  taken  many  strong  places  tram  the  Chris* 
tians,  and  were  on  thdr  return.  The  Emperor  gaveorden  for  solenm 
rejoicings  for  the  birth  of  his  grandchild.  They  provided  tents  and 
canopies,  which  they  adorned  with  the  moat  magnificent  fiuniture  of 
all  Asia.  These  tents  took  ap  two  leagues  of  ground:  that  for  the 
Emperor  was  under  a  canopy  supported  by  forty  pillars,  and  was  as 
spacious  as  a  palace;  in  the  middle  of  it  was  a  throne  so  ornamented 
with  precious  stones,  tiiat  it  resembled  the  sun.  A  great  number  of 
the  most  beautiful  ladies  of  Asia  were  placed  on  each  side  of  the 
throne,  with  veils  of  cloth  of  gold  adorned  with  jewels.  At  length 
the  Emperor  ascended  and  seated  himself,  with  the  sceptre  in  his 
hand,  and  the  crown  upon  his  head  *.  The  music  was  placed  in  two 
rows;  the  vocal  on  the  right,  the  instrumental  on  the  left.  Nine 
chaoux,  of  handsome  mien,  well  equipped,  and  mounted  on  Arabian 
horses,  came  there  in  quality  of  stewards  of  the  feast;  having  dis- 
mounted, th^  took  golden  wands  in  their  hands,  and  marched 
in  procession  before  the  dishes  which  were  served  up.  They  were 
followed  by  cup-bearers,  who  were  provided  with  crystal  bottles  and 
golden  cups  with  red  wine  of  Shiraz,  white  of  Mazanderan,  and  water 
as  clear  as  that  of  Kiosser's  f  fountain.  The  conversaUon  of  churning 
women,  whrae  hair  hong  in  tresses  down  to  the  ground,  added  to  tbe 

*  "  High  on  a  throne  of  ro;al  state,  vhich  far 
Outshone  the  wealth  of  Ormus  and  of  Ind, 
Or  vheie  the  gorgeous  East  with  richest  hand 
Sbow'rs  on  her  kings  barbaric  pearl  and  gold, 
Satan  exalted  sat,  by  merit  rais'd 

To  that  bad  eminence."  Paradite  Lott,  B.  IF. 

t  A  fountun  in  Mahomet's  poradiae. 

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tostoe  of  this  illuftrious  assembly.  The  mircas,  emirs,  nerians  and  fo- 
niga  lords  of  Iran  and  Touran,  from  India  mito  GreeiJe,  partook  of  the  >. 
dtTemions,  and  joined  with  the  Z^atuans,  in  vows  for  the  prosperity 
of  the  Emperor  and  the  new  bom  prince.  Then  Timur  chose  the 
Iffincess  Touman  Aga,  who  was  as  wise  as  Balkis*,  and  as  illustrious 
as  Cadafaf,  to  be  governess  to  the  yonng  Mirza,  for  which  honour 
she  made  a  magnificent  banquet,  which  lasted  eight  days.  For  his 
governor,  Timur  appointed  the  Emir  Osman  Abbas^  whose  wifie,  Sade- 
kin  Aga,  a  relation  of  the  Emperor,  was  selected  to  be  his  nurse. 

These  entertainments,  which  had  lasted  three  weeks,  being  -over, 
Timur  went  and  encamped  upon  the  top  of  a  mountain.  The  em- 
inresses,  princesaes,  and  all  the  conrt  ladies,  departed  for  Sultania,  where 
they  were  to  stay. 

Shah  Rohk  being  appointed  governor  of  Samarcand,  Timur  affec- 
tionately embraced  him  at  his  departure.  On  his  reaching  the  Ox- 
us,  the  inhabitants  in  great  numbers  met  their  illustrious  viceroy;  and 
oa  his  entry  into  Samarcand,  from  the  gate  Aferine  to  the  royal  palace, 
the  streets  were  hung  with  carpets,  and  tiie  ground  was  covered  with 
satin,  and  scarlet  cloth.  The  happy  people  thanked  QoA  for  giving 
Aem  a  prince  under  whom  the  weak  mig^t  live  as  securely  as  the 

Timur's  zeal  for  religion  made  him  undertake  the  war  in  Georgia 
himBelt  By  the  assistance  of  heaven,  (says  Sherefeddin),  he  vanquish- 
ed all  the  Christians  who  resisted,  whether  in  the  phuns  or  in  the 
strong  castles  upon  the  mountains,  pillaging  the  country  and  putting 
to  the  sword  aU  who  resisted.  Timur  marched  before  Teflta  and  en* 
camped  in  the  i^ain  of  Cheki. 

•  Solomon's  wife. 

t  Queen  of  the  Amazons:  the  Thalestris  of  Quintua  Curtiua. 



CHAP.        News  was  brought  to  the  Emperor  of  Toctanusli  having  re-esta^ 
v«..-v~*-'  blished  himself  in  Capchac,  and  made  irruptions  into  Timor's  domin- 
A.D.  1395.  ^^°^'  ^  recover  the  losses  of  his   great  defeat.     Timur  invades 
Russia  f. 

Mahmoudij  Timur's  governor  of  Hadgi  Tercan  (Astrachan),  proved 
&ithless  to  his  trust.  Notwiihstanding  the  severity  of  the  winter  this 
year,  Timur  marched  to  that  place.  Hadgi  Tercan  is  defended  in  win- 
ter by  a  wall  built  of  ice,  upon  which  they  pour  water,  which  freezes, 
and  the  solid  rampart  is  then  as  good  as  one  of  brick :  there  are  gates 
constructed  to  enter  the  town.  The  governor  was  obliged  to  go  out 
to  meet  the  Emperor.  Timur  sent  the  governor  to  Serai,  under  the 
conduct  of  Mirza  Pir  Mehemet;  where,  according  to  orders  received, 
he  was  thrust  under  the  ice  of  the  Volga.  His  Majesty  ordered  the 
inhabitants,  the  cattle,  and  all  within  Astrachan,  to  be  expelled:  when 
the  town  was  razed. 

The  troops  of  Capchac  had  ruined  the  palace  of  Sultui  Cazan  Khan, 
near  Carchi,  in  Transoxiana;  to  revenge  which,  Timur  proceeded  to 
Serai,  the  capital  of  Capchac ;  ordered  out  the  inhabitants,  and  re- 
duced it  to  ashes.  The  severity  of  the  winter  produced  &nune  in  the 
camp,  and  most  of  the  horses  perished.  All  the  countries  to  the  west 
A.D.  1396.  ^^^  north  of  the  Caspian  Sea,  were  brought  under  the  dominion  of 

The  towns  and  provinces  of  Ookec,  Madgiar,  Little  Russia,  Cir- 
cassia,  Bachgorod,  Azac,  Couban,  and  Alan  (between  Georgia  and  the 
Black  Sea)  had  been  sacked ;  And  the  princes  had  given  assurance  of 
future  obedience. 

The  Emperor  now  marched  towards  Uchendge,  north-east  of  Te(* 

*  See  note  on  Rubbie,  Ch  V.  with  a.  full  description  of  a  bmous  battle  in  which 
Timur  was  in  the  greatest  danger  of  being  lulled  or  taken. 

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TIMUR-S  JUSnOfe— THE  GOLDEN  AGE,  -    129 

Ub,  to  atU^  the  ChristianB  there,  and  besi^ed  it.    Ucfaendge  fell^ —     ^^^f^' 
The  gairifion  was  pnt  to  the  sword,  their  bodies  piled  np,  and  the  v.^i^y-«^ 
conutry  ravaged.    Timur  pardoned  those  great  men  who  had  joined' 
the  Cbristiaiis  and  now  acknowle^ed  their  &alt;  exhorting  them  to 
make  war,  and  procure  all  the  advantages  which  can  be  expected  to 
the  muEsiilman  religion. 

Timur  returned  to  Samarcand.  The  empresses  showered  upon  his  July  30. 
head  gold  and  jewels,  and  presented  him  with  a  thousand  burses,  ca- 
parisoned with  bridles  luid  harness  of  gdd  and  precioas  stones;  and 
also  a  thousand  mules,  all  of  one  colour.  The. Emperor  was  received 
in  triumph;  the  city  was  adorned  magnificently;  and  the  streets  were 
covered  with  velvet,  satin,  silks,  and  carpets ;  which  the  horses  tram- 
pled upon  as  a  road.  The  Emperor  then  visited  the  tombs  of  the 
saints,  and  of  learned  and  illustrious  persons;  he  gave  great  largesses 
to  the  santons,  who  took  care  of  them ;  and  alms  to  the  poor.  He 
distributed  his  booty.  He  sat  in  justice,  and  ordered  some  tyrants  to 
be  put  in  chains,  and  the  forked  branch  to  be  hung  round  their  necks. 
Some  were  put  to  death.  All  the  people  were  pleased  with  tiieir 
Emperor^  equity;  and  stiled  his  reign — "  The  Golden  Age." 

The  magnificent  palace  of  Baghi  Chemal,  or  Garden  of  the  North,  A.D.  1397. 
was  now  built.  Mirza  Shah  Rohk,  Timur*s  eldest  son,  was  appointed 
king  of  Khorassan.  Ambassadors  from  China  arrived  with  abun- 
dance of  curious  presents,  and  were  introduced  by  the  great  emirs. — 
After  delivering  their  credentials,  and  explaining  the  subject  of  their 
embassy,  they  returned  home. 

Timur  received  information  of  the  commotions  in  India;  and  that, 
since  the  death  of  Firoze  III.  the  nobles  had  seized  the  power  of  tiiat 
state;  and  that,  in  the  name  of  the  young  Mamood,  two'generals  divid- 
ed the  government,  one  at  Delhi,  and  the  other  at  Moultan.    The  Em- 



OHAP.    penir  resolved  on  tlje  ecuique«t  »f  Hiaioitw*,  bavtog  already,  in  gas 

\,^Z^r-^   der  to  root  out  the  infldelff  of  China*  eolleoted  tke  troofw  of  tjb«  em- 

A.D.  1S9S.  pire.    Tbo  Emperor  had*  ia  his  army>  (^cers  and  soldiers  ctf  aU  Bfri 

tioQs;  but  the  oosiinaiHU  of  the  grvatest  oonaeqnenoe  were  held  I9 


The  army  marched  forward,  and  crossed  the  Oxus,  to  destroy  the 
Guebres  of  India.  The  Alcoran  sayg^-"  The  higheit  dignity  man 
can  attain,  is  that  of  making  war,  in  person,  againit  the  enemies  of  his 
religion."  Though  the  true  faith  was  written  upon  the  ooins  of  India, 
the  greatest  part  of  the  inhabitants  were  idolaten. 

*  "  My  design  for  reducing  the  empire  of  Hbdoataa  was  tbia  i  Ftnt,  to  disea-  . 
ver  the  thoughts  of  my  sona  and  my  ameera,  I  demanded  counsel  of  them.  The 
prince,  Peer  Mahutnmud  Jehangheer  said — '  Behold,  with  the  gold  of  Hind,  we  ' 
shall  become  the  conqiierora  of  the  world.'  And  prince  Mahummud  Sooltaun 
spoke  and  said — '  We  may  subdue  Hind ;  yet  it  hath  many  ran^»irts,  riyers,  wil- 
dernesses, and  forests ;  soldiers  clad  in  annour;  and  the  elephants,  destroyers  of 
men.'  The  prince  Shah  Rofak  said — '  I  have  read  in  the  Toorki  annals  that  there 
aie  fire  mighty  kings,  whom,  because  of  their  greatness,  they  mention  not  by  theor 
names.  For  behold  they  call  the  King  of  Hind,  Daurau }  and  the  King  of  Room, 
they  call  Keesur;  and  the  King  of  Khuttun,  and  Cheen,  and  Maucheen,  they 
stile  Fughfoor ;  and  tbey  call  the  King  of  Toorkistaun,  Khaukaun;  and  they  call 
the  Lord  of  Braunand  TooTaun,Kingof  Kings.  Andlol  the  power  ofthe  King  of 
Kings  hath  in  all  times  been  over  the  empire  of  Hindostan,  and  it  behove  th  us,  also,  to 
conquer  Hindostan. '  The  ameers  said — '  We  may  subdue  Hind,  but  if  we  tarry 
I  in  that  land,  our  posterity  will  degenerate  from  the  Tigour  of  their  foreftthers.* 

And  I  had  Nsolvedj  iad  was  loth  to  desistt  and  I  answered  dieaa,  saying, — *  I  ^1 
turn  to  Almighty  God,  and  I  will  seek  the  s^  of  war  in  the  Koraun,  that  wbaU 
erer  be  the  will  of  God,  that  I  may  do.'  And  they  all  consented  thereto.  And 
when  I  sought  an  omen  in  the  holy  book,  this  sacred  verse  came  forth,— 'OJ¥o- 
p&et !  figltt  «>ith  the  iajiiieh  and  Mttbekaperq. '  And  when  the  doc^an  of  the  law 
explained  the  verse  to  the  ameers,  they  hung  down  their  heads  and  were  sUent. 
And  my  heart  was  grieved  at  their  silence.  And  I  deliberated  with  myself  if  I 
should  t^row  them  down  from  their  oonunanda.  But,  since  I  my«elf  had  exalted 
tbenv  (  treated  thent  vith  kindness ;  and  altium^h  they  had  ftf^«!ed  oWi  y«ti  W 
they  were  unanimous  at  last,  I  regarded  it  not."    Timur'a  Institutes,  p.  131.' 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 

'  Thnui  and  his  troopc  Mfibrcd,  in  the  monntaiiu  of  BtdMhahan,  from 
Mid,  roeky  passet,  and  ikdependsnt  Mbes,  with  whom  there  VM  \. 
draofa  fig^tbg.  The  EMpnor  Was  lit  down  the  side  of  a  steep  moun* 
t^  on  a  platform,  by  ropes  a  hundred  aad  fifty  cubits  lon^^  Timur 
enoMQped  near  Cabul,  and  otdMed  »  canal  to  be  dug,  five  kt^cs  in 

Two  princes  ftom  CapchaCt  and  one  from  Crete,  arrlred  in  the 
eaakp.  to  assure  Timur  that,  tot  the  future,  he  might  depend  on  their 

Taizi  Agien,  who  had  dlfiSerencea  with  the  Khan  of  Olugyourt,  fled 
from  the  kingdom  of  Cabnac,  to  lay  himself  at  the  Emperor's  feet.— ^ 
Timur  embraced  him,  and  presented  him  with  a  rest  woren  with  gold, 
a  bdt  with  predona  atonea,  camels,  pavilions,  &e. 

Cheik  NooTvddin  also  anrived,  who  had  been  left  by  Timur  in  Pei^ 
sia,  to  receive  the  revenues.  He  brought  an  immense  treasure  in 
jewels,  gold  coin,  gtdd  stuffs,  belts  of  precious  stones,  Arabian  horses 
with  golden  saddles,  camels,  mules,  pavilions,  curtains  of  scarlet^  leo- 
pards, birds  of  prey,  and  other  animals  for  the  chace.  So  great  a 
quantity  was  tiiere,  that  the  comptrollers  of  tiie  divan  were  three  days 
and  nights  employ  in  registering  the  whole  of  it.  Sevend  princes 
of  the  race  of  Genghis  were  astonished  at  the  sight  of  such  wealth. 

The  ambasaadon  were  now  cBsmissed  with  rich  preeente.  The 
left  wing  was  sent  forward  to  India.  The  Emperor  marched  md  en* 
camped  at  Irjab*. 

Timux  being  on  horseback,  accompanied  by  his  generals  on  loot, 
while  he  was  viewing  the  place,  was  shot  at  with  an  arrow  from  a  win- 

*  "  And  behold  the  whole  of  my  army  was  nine^-two  thousand  hoMenfen,  ac- 
cording to  the  MBabcr  of  the  names  of  Mahtamnud,  tfae  ptophet  of  God ;  aad  I 
took  this  number  as  a  fortunate  and  happy  omen."    Thhut's  hut.  p.  ISfi. 

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dow,  which  missed  him:  but  the  whizzing  of  the  arrow  startled  his 
'  horse.  'Hie  assaE»ins  were  taken  and  pnt  to  death.  The  prince  of 
the  town,  who  had  been  a  great  tjrrant,  was  beheaded,  and  his  goodbi 
and  moveables  were  given  to  the  poor. 

Oct.  7.  '  '  His  Majesty  arrived  at  the  Indos,  at~  the  spot  whence  Creh^eddin 
had  fled  &om  the  wrath  of  Genghis  Khan*.  A  bridge  of  boats  and 
reeds  was  finished  in  two  days.  Timur  dismissed  the  ambassadors'  of 
Mecca,  Medina,  and  the  cheriffs  of  Arabia.  Eskender  Shah,  prince 
of  Cashmere,  sent  to  beseech  his  majesty  to  receive  him  on  his  obedi- 
ence. Timur  desired  that  he  would  come  to  his  camp,  when  at  Di- 

Oct.  11.  The  Emperor  crossed  the  Indus  and  encamped  at  the  entrance  of 
the  desert  Gerou,  called  Tchol  Gdali  (from  Gelaleddin).  The  rajas 
and  others  offered  their  submission  with  pnmuses  of  money.  As  they 
had  been  very  serviceable  to  the  detachment  at  Moultan,  they  were 
treated  with  kindness.  An  isle  in  the  river  Jamad  was  attacked ;  a 
toman  conquered  it,  after  hard  fighting. 

The  army  marched  to  where  the  Jamad  and  G«nave  join  in  one 
stream,  aH  the  troops  were  employed  in  making  a  bridge  over  it,  which 
was  never,  done  before.    The  army  crossed  and'  encamped  thirty-five 

Oct.  S9.  miles  firom  Moultanf .  Camp  at  Toulonba:  The  inhabitants  (the  che- 
ril&  excepted)  taxed  at  two  millions  of  crowns.  Part  is  paid;  the  na- 
tives revolt;  two  thousand  are  slain. 

Not.  S.       Camp  at  Chanavaz,  near  a  lake. 

The  Mirza  at  Moultan  had  lost  neaily  all  his  horse  by  the  innnda- 
tions  and  a  lamine.  Succours  are  sent  to  him  by  Timur.  Bend  and 
Batnir  taken,  and  the  inhabituits  shun. 

•  Attock. 

t  Major  Rennel  has  accurately  traced  Timiir's  inarch  (Memoir,  p.  84).  The 
above  is,  Sherefeddiu's  deBcriptiwi, 

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The  ancy  aniTed  at  Paniput.  The  inhabitants  fled.  There  was 
found  here  one  hundred  and  »xty  thousand  maunds,  common  weight, 
of  wheat.  The  army  arrived  near  to  Delhi.  IVhile  Timur  was  sur- 
veying the.  magniflcent  palace  of  Gehanniunai>  he  discovered  nine 
thousand  ofthe  enemy  and  twenty-seven  elephants.  .They  were  at- 
taci:ed,  and  fled;  one  elephant  fell. 

The  army  encamped,  and  was  harangued  by  the  Emperor.  Some 
gesierals  represented, ,  that  a  hundred  thousand  prisoners,  idolaters, 
were  in. the  camp;  who.  in  case  of  a  battle,  might  join  the  enemy; 
they  having  been  greatly  pleased  when  they  saw  the  troops  with  the 
twenty-seven  elephants  approach.  Timur  reflected  seriously  on  this ; 
and  ordered  that  all  those  who  had  made  slaves,  should  put  them  to 
death;  or,  who  disobeyed,  should  himself  suffbr  death,  and  his  family  - 
be  given  to  the  informer.  In  one  terrible  hour,  according  to  the 
smallest  computation,  a  hundred  thousand  Indians  were  massacred. — 
Even  the  venerable  and  humane  Mouhtva  Nassereddin  Ambr,  was 
constrained  to  order  fifteen  slaves  to  be  slain. 

A  tenth  part  of  the  army,  guarded  the  women,  children,  and  camels. 

Timur  crossed  the  river,  encamped  the  army,  and  surrounded  it  with 

a  rampart  of  bucklers  and  a  ditch.    Great  bufifoloes  were  tied  together 

by  the  neck  and  feet,  with  brambles  upon  their  heads,  to  be  set  fire  to 

on  occasion  should  the  elephants  approach ;  but  this  was  not  needed. 

A.D.  1399. 
Timur  drew  up  his  army  in  order  of  battle.     He  commanded  the  main     Jan.  3, 

body :  they  marched.  The  enemy  advanced  in  order,  the  centre  was 
commanded  by  Mahmoud,  grandson  of  the  late  Emperor  Ferose,  and 
hu  lieutenant-genn^,  Mellou  Khan.  His  force  consisted  of  ten 
thousand  horse,  forty  thousand  foot,  and  elephants  armed  with  cuiras- 
ses and  poisoned  daggers  upon  their  tusks.  They  had  wooden  tow- 
ers upon  their  backs,  in  the  form  of  bastions,  in  which  were  cross-bow- 
men and  archers,  who  could  fight  under  cover.    On  the  side  of  the 



depfaflBts  were  ffingerg  of  fire  and  melted  pitch;  and  roefceta  shod 
i  with  iron,  which  give  repeated  blows  where  they  lilL  The  soldiers 
fieared  the  elephants  mi^t  fling  them  into  the  ur.  The  learbed  doe- 
tors  -wished  to  be  placed  near  where  the  ladies  were,  if  his  Majesty 

Timur  fell  upon  the  earth  and  besongttk  God  to  give  him  the  Tieto- 
xj.  The  battle  began  with  the  frightfol  noise  of  brass  kettle-drams 
upon  the  elephants'  backs,  loud  cymbals  and  bells,  trumpets,  and  crietf 
of  the  soldiers;  so  that  even  the  most  dauntless  were  smnewhat  dis- 
mayed. The  enemy's  left  wing  was  thrown  into  disorder  by  their  de- 
phants.  Their  right  wing  was  repulsed.  The  <»tttTe  attacked  Timor, 
and  was  so  warmly  received,  that  many  elephants'  trunks  were  cut  off 
with  sabres,  and  were  strewed  over  the  field  with  the  slun.  Mah- 
moud  and  Mellon  Khan  fled  into  Delhi  and  shut  the  gates.  Calil  Sul- 
tan, Timur's  grandson,  only  fifteen  years  of  age,  wounded  an  elephtmt, 
the  men  on  bis  back  were  orerthrown,  and  the  youth  drove  the  aiaimd 
before  him  into  the  camp :  at  sight  of  which  Timor  was  afl^cted  to 
tears,  for  joy  that  God  had  given  him  s«ch  brave  children,  and  such 
valiant  subjects.  Sultui  Mafamoud  and  Mellou  Khan  departed  frcmi 
the  city  at  midnight  and  fled;  the  first  to  Guzzerat,  the  other  to 

Timnr  fdanted  his  standard  upon  the  walb  of  Delhi.  At  the  gate, 
he  sat  on  the  throne  of  the  Indian  Monarch,  gave  audience,  and  re^ 
ceived  the  submission  of  the  princi{al  persons.  A  hundred  and 
twenty  elephants,  and  twelve  rhinoceroses  were  brought  before  T^- 
mur;  aud  having  been  trained  for  such  purposes,  they  pUced  them- 
selves in  a  himible  po^ure,  and  made  a  cry  as  if  demanding  qoarter. 
These  were  war  or  chain  elephants,  and  were  sent  to  Samarcand,  and 
some  to  the  provinces,  as  presents;  two  to  Tauris,  five  to  Herat,  one 
to  Shirez,  one  to  Shirvan,  and  one  to  Axzendgian. 



TIm  pnyen  m  the  mosquM  were  ordered  to  be  said  in  the  name  of    CHAP. 
Timnr,  and  the  rigours  of  war  were  for  some  days  forgotten  in  feast-  ^.^~,,^-m,^ 
ings,  mnsiCt  and  rejoidngs,  during  which  Tiqiar's  soldiers  insuHed  the 
inhabitants  in  the  suburbs. 

The  sulianessea  entered  Delhi  to  inspect  the  curiosities,  and  the 
fomous  palace  of  the  ancient  Indian  king  Melee  Jound ;  the  court  at- 
tending them  was  nQm«ous,  and  about  fifteen  thousand  soldiers  enter- 
ed unperceiTttd.  The  disorders  nunmitted  were  great ;  aud  the  natires, 
driven  to  despair,  set  fire  to  their  houses  and  burnt  their  families  in 
the  conflagration.  The  soldiers  let  in  the  army,  and  the  emirs  lost  all 
control  over  their  iiiry ;  so  that  this  great  and  proud  city  was  sacked 
and  desolated  by  a  horrid  uiassacre. 

The  next  day,  some  of  the  soldiers  took  each  one  hundred  and  fifty     ju,,  13, 
davcs,  men,  women,  and  childrai :  and  carried  them  out  of  the  city. 
Even  the  soldiers'  boys  had  twenty  slaves  to  their  abare.    Pearls, 
diamonds,  rubies,  stulb,  belts,  gold  and  silver  vessel  money  and 
curiomtiea  were  seized  by  the  soldiers  in  vast  quantitiea. 

Old  Delhi  underwent  the  same  fate.  The  Indians  assembled  in  a  Jan.  15. 
great  mosque  to  defend  themselves:  but  the  Emir  Shamelik  and  Ali 
Sultan  Tavacbi,  forced  H  open  with  five  hundred  soldiers,  md  sent  to 
the  abyss  of  hell  the  souls  of  these  infidels,  erected  a  pile  with  their 
heads,  aud  cast  their  bodks  to  the  beasts  and  birds  of  prey  *,  sudi  . 
teniblc  slaughter  and  dncdation  were  never  heard  of.  Every  emir 
took  a  number  of  slaves  for  his  service:  and  several  thousand  tittdes* 
men  and  artists  were  distributed  among  the  princes.  Others  were 
sent  to  the  nobdity  of  the  respective  provinces.     The  Emperor  re- 

*  These  massacres  are  considered  by  fanatics  as  a  virtue.  -  Timux's  descend- 
ants, howeTer,  attempt  some  explanation,  to  exculpate  him.  See  Dow*8  ISndoa- 
tan,  Vol.  II.  p.  9. 



CHAP,    serred  for  himself  aD  the  masons,  to  build  a  spacioui  stone  mosque 

<,.^-Y^oi->  at  Samarcand. 

Jan.  18.        Timnr  having  been  fifteen  days   at  D^hi,  at  ten  in  the  meaning 

marched  to  Firouse-Abad,  three  miles.    He  admired  that  dc^ghtful 

place,  and  visited  the  mosque,  to  return  thanks  to  God  for  his  c<m- 


Two  white  parrots,  which  had  many  years  been  kept  in  the  anti- 
chambers  of  the  Indian  Emperors,  were  presented  to  Timnr,  which  be 
received,  and  considered  as  a  good  augury. 

There  was  much  opposition  made  to  Timur,  in  several  places.  He 
became  oppressed  with  illness  and  want  of  rest:  twenty  battles  were 

foucrht  in  thirty  days. 
March  13. 

Ambassadors  arrived  from  the  king  of  Cashmere.    The  divan  had 

taxed  that  king  thirty  thousand  horses,  and  one  hundred  thousand 
dirests  of  gold;  but  Timur  found  this  demand  too  much  for  that  little 
kingdom,  and  did  not  press  it  to  such  extent,  being  satisfied  with  the 
conduct  of  Chah  Eskender.  Timur  sent  him  a  present  of  ten  ele- 

March  Id.  The  king  of  Tchamou  was  taken  prisoner.  He  was  treated  with 
respect,  and  instructed  in  the  beauties  of  the  Mahomedan  religion; 
he  therefore  quitted  his  errors,  declared  his  belief  in  the  unity  of  God, 
and  ate  the  flesh  of  oxen  with  the  mussulmans. 

March  19.      Lahore  was  taken,  and  tfuced  for  the  redeeming  of  the  lives  of  the 

inhabitants.     Chicai  Cooker  was  taken  prisoner.     This  prince  had 

accompanied  Timur,  but  on  his  return  to  Lahore  was  wanting  in  the 

performance  of  his  promises  uid  the  respect  he  had  professed ;  on 

,  which,  his  country  was  pillaged  and  his  person  seized  f .    Timur  be- 

*  Ayeen  Akbery,  Vol.  II.  p.  152. 

t  Dow,  Vol.  IT.  p.  II,  says,  he  was  beheaded ;  which  is  exceedingly  probable. 

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ing  an  enemy  to  deception,  had  adopted  this  motto  for  his  seal:     CHAP. 
"  Sqfety  eontitU  in  fair  deaUng."  ^^-v-^^^ 

Officers  arrived  from  Tauris,  with  an  account  of  the  affiiirs  of  Bagdat,  March  20. 
Egypt,  Syria>  Anatolia,  and  Capchac.  The  generals  arrived  in  camp 
from  Lahore,  and  laid  at  TinHir*s  feet  many  rich  presents ;  of  each  kind 
by  the  number  of  nine,  as  is  customary.  Timur  now  made  arrange- 
ments for  returning  to  Samarcand.  He  distributed  presents  to  Uie 
emirs,  and  to  the  lords  of  Hindostan,  whom  he  sent  to  their  respec- 
tive countries,  with  his  letters  patent 'for  their  principalities. 

The  camp  being  at  Gibhan  on  the  frontier  of  Cashmir,  Timur  or-  March  2i. 
dered  a  general  hunting  circle,  and  enjoyed  that  sport  in  this  delightful 
place.  There  were  Uons,leopards,  rhinoceroses,  wHconu,  blue  stags,  wild 
peacocks,  parrots,  and  other  animals.  The  fidoons  and  hawks  destroy- 
ed all  the  peacocks,  pheasants,  parrots,  and  ducks.  The  soldiers  took 
a  great  deal  of  game,  and  slew  several  rhinoceroses  with  their  sabres 
and  lances  *.  The  oranges  and  citrons  do  not  come  to  maturity,  on 
account  of  the  snow.  The  air  and  water  are  delicious ;  the  women 
very  beautifid.  The  prince  and  court  reside  at  Nagaz,  in  which  there 
are  seven  bridges  of  boats  over  the  river,  which  is  as  large  as  the 
Tigris.  God  has  given  this  country  natural  defences :  the  roads  unto 
it  from  Chorassan  and  from  India  being  excessively  difficult;  and 
that  from  Thibet  having  so  many  poisonous  herbs,  that  the  horses 
who  eat  of  them  die,  the  inhabitants  have  no  occasion  for  arms  or 

Timur  crossed  the  Indus,  and  encamped  at  Banou.    His  majesty  March  39. 
was  struck  hy  »ome  evil  eye:    upon  his  feet  and  hands  were  pain- 
ful ulcers.     The  officers  of  his  household  carried  him,  in  a  litter,  April  8. 

*  The  blue  stags  were  Nyl-gaus :  respecting  the  unicome,  see  Chap.  XI.   the 
last  note. 

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through  a  narrow  defile,  in  which  they  were  obliged  to  cross  a  rirer 
'  forty-eight  times. 

The  empresses,  princes,  and  great  lords  met  the  Emperor  at  Ter- 
med, and  he  arrived  at  Samarcand  on  the  I6th  of  May. 

May  16.  The  feastings  and  mutual  presents  were  immense,  and  the  em- 
presses, princes  of  the  blood,  dukes,  and  for»gn  princes,  showered  so 
many  precious  stones  upon  his  majesty,  that  it  seemed  as  if  tiie  sand» 
had  been  transformed  into  them. 

May  ss.  Timur,  to  crown,  his  merits  wilh  a  work  of  piety,  having  destroyed 
the  temples  of  false  Gods  and  exterminated  the  idolaters,  resolved  to 
build  a  great  mosque.  Two  hundred  masons  from  Aserbijan,  Persia, 
and  India,  were  occupied  in  the  inside,  and  five  hundred  men  in  cut- 
ting atone  in  the  mounlains.  Ninety-five  elephants  were  employed 
in  drawing  the  stones  upon  madiines  made  according  to  the  laws  of 
mechanics.  The  mosqUe  being  finished,  contained  four  hundred  and 
eighty  pillars  of  hewn  stone,  seven  cubits  high;  the  arched  roof  was  of 
marble,  neatly  carved  and  polished.  From  the  architrave  of  tiie  entab- 
lature to  the  top  of  the  roof  was  nine  cubits;  at  each  comer  ontaide' 
was  a  minaret;  the  doors  were  of  brass;  and  the  walls  without  and 
within,  and  the  arches  of  the  roof,  were  adorned,  in  relievo,  with  the 
chapter  of  the  Cavern  and  other  passages  of  the  Alcoran.  The  pul- 
pit and  reading  desk,  where  prayers  for  the  Emperor  were  read,  were 
of  the  utmost  magnificence ;  and  the  nich  of  the  altar  was  covered 
with  plates  of  iron  gilt,  and  was  of  perfect  beauty.  Not  one  moment 
had  been  lost  in  finishing  this  stupendous^buildingf . 

t  "  AnOD,  out  of  the  earth  a  ^ric  huge 
Rose  like  an  exhalation,        »         •         * 
Built  like  a  temple,  where  pilaeters.round 
Wereseti        •        •        •        • 

•         *         •         nor  did  there  want 

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Some  montlu  after  Timnr  rctamed  to  Samarcand,  he  received    ^HAF. 
accounts  of  the  debaucheries^  extravagance,  and  lunatic  conduct  of  his  ^•^-y-^-' 
son  Mirza  Bfiram  Chah,  viceroy  of  Media:  on  which  he  found  it  neces- 
sary to  take  the  field  agtun.    He  issued  orders  that  all  the  princes 
profligate  favorites,  who  had  instigated  him  to  his  evil  conduct,  should  Oct.  11. 
be  hanged,  without  exception,  as  a  warning  to  others. 

When  the  encampment  was  at  Caruba^,  news  arrived  of  the  death 
of  the  Khan  of  Capcbac,  of  the  death  of  the  Sultan  of  Egypt,  and  of 
a  civil  war  in  that  country;  of  the  decease  of  the  Emperor  of  China, 
and  of  great  confusion  in  that  empire;  and  that  the  king  of  Gete  had 
also  paid  tribute  to  the  angel  Israel,  which  had  caused  dissensi<»i 
amongst  his  four  sons. 

Intelligence  was  received  of  Mirza  Eskender,  ^^ed  only  fifteen 
years,  having  marched  with  his  emirs  and  his  army  from  Andecan; 
and  that  he  had  uttwiy  defeated  the  M(^^  in  Moguhstui.  The 
prince  had  been  joined  by  the  emirs  at  Cashgar ;  they  advanced  and 
ravaged  Yarkand,  Tchartac,  Keiouc  Bagh,  and  the  province  of  Aoudge; 
they  took  the  citadel  of  Ascou,  consisting  of  three  strong  castles, 
which  required  sapping,  battering  rams,  and  many  assaults  with 
sealing  ladders.  They  released  some  Chinese  merchants,  who  had 
been  shut  up  there.  They  suddenly  invaded  Bei  and  Cousan,  and 
brobght  away  captive  the  princess,  wife  of  Emir  Kezre  Chah,  her 
daughter,  and.  other  ladies;  and  pillaged  the  town  of  Tarem.    They 

Cornice  or  frieze,  with  bosay  Kulptures  gtsvea ; 

•        •        •        n^  straight  Uie  doors 

Opening  th&r  bruen  iblds.  "  Par,  Loit,  B.  J.  L  710. 

There  are  two  cubits,  one  is  called  targe  measure,  in  the  architecture  of  Baila- 
can  (a  few  pages  forwd).  In  Chap.  I.  the  Sultan  of  Carisme  exduma,  that 
of  his  inunense  kingdom,  he  h«s  but  two  cubita  left  for  his  body.  The  writer  has 
not  been  able  (o  find  out  the  length  of  the  large  cubit.  - 

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proceeded  to  Choten  and  the  mountain  Carangoutac;  from  hence 
i  were  sent  two  companies,  of  nine  each,  of  the  most  beautiful  Mogid 
young  women  to  the  Emperor,  by  Chiek  Tasaoul ;  when  the  army 
returned  to  Cashgar. 

The  Emperor  advanced  towards  Georgia,  to  make  a  holy  war,  ui  obe- 
dience to  the  Alcoran,  on  all  who  disbelieved  the  mussulman  reli^on  *. 
Through  the  defile  of  Comcha,  which  was  full  of  trees,  the  soldiers, 
with  tbeir  saws  and  axes,  cleared  a  road  ten  days'  journey  in  length, 
and  broad  enough  for  five  companies  to  march  abreast.  It  snowed 
for  twenty  days,  but  the  fields  became  as  red  with  the  blood  of  the  infi- 
dels as  if  sown  with  tulips;  no  quarter  being  g^ven  to  any  who  were 
found.  Comcha,the  chief  of  those  who  disbelieve  in  future  judgmrait, 
abandoned  bis  effects  and  fled. 

Wine  was  absolntely  necessary  for  tMs  people;  even  the  little  chil- 
dren drank  it ;  and  on  their  death-beds  they  entreated  that  some  might 
be  buried  in  their  tombs  with  them,  and  their  coffins  be  made  of  the 
vine  tree.  For  this  consideration,  the  troops  rooted  up  and  destroyed 
the  vines,  and  razed  their  temples,  which  were  so  disagreeable  to  God. 
This  being  what  Timur  had  done  last  year  at  Delhi,  he  had,  as  the 
poet  says,  one  -foot  on  the  firontiers  of  India,  and  the  other  on  the  west- 
em  limit  of  Arranf. 

The  cold  and  snow  being  great,  and  the  horses  reduced  to  feed  on 

•■"  Audi  determined  on  that  measure,  wluch  was  agreeable  to  my  soldiers. 
And  I  placed  a  helmet  of  steel  upon  my  head,  and  I  clothed  myself  in  the 
amtour  of  Dauood  (David),  and  I  hung  s  scimitar  of  Misaur  (Egypt)  by  my  side, 
and  Isat  on  the  throne  of  war."  Timur*fl  InsUtutes,  p.  143.  Ipocratea,  the  Christ- 
ian Icing  of  Teflis,  Timur's  prisoner,  had  turned  mussulman,  and  had  {^ren  Timur 
a  suit  of  armour,  which  he  pretended  the  king  of  Israel  hod  forged  with  bis  ovn 
hands  in  a  smith's  shop. 

t  To  the  warlike  resemblance  to  Gtenghis  Khan,  Timur  added  the  horrid 
fimaticism  of  Sunt  Dominic  and  Philip  the  Second. 

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TIMUR'S  LETTER  TO  BA/A2ET^12,000  DOG  KEEPERS.  ,    141 

the  bark  of  trees,aiid  many  of  them  dying,  Timurrecrossed  the  Cyrus,    CHAP. 

aud  returaed  wit^ g^y  to  Carabagh.  ^^0-,^' 

A  divan  was  held,  and,  after  a  formal  enqniry,  Hadgi  Abdalla  Ab- 
bas, and  Mehemed  Casgan^were  bastinadoed,  and  sereral  officers  fined 
fifty,  and  some  three  hundred,  horses,  for  their  misconduct  in  the 
field.  Prince  Bnrhan  Aglen  was  put  to  death  for  the  same  reason. 
Favours  were  distributed  to  Mirza  Aboubeker. 

Timur,  considering  that  the  interests  of  rdigion  and  his  own  poli-  A.D.  1400. 
cy  would  best  be  served  by  again  attacking  Geoi^^  resolved,  with 
his  council,  on  that  measure.     That  country  was  again  invaded,  ra- 
vaged, and  plundered :  no  mercy  being  shown. 

His  Majesty  being  irritated  by  the  bad  conduct  of  the  Ottoman 
Emperor  and  the  sultan  of  Egypt,  notwithstanding  the  fotigues  of 
the  campaign  just  ended,  determined,  by  the  grace  of  God,  to  sub- 
due them. 

Bajazet,  sumamed  Ildurum,  or  the  Thunderer,  was  Emperor  of  the 
Ottomans,  and  had  subjected  great  part  of  Roum  (Anatolia),  and  ex- 
tended his  dominions  far  into  Europe,  as  well  as  towards  Aleppo.  He 
was  so  magnificent,  that  in  his  household  he  had  twelve  thousand  dog 
keepers.  This  prince  had  the  boldness  to  send  an  ambassador  to  Ta- 
harten,  to  summon  him  to  court,  and  to  send  the  tribute  of  Erzerom 
and  other  countries.  B^azet  was  not  ignorant  that  Taharten  was  un- 
der Timur's  protection.  Whereupon  Timur  resolved  to  endeavour  to 
bring  him  to  a  sense  of  his  ftnlt  by  friendship  and  mildness  mixt  with 
reproaches.  He  therefore  ordered  his  secretary  to  write  a  letter  to 

"  God,  says  the  Alcoran,  blesses  those  prince^  who  know  what  use 
they  should  make  of  their  power,  and  go  not  beyond  the  bounds  pre- 
scribed tiiem.     We  let  you  know,  that  the  greatest  part  of  Asia  is  nn- 



CHAP,  der  onr  officeiB,  and  that  our  guard  consiBts  of  sovereign  kii^k 
^.yi^  Where  is  the  potentate  that  does  not  glory  in  being  of  the  number  of 
our  courtiersl  but  for  thee,  whose  true  origin  tarminates  in  a  Tuico- 
maa  sailor*  it  would  be  well,  since  the  ship  of  thj  onfiithomable  am- 
bition has  suffered  wreck  in  the  abyss  of  self-love;  if  thou  wouldest 
lower  the  sfuls  of  thy  rashness,  and  cast  the  anchor  of  repentance  in 
the  port  of  sincerity;  lest,by  the  tempest  of  dur  vengeance,  you  should 
perish  in  the  sea  of  punishment.  Since  you  have  undertaken  a  vigo- 
rous war  with  Europeans,  the  enemies  of  the  Mussulman  law,  we  con- 
sider you  &vourably:  leave  yoiu:  proud  extravagances,  and  know,  that 
no  one  ever  dared  make  war  with  us,  and  prospered.  The  devil  cer- 
tainly inspires  you  to  ruin  yourself.  Believe  me,  you  are  but  a  pis- 
mire, don't  seek  to  fight  elephants.  The  dove  which  rises  against  the 
eagle,  destroys  itself.  But  yoiu:  rodomontades  are  not  extraordinary; 
for  a  Turcoman  never  yet  spake  with  judgment.  If  you  don't  follow 
our  counsels,  you  will  repent  it" 

Bajazet,  on  reading  the  letter,  sent  this  answer :  "  It  is  a  long  time 
•since  we  have  been  desirous  of  a  war  with  you.  If  you  don't  advance, 
we  will  seek  yon;  and  we  shall  see  in  whose  favour  heaven  will  de- 
clare." On  receiving  this  reply,  Timur  caused  the  imperial  standud 
to  be  displayed,  and  marched  for  Anatolia. 
Sept.  1.  The  Emperor  encamped  near  Sebaste:  he  saw  from  an  eminence, 
the  place  full  of  men  singing  and  playing  on  musical  instruments. 
Bajazet's  van-guard  appeared,  retreated,  and  was  pursued  and  cut  to 
jiieces,  near  Cnsarea.    Sebaste  was  fortified  with  high  thick  stone  walls, 

*  Biyazet  waa  deacended  from  Otbman,  the  founder  of  tbe  Turkiih  Empire, 
A.  D.  1399.  Otbman  was  the  son  of  an  Oguzian  or  Turcoman  chieftain,  who  had 
entered  into  the  eervice  of  Aladin,  sultan  of  Iconium,  and  had  established  bim- 
sdf  with  his  tribe  at  the  maritime  town  of  Stregut,  on  ibe  river  Sangar  (the  Iris), 
which  runs  into  the  Buxine  sea.     (See  Gibbon,  Ch.  LXV.  note  29.) 

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and  a  ditch  fiiU  of  water.    In  eighteen  days,  by  the  vigorous  applica-     CUj 
tion  of  battering  rams,  and  machines  to  cast  fire  and  hurl  stones,  ihe  ^-^'^ 
inhabitants,  in  terror,  supplicated  for  pardon.    Timnr's  heart  was  soft- 
ened by  the  cries  of  the  Tromen  and  children.     He  granted  quarter  to 
the  Mussnlmans,  on  their  paying  ransom;  and  made  slaves  of  the  Ar- 
menians and  other  Christians.    Many  places  were  reduced,  but  Bajazet 
avoided  a  battle. 

Farrudge,  son  of  the  late  Barcoc,  king  of  Egypt  and  Syria,  having 
added  to  his  father's  crimes  against  Timur,  by  arresting  his  ambassa- 
dor, the  Emperor  resolved  forthwith  to  chastise  him.  Timur's  gene- 
rals represented,  on  their  knees,  the  peril  of  such  an  attempt  by  troops 
&tigued  with  campaigns  against  a  difficult  country,  strong  fortresses, 
and  a  numerous  and  well-appointed  army.  Timur  promised  them  suc- 
cess, if  they  would  put  their  trust  in  God ;  his  resolution  was  not  to 
be  shakenf;  and  all  obeyed  him  with  zeal.  "  As  for  the  pride  and 
blindness  of  the  Syrians  and  Egyptians,  Mahomet  has  told  ns,  (said 
he),  that  when  God  resolves  to  destroy  any  one,  he  deprives  Mm  of  com- 
.  mart  sense.'' 

The  army  encamped  at  Behesna,  between  Malatia  and  Aleppo. 
Behesna  and  Antapa,  two  very  strong  places,  were  both  taken.  The 
governors  and  people  were  spared,  at  the  intercession  of  Timur's  son, 
Shah  Rohk.  They  delivered  great  presents  to  the  Emperor,  in  whose 
name  prayers  were  read.    The  camp  was  pitched  near  Aleppo.  Nov.  \ 

The  Egyptian  sultan's  army  was  collected  from  Tripoli,  Balbec,  Ca- 
naan, Rama,  Jerusalem,  and  many  other  places;  it  was  very  numerous 
and  well  appointed. 

Timourtach,  the  governor  of  Aleppo,  represented  the  great  power 

f  1  Bboold  ill  become  this  throne,       *        * 

And  this  imperul  eoT'ragnt?,        *        * 

•        •        •        *         ifaught        •        • 

Of  difficulty  or  danger  could  deter  me.        Par.  Lott,  B.  II.  L  445. 


and  noifonn  conquests  of  Timur;  and  was  for  treating*:  but  the  go< 
'  Teraor  of  Danuiscus  taxed  him  with  cowardice,  and  enumerated  the 
stone  fortresses  of  Syria,  the  goodness  of  their  Damascus  bows,  Egyp- 
tian swords,  and  Arabian  lances.     Opposition  was  resolved  on. 

Timur  advanced  towards  Aleppo,  half  a  league  a-day,  entrenching 
his  army  every  evening,  and  making  a  rampart  of  the  bucklers.  The 
Syrians,  concluding  that  the  Tartars  mistrusted  their  strength,  prepared 
to  give  battle.  The  main  body  of  Timur's  army  was  commanded  by 
himself  with  a  rank  of  elephante  in  front,  equipped  magnificently,  to 
serve  as  a  rampart :  their  towers  were  fQIed  with  archers  and  flingers 
of  wild-fire.    These  animals  coiled  up  their  trunks  like  serpents. 

The  right  wing  was  commanded  by  the  mirzas,  Miran  Chah 
and  Shah  Rohk ;  the  left  by  Sultan  Mahmoud,  accompanied  by  the 
great  emirs.  Every  one  had  on  his  coat  of  mail,  a  cuirass,  and  a 

Hie  Syrian  army  was'composedof  arightand  left  wing,  and  a  main 

The  Tutars  advanced  with  their  ensigns  displayed:  the  kettle 
drums  and  trumpets  sounded,  and  both  sides  shouted,  AUa  Ak- 

The  two  wings  of  the  Syrians  were  overpowered,  and  the  ground  was 
strewed  with  carcasses,  helmets,  and  sabres.  The  elephants  rushed 
upon  the  main  body  of  the  Syrian  army,  and,  with  their  trunks,  tossed 
many  into  the  air,  and  trampled  others  under  their  feet,  no  one  being 
able  to  stop  them. 

The  two  governors,  seeing  such  dreadful  slaughter  in  so  short  a 
time,  fled;  the  soldiers  dispersed  themselves.  The  major  part  took 
the  road  to  Damascus,  and  were  pursued  so  closely,  that  only  one 

*  According  to  the  computatioD  of  the  Emperor's  comptroller,  hu  aimy  con- 
sisted of  eight  hundred  thousand  men.    Sherefeddin,  11.  p.  165,  note  4. 

y  Google 


horsemaD  of  that  great  number  reached  ibe  city.    The  others  fleeing    CHAP, 
to  Aleppo,  were  pnrsned  and  slaogfatered  in  such  heaps,  that  they  v.^^-v'^ 
were  piled  up  to  the  plinth  of  the  walls;  three  or  four  of  the  crowd 
being  run  through  at  a  time  l^  a  single  pike. 

The  camp  and  city  were  pillaged:  the  boo^  was  prodigious.    The  Nov.  11. 
women,  children,  cattle,  gtdd,  jewels,  &c.  were  seized  and  kept  by  the 

The  strong  citadel  was  terrified  into  surrender.  The  goTemors 
were  put  in  irons,  and  a  message  sent  to  the  son  of  Barcoc,  at  Cairo, 
to  release  Timur's  ambassador.  Immense  treasures  were  lodged  in  the 
citadel,  and  eight  emirs  were  left  to  guard  it. 

Some  castles  were  taken,  and  l^ur  adranced  to  Hama.  llie  in- 
habitants gave  up  their  treasures,  and  were  protected.  Balbec  was' 
reduced  without  trouble,  and  vast  quantities  of  firuits,  pulse,  and  all 
manner  of  necessaries  were  found  in  it. 

*    Balbec,  being  in  the  vicinity  of  a  mountain,  the  weather  was  now  A.D.  1401. 
very  cold,  and  much  snow  fell.     The  Emperor  therefore  departed,     ■'"*•  ^ 
and,  after  a  few  days'  march,  he  went  to  the  tomb  of  the  prophet 
Noah,  to  beseech  his  blessing;  and  then  set  out  for  the  conquest  of 

The  nuiin  body  of  the  army  had  been  sent  to  ravage  the  maritime 
towns  of  Syria;  and  now  joined  the  camp,  laden  with  booty. 

Syria  now  belonging  to  Egypt,  the  governors  had  made  urg^t  re- 
presentations to  Farrudge,  their  king,  to  come  and  oppose  Timor. — 
He  marched  to  Damascus,  and  it  was  immediately  prepared  for  de- 
fence. His  cavalry  was  the  best  in  the  world.  Using  policy  as  well 
as  strength,  he  sent,  as  ambassador  to  Timor,  an  eloquent  and  perfect 



CHAP,  villain,  in  a  humble  rdig^ous  habit;  acoompaaied  by  two  ;^tag  asaaft- 
*w^y-^'  ^ns  with  poisoned  daggers^  to  mnrdm  the  E^pwor  during  the  audi- 

On  Timur's  approach  towards  Damascua,  these  wretches  joined  faia 
court,  and  had  several  oompliinentarjr  interviews,  at  the  foot  of  the 
throne;  which  presented  favourable  opportunities:  but  the  Ahnigfaty, 
who  was  always  Timur's  protector,  would  not  suffer  the  execution  (^ 
tiieir  designs.  Coja  Masaoud  Semnani,  one  of  the  great  secretaries 
of  the  council,  conceived  some  suspicions,  from  the  manner  of  pro- 
ceeding of  these  persons:  and  communicated  them  to  some  one,  who 
related  them  to  the  Emperor. 

Timiu:  ordered  the  Egyptians  to  be  searched,  and  poisoned  da^^rs 
were  found  in  their  boots.  The  Emperor  returned  thanks  to  his  So- 
vereign Protector.  It  is  not,  said  he,  the  maxim  of  kings  to  murder 
ambassadors;  yet  it  would  be  a  criioe  to  suffo:  this  rascal  ot  bis  com- 
rades to  live;  who,  though  dothed  in  a  rdigioiu  habit,  ia  a  monster  of 
perfidy.  He  thereupon  ordered  the  ambassador  to  be  killed  with  the 
poisoned  daggers ;  and  the  noses  and  ears  of  the  two  assaraiiiB  to  be 
cut  off,  meaning  to  send  tJiem  back  with  a  letter  to  the  Sultan  of 

Timnr  oicamped  near  Damascus,  at  the  foot  of  a  hill>  with  a  trestch 
and  palisadoes  round  his  army.  He  ordwed  the  prisona's  brought 
from  Aleppo  to  be  put  to  death,  in  revenge  for  the  king's  scandalous 
action.  Two  days  after,  his  Majesty  sent  Padshah  Baouram,  as  am- 
bassador to  the  sultan,  with  this  letter: — 

"  AH  t^  great  noise  of  the  world  is  not  so  much  to  heap  up  riches, 
as  to  acquire  honour ;  for  half  a  lo^  a^lay  is  sufficient  for  the  nourish- 
ment of  a  man.  Whenever  I  have  demanded  Alilmlch,  my  ambassa- 
dor, from  you,  yon  have  idways  stait«d  difficulties.  "We  therefore 
make  war  on  you.    If  rocks  could  speak,  they  would  tdl  yon>  that  this 



mHod  of  yoni^  parteDtb  bo  good  to  yon;  yat.  If  yoa  will  caiue  the     CHAP, 
money  to  be  coined,  and  tite  public  prayors  to  be  read  In  our  name,  s^-v^'«k<' 
this  shidl  stop  oor  fury.     Our  loldieis  axe  like  roaring  Sons,  wbich 
want  their  prey.     I  set  before  you  peace  and  joy,  or  war  and  desola- 
tion.   Make  yoar  choice  with  prudence.     FarewelL" 

Timur's  ambassador  was  received  with  great  honomr.  Sereral 
Egyptian  lords  were  sent  to  the  camp,  to  ask  the  Emperor's  pardon  r 
they  promised  that,  in  fire  days,  Atilmich  should  be  sent  to  his  au- 
gust presence.  Tbcy  returned  to  Damascus  with  presents  of  vests; 
and  this  iriendly  appearance  gave  joy  to  the  inhabitants. 

After  ten  days*  nwtunpment,  Timur  wished  to  remove  to  Croula,  Jan.  19. 
that  his  horses  might  feed  in  those  delicious  pastures.  The  Syrians 
mistaking  his  decampment  for  weakness,  their  wh<de  army  and  multi- 
tudes of  people  caiue  out  to  attack  him.  Timur  faced  about,  and  en- 
trenched his  camp  behind  the  baggage  and  some  great  stones.  An 
acti(m  issued,  and  the  vast  plain  was  delvged  with  the  blood  of  the 
Syrians,  who  were  defeated  and  slain  in  immense  numbers. 

Mirza  Sultan  Hussan,  the  Emperor's  grandson,  after  a  debauch,  was 
excited  by  some  seditious  Persiana.  a  few  evenings  before,  to  revolt  and 
join  the  Syrians  in  Damascus.  He  commanded  the  left  wing  of  the 
Syrians  in  this  action,  and  fought  against  the  Mirzas,  Miran  Shah  and 
Shah  Rohk.  He  was  taken  priscmer.  Timor  ordered  him  to  be 
loaded  with  chahis*.  At  the .  intercessicm  of  Shah  Bohk,  he  was  li- 
berated, but  not  till  he  had  been  bastimidoed,  as  ordered  by  the  law 
Of  Tasac.  He  was  never  afterwards  admitted  into  the  Emperor's 

Timur  ordered  the  army  to  marcK  in  order  of  battle,  -towards  D»- 

*  "  And  with  retpect  to  my  tanaly,  X  rent  not  anoulei  tint  boodi  of  connuwni- 
nily  and  mercy;  and  I  issued  not  commands  to  aUy  than,  or  to  bind  them  with 
diaba."    Timur's  Inst.  p.  173. 


mascus.  The  front  of  the  anny,  from  the  extremity  of  one  wing  to 
'  that  of  Uie  other,  was  between  three  and  four  leagues.  The  elephants 
in  a  great  rank  marched  in  front.  The  approach  to  the  city  was  ris- 
ing ground ;  and  Timur  meant  to  dishearten  the  Syrians  by  this  mag- 
nificent display ;  as  they  had  but  an  imperfect  knowlec^  of  the  mul' 
titude  of  his  army. 

The  king  of  Egypt,  at  sight  of  this  immense  force,  lield  a  council. 
Some  were  for  defending  the  city:  but  it  was  decided  that  the  king 
and  principal  persons  should  escape  at  night,  and  flee  to  Egypt.  A 
letter  was  therefore  seat  to  the  Emperor,  to  beg  one  day,  and  they 
would  obey  his  orders:  the  king  disclaimed  the  battle  that  had  taken 
place,  as  not  ordered  by  him.    On  this  Timur  encamped. 

At  night,  the  sultan  and  principal  lords  left  Damascus,  and  took  the 
road  to  Cairo.  A  Tartar  deserter,  named  Tbacmac,  went  to  Sultan 
Shah  Robk,  and  informed  him  thereof.  Some  of  the  king's  party  were 
overtaken,  and  several  slain;  and  the  baggage  which  they  had  aban-- 
doned,  was  captured. 

Timur  now  quartered  his  army  in  the  suburbs  of  Damascus.  He 
visited  the  tombs  of  Oumme  Selma  and  Habiba,  wives  of  Mahomet, 
and  that  of  Belalhabachi,  whose  intercession  he  implored. 

The  inhabitants  of  the  city  were  seized  with  fear,  and  all  the  che- 
rife,  the  cadis,  emams,  and  lawyers,  went  out,  and  threw  themselves  at 
the  foot  of  the  throne,  with  entire  submission  and  large  presents — 
They  implored  the  Emperor's  pity  on  the  mussulmans.  The  ransom 
was  agreed  on,  and  seven  gates  of  the  city  were  walled  up,  leaving  one 
open  for  Timur's  office,  to  which  payment  was  brought.  The  chief  of 
the  deputation  was  Cadi  Veliddin,  whose  discourse  pleased  Timur;  and 
the  party  was  invited  to  dine  at  his  table.  The  cadi  'conversed  with  the 
Emperor  about  Africa,  in  which  country  he  had  travelled;  for  Ti- 
mur was  well  versed  in  the  history  of  states  and  princes,  both  of  the 
east  and  the  west. 



Pimyers  were  read  in  the  fiunouB  mosque  of  the  Ommiades  calife,  in 
the  name  and  titles  of  the  august  Emperor.  v 

Some  of  the  soldieis  having  used  violence  after  the  publication  of 
quarter,  Timor  caused  them  to  be  crucified. 

The  governor  of  the  castle  confiding  in  its  immense  strength,  held  out, 
and  was  besieged  in  form  by  a  very  great  force.  Three  platforms  were 
built,  high  enough  to  command  it;  from  which  fire-pots,  arrows,  and 
great  stones  were  thrown  in  as  thick  as  hail.  The  walls  were  shaken 
by  battering  rams ;  the  large  pieces  of  rock,  in  the  walls,  were  heated, 
and  shattered  by  vinegar  being  cast  on  them,  and  then  broken  by  ham- 
mers. The  walls  were  sapped,  and  one  of  the  vast  towers  fell  The 
soldiers  rushed  to  the  breach,  and  eighty  Persians  being  crushed  under 
the  fiiUing  ruins,  the  troops  halted.  The  breach  was  quickly  filled '  up 
by  the  Syrians.  The  wooden  props  which  supported  part  of  the  for- 
tifications being  set  on  fire,  the  governor,  hopeless  of  a  successful  de- 
fence, came  out,  and  delivered  the  keys  of  the  fortress  and  the  treasury 
to  Timor,  who  ordered  him  to  be  put  to  death,  for  not  surrendering 

The  treasure  was  very  great.  There  was  a  granary  of  com,  being 
the  revenues  of  Mecca  and  Medina ;  the  amount  for  which  it  was  sold 
was  considerable,  in  consequence  of  a  scarcity.  Timur  ordered  the 
whole  sum  to  be  distributed  among  the  officers  of  those  renowned  ci- 
ties, for  he  was  sincere  in  his  religion:  and  then,  with  very  civil  treat- 
ment, sent  them  back  to  Jerusalem. 

The  garrison  of  Damascus  was  composed  of  Circassians,  mamalucs 
Etiui^ian  slaves,  and  Zanguebars ;  the  women,  children,  and  old  men, 
were  all  made  slaves. 

The  Syrian  money  being  of  a  base  alloy,  Timur  ordered  a  recoinage 
in  his  own  namej  the  gold  and  silver  to  be  refined.  There  was  so 
much  money  among  the  soldiers,  that  the  revenue  to  the  divan  on  this 



CHAP,    recoinage  was  lix  himdTed  tbovaand  dinani  copa^  (abaut  one  luin- 
v^xy-iM,.^  dred  and  sixtjr-eight  thousand  pounds  steriing). 

Timor  ordered  the  coast  df  the  Meditenranean  to  be  raragedi  wUcb 
was  done ;  and  the  emirs  then  returned,  with  great  booty^  to  Canaao. 

The  Emperor  was  severely  atta^ed  with  an  imposthmna  upon  his 
back,  but  soon  recoTered. 

The  soldiers  were  now  so  overloaded  with  booty,  that  they  actually 
threw  away  gold  and  silver  stuffk  and  other  valuable  things,  not  being 
able  to  carry  tiiem.  "  Several  creditable  persons,  eye-witnessesr  relat> 
ed  this  to  me*." 

Damascus  was  accidentally  burnt,  being  boilt  of  inflammable  mate- 
rials. "  Timur,  whose  regard  for  religion  was  unparalleled,  sent  to  save 
the  mosque  of  Ommiades;  but,  by  God's  wrath  against  these  people, 
the  stone  minaret  was  burnt;  whereas  the  wooden  minaret  Arons,  or 
Mounar  Beiza,  renuuned  safe,  which  was  miraculous.  Upon  this,  the 
mussulmans  believe  that  the  Lord  Messiah  Jesus,  on  whom,  as  on  our 
prophet,  may  blessings  be  showered,  will  descend  from  heaven,  when 
he  shall  come  to  judge  both  the  living  and  the  dead  f ." 

Timur  .having  made  the  Syrians  feel  his  wrath,  now  gave  them 
marks  of  his  clemency;  he  ordered  all  Uie  slaves  taken  in  Syria  and 
Damascus,  men,  women,  and  children,  to  be  set  at  Uberty. 

Tadmor,  built  by  the  prophet  Solomon,  was  plunctered,  and  two 

hundred  thousand  sheep  taken.    Some  Turcomans  near  ^e  Euphrates 

were  defeated,  and  their  horses,  sheep,  and  camels  taken.    The  aol- 

'   diers  now  poisewed  eight  hundred  thousand  sheep. 

A.D.  1401.      Bagdat  was  again  taken  and  plundered.    Ninety  Uiousand  inhabit- 

Jul;  33.     mj|g  y/QjQ  slain,  and  one  hundred  and  twenty  pyramids  frere  made  of 

their  heads. 

•  Sherefeddin.  f  Sherefeddiii.  VoL  II.  p.  300. 



Timor,  on  arriving  *t  the  river  Jagatou,  was  joined  by  the  Empress 
Serai  Hulo  Canamj  the  ioirzaB  and  their  wires  and  children,  the  doc-  < 
tors  and  principal  lords  of  the  empire  of  Iran.  His  Majesty,  who  was 
extremely  desirous  of  being  enlightened  on  questions  of  rdigion,  invi- 
ted some  of  the  learned  to  dispute  on  some  points,  in  order  to  clear  up 
the  truth. 

The  Emperor,  being  at  Taaris,  received  a  r^ntant  letter  i^m 
Bajazet,  and  granted  him  his  pmlon.  A  great  hunting  circle  was 
now  made  and  an  immehslty  of  game  killed. 

Timor  received  news  of  the  death  of  his  general.  Emir  Hadgi  Sei- 
feddin;  he  was  sensibly  touched,  even  to  tears,  at  the  loss  of  this  faith- 
ful servant. 

Bi^aeet  having  given  protection  to  a  powered  robber,  who  plunder- 
ed the  caravans  of  Mecca,  Timur  had  a  correspondence  with  him  to 

The  castle  of  Kemac,  <m  the  Euphrates,  was  taken.  For'  nearly 
three  days  together,  Uttle  Urds  as  big  as  sparrows,  and  unfledged,  foil 
ont  of  the  air  at  this  place;  the  inhabitants  gather  them  up,  salt  them, 
and  preserve  them  in  pots.  If  they  do  not  take  them  in  three  days, 
their  wings  grow  large  enough  to  fly  away  *. 

Timur  receives  a  very  unsatishctory  and  evasive  embassy  from  Ba- 
jasKt,  and  finds  himself  constrained  to  invade  the  Ottoman  empire. 
The  Emperor  reviewed  his  army,  which  proved  much  to  his  8atisfiu> 
tion;  many  of  the  corps  being  now  so  equipped,  as  to  be  more  per- 
fecUy  and  easily  distingaished  In  the  heat  of  battle. 

The  army  advances  to  Caesarea  in  Cappadocia;  and  his  Majesty 
sends  a  letter  to  Bajatet  enjoining  him  to  listen  to  hfs  moderate  pro- 

•  Sherefeddin,  Vol.  II.  p.  S40. 



t^^^P*  posals,  and.  Bend  back  the  officers  of  his  ally  Taharten^  who  had  been 
~ :  and  to  let  one  of  his  sons  be  sent  also,  who  shall  be  treated 
with  courtesy  and  tenderness,  as  a  pledge  of  his  sincerity. 

The 'Emperor  encamped  with  all  his  army,  at  Ancora.  Bigazetfs 
army  advanced*.  When  night  caiqe,  Timur  offered  up  his  prayers  to 
the  great  creator  of  the  universe,  who  had  been  his  particular  bene- 
factor. "O  Lord!  what  thou  hast  hitherto  done  for  me  redoonds  to 
thy  glory,  why  then  should  I  despair?" 

Timur  ranged  his  immense  army,  which  was  conunanded  by  the 
greatest  lords  of  Asia.  Himself  commanded  the  body  of  reserve. 
Several  ranks  of  elephants,  equipped  in  the  completest  and  most  mag- 
nificent manner,  were  posted  at  the  head  of  the  whole  army  f . 

Bajazet's  right  wing  was  commanded  by  Pesir  Laos,  an  European, 
his  wife's  brother;  with  twenty  tiiousand  cavalry  of  Europe,  armed  in 
steel  from  head  tp  foot,  so  that  nothing  could  be  seen  but  their  eyes. 
Their  armour  was  &stened  below  the  foot  by  a  padlock,  which,  except 
they  open,  their  cuirass  and  helmet  cannot  be  taken  off.  The  left 
wing  was  led  by  Mussulman  Chelibi,  son  of  B^jazet,  and  composed  of 
the  troops  of  Anatolia.  The  nuun  body  was  commanded  by  Bajazet 
himself,  having  for  his  lieutenants-general,  his  three  sops,  Moussa, 
Aisa,  and  Mustafa.  The  most  skilful  of  his  five  sons,  Mehemed  Che- 
libi, had  the  command  of  the  rear,  assisted  by  m&ny  pachas  and  brave 

The  two  armies  were  resolved  to  conquer  or  die.  The  signals  for 
battle  were  given;  the  large  trumpet  (Kerr^iai)  was  sounded. 

""  Four  hundred  thousand  men,  horse^nen,  and  foot-nten,  adranced  with  jpeed 
to  oppose  and  expel  me."     Timur's  Institutes,  p.  15S. 

t  The  number  of  elephants  brought  from  India  by  Timur,  must  bare  been 
Tery  great. 

y  Google 


Bajftzet's  left  wing  was  attacked  with  a  discharge  of  arrows,  and 
Cara  Osman  hroke  through  it.  ■ 

The  son  of  Bajazet  performed  very  noble  actions,  but  being  unable  to 
withstand  the  attack,  he  fled  with  his  troops.  Bajazefs  right  suffer- 
ed a  cruel  daughter,  and  was  put  in  great  disorder.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  Europeans,  &lling  on  Timnr's  troops,  gave  marks  of  prodi- 
gious valour  and  invincible  courage.  There  were  alternate  repulses; 
but  the  death  of  the  prince  Pesir  Laus,  and  the  slaughter  of  the  in- 
fantry of  Bajazefs  right  wing,  gave  Timur  the  advantage.  Timur 
perceiving  this,  ordered  the  commanders  to  fell  on  the  Ottomans  with 
an  his  army.  Quickly,  a  most  terrible  carnage  ensued,  and  the  rest 
of  tiie  enemy  fled.  The  weather,  the  sun  being  in  Leo,  was  so  hot 
that  numbers  of  the  enemy  perished  with  thirst. 

A  party  had  surrounded  Bajazet,and  attempted  to  capture  or  kill  him ; 
bnt  he  defended  himself  very  bravely,  and  made  good  his  escape;  he 
was  however  hoUy  pursued,  and  the  Snltan  Mahmoud,  titular  Grand 
Khan  of  Zagatai,  seized  him,  and  he  was  presented  by  the  great 
emirs,  at  sun  set,  with  his  hands  bound,  to  t^e  conqueror.  At  this 
sight  Timur  was  moved  with  compassion*.  He  ordered  Bajazefs 
hands  to  be  unbound,  and  that  he  might  be  brought  before  him  with 
respect.  When  he  was  admitted,  Timur  went  to  receive  him  at  the 
door  of  his  tent,  with  great  ceremony;  and  causing  him  to  sit  down, 
said  to  him :  "  The  accidents  of  this  world  happen  through  the  will 
of  God,  but  it  may  justly  be  said,  that  you  are  the  sole  cause  of  the 
misfortunes  that  have  befallen  you.  Knowing  that  you  warred  against 
die  infideb,  I  used  all  possible  mildness,  and  would  even  have  given 
you  succour  to  exterminate  the  enemies  of  Mahomet.  You  haughtily 
refused  my  moderate  proposals  for  peace.    Every  one  knows,  if  God 

*  Bajaset  waa  then  sufiering  tjnm  an  attack  of  the  gout. 

y  Google 

had  giren  you  the  victory,  in  what  manner  you  designed  to  treat  me  and 
my  army.  But,  to  return  thanks  to  God  for  my  good  fortune,  you 
may  rest  satisfied  that  I  will  neither  treat  you  nor  your  friends  ill." 
Bajaaet  was  confounded.  "  I  have  indeed  done  wrong,  said  he,  in  not 
following  the  counsels  of  so  great  an  Emperor;  and  my  pouishment  is 
merited.  If  your  Majesty  is  willing  to  pardon  me,  I  swear  the  future 
obedience  of  myself  and  my  children." 

Timnr  gave  Bajazet  a  splendid  vest,  comforted  him,  and  treated 
him  as  a  great  Emperor.  He  was  lodged  in  a  royal  pavilion,  and  his 
son  Moussa,  who  was  found  in  the  camp,  was  sent  to  him. 
'  Timur  sent  Mirza  Mehemed  Sultan  to  Brusa,  in  Bythinia,  the  seat 
of  the  Ottoman  empire,  with  several  tomans,  to  take  possession  of  Ba- 
jazet's  treasures,  and  the  riches  of  the  city,  which  they  then  burnt: 
Mussulman  Chelibi  had  fled  to  Europe  in  all  haste,  and  had  carried  off 
part  of  the  treasure.  The  other  cities  of  Natolia  were  in  like  manner 
ravaged,  and  the  people  made  slaves. 

Great  rewards  were  distributed  among  the  emirs:  and  every 
soldier  had  many  horses.  Bajazet's  treasures  were  brought  upon 
mules  and  camels,  to  Kioutahia*,  where  they  were  presented  to 
Hmur,  with  Uie  fallen  monarch's  family,  and  his  beautiful  slaves;  who 
were  good  dancers,  could  sing  well,  and  excelled  in  music.  The  Em- 
peror sent  to  Bajazet,  his  wife,  named  Destina,  (whose  brother,  Pesir 
LauB,  the  European,  had  been  killed  in  the  battle),  with  his  daughter 
and  all  his  domestics;  but  was  desirous  Hbat  that  princess,  who 
had  been  tolerated  in  the  Christian  religion,  even  in  Bajazet^s  seraglio, 
diould  embrace  the  tenets  of  Mahomedf . 

*  "  In  m}'  expedidon  agunst  Room,  I  gave  unto  my  soldiers  aevea.  yean'  wagea : 
part  thereof  due,  and  (lie  remainder  in  advance.  The  eubsUtence  of  a  private 
wldier  was  fixed  at  tbe  value  of  his  horse."    TimurV  Institutes,  p.  309,  23S. 

t  The  European  romances  call  her  Rozana:  and  make  Timur  place  her  m  his 



Emir  Mehemed,  sen  of  Caiaman,  who  had  been  kept  in  chains  for     ^^^' 
twdre  years  by  Bajazet,  was  brought  to  court  and  invested  by  Tinrar   's^-v-^^ 
with  the  government  of  Caramanis,  Iconimn,  and  their  dependendes; 
and  whidi  remained  in  his  fiunily,  under  the  protection  of  Timnr. 

The  army,  after  spending  a  month  in  banquets  and  plays,  departed 
from  Kioutahia.  On  the  march,  there  were  feasHngs  and  music,  to 
which  Bajaxet  was  invited,  and  treated  with  great  honour.  Timnr 
even  granted  him  the  investiture  of  Natolia,  the  crown  was  placed 
npon  his  head,  and  a  patent  ^ven  him  for  his  govemmesit,  in  the  usual 

Timnr  sent  to  the  Snltan  of  Egypt  to  desire  that  the  money  should  be 
coined  in  his  name  and  titles,  and  that  he  would  release  Atilmich,  the 
ambassador.  Two  ambassadors  were  sent  to  the  Greek  Emperor  at 
Constantinople,  to  summon  him  to  pay  tribute  and  customs ;  which 
was  consented  to,  and  confirmed  by  a  solemn  treaty. 

The  Emperor,  in  his  marches  in  Natolia.  ravaged  and  laid  under 
contribution  all  the  towns  he  approached.  Being  informed  that  there 
was  an  exceedingly  strong  place  on  the  sesrshore,  built  of  free  stone, 
surrounded  on  three  sides  by  the  ocean,  and  on  the  fourth  by  a  deep 
ditch,  iidiabited  by  Europeans,  and  named  Exmir  (Smyrna) ;  and  that 
it  had  never  been  taken  by  any  Mahomedon,  or  paid  tribute ;  and  that 
Bajaaet  had  besi^^  it  in  vain  for  seven  years;  his  seal  for  religion 
made  him  resolve  to  summon  them  to  embrace  that  of  Mahomet,  at  to 
pay  tribute;  or,  in  case  of  refusal,  he  would  order  them  all  to  be  pnt 
to  the  sword.  These  proposals  were  made  in  vun.  This  place  edn- 
tained  a  great  number  of  the  bravest  Christian  captains,  or  rather 
a  bend  of  desperate  wretches  who  had  laid  up  mndi  ammmni- 

"Hmur  arrivedin  the  midst  of  rains,  and  winter.    Aflertbe  most  fit-  ^j^P*  '^ 

y  Google 

166  shyIina  takek^bajazets  death. 

CiU.P.  riouB  attacks,  abd  Takvons  defence;  by  means  of  sapping,  batt^ing- 
.  \^"-Y^'«^  rams,  and  fire,  the  jdace  was  stormed,  the  inhabitants  put  to  the  sword, 
the  buildings  razed,  and  the  moveables  cast  into  the  sea.  Two  large 
ships,  called  caraccas,  arrived,  and  their  commanders  anchored.  Ti< 
mur  ordered  that  some  of  the  Christians'  heads  should  be  cast  by 
the  machinery  on  board  the  vessels ;  on  which  they  departed.  This 
siege  was  terminated  in  two  wedcs^  and  every  one  acknowledged  the 
greatness  of  the  Emperor. 

Timur  granted  &vors  and  governments  to  two  sons  of  Bajazet  He 
ordered  a  strong  citadel  to  be  built  at  Smyrna,  and  that  Grecian 
Christians  should  not  be  admitted  into  Asia  that  way. 

An  Eui'opean,  named  Soba,  prince  of  the  island  of  Chio,*  where  mas- 
tich  grows,  voluntarily  submitted  to  pay  tribute  to  the  Emperor,  and 
seitt  him  presents  by  an  ambassador . 

Bajazet,  while  Timur  was  on  the  March,  fell  sick.      The  Emperor 
sent  the  most  skilful  physicians  of  the  court  to  attend  him,  with  the 
^same  care  as  if  it  were'for  himself;  but,  since  there  is  noting  of  cer- 
tain duration  but  God,  Bajazet  died  of  apoplexy  on  the  14th  of  Cha- 
ban,  805. 
A.D.  1403.     Timur  was  so  extremely  aflfected,  that  he  bewailed  the  misfortunes 
'  of  that  great  prince  witii  tears.    He  reflected  how  Providence  baffles 
all  human  projects;  for  he  intended  to  raise  the  dejected  spirit  of  Ba- 
jazet, by  re-establishing  him  with  great  power;  but  &tehad  otherwise 
ordered  it. 

Largesses  were  bestowed  on  Bajazet's  officers,  and  the  Emperor 

presented  his  son  with  a  royal  vest,  a  belt,  a  sword,  a  quiver  enriched 

with  precious  stones,'^ a  load  of  gold,  and  thirty  horses:  he  likewise 

gave  him  his  letters  patent,  sealed  with  the  impression  of  his  red  hatid, 

.  and  then  dismissed  him;  assuring  him  that  Bajazefs  coffin  should  be 



sent  with  the  potap  of  a  great  kiBg  to  Bnua,  to  be  interred  in  his  own     CHAP.    . 
mansdeum*.  >...«»v-^*<^ 

Timar's  boh,  Mehemed,  it  is  supposed  by  the  imskUfiilness  of  his  A.D.  1408, 
physicians,  died,  aged  nineteen.  He  had,  at  this  earlj  age,  obtained 
more  victories*  and  performed  greater  acts  of  valour,  than  many  he- 
roes recorded  in  history.  The  afflicted  &ther,  flinging  his  crown 
adde,  rent  his  clothes,  and  cast  himself  upon  the  ground  in  the  most 
surprising  transports  of  grie£  The  princes  and  lords,  and  the  ladies 
at  court,  wore  nothing  but  aaii^cloth;  covering  their  heads  and  bosoms 
with  earth,  and  deeping  upon  chaff.  The  princess  Canike,  Mehe- 
med's  wife,  was  so  overwhelmed  with  sorrow,  that  she  lost  her  senses. 
Even  the  soldiers  of  the  army  were  deeply  grieved.  The  ministers 
of  state,  falling  on  their  foces,  implored  the  Emperor  to  arm  himself 
with  patience,  and  compose  his  mind. 

Farrudge,  Sultan  of  Egypt,  sent  back  Timor's  ambassador,  Atilmich, 
with  assurances  of  entire  submission  and  payment  of  tribute.  Timur 
promised  him  his  protection.  The  EmpAur  pursued  his  march  home- 
ward,  uid  was  joined  by  his  sons  and  grandchildren.  At  sight  of 
Mehemed's  two  little  sons,  Timur  conld  not  refrain  from  tears.  The 
princess  Canzade,  mother  of  Mehemed,  when  made  acquainted  with 
his  death,  and  seeing  all  the  ladies  with  black  mantles  covering  their 
heads,  swooned,  plucked  out  her  hair,  and  tore  her  bvely  cheeks  with 
.  her  nails.  Timnr,  in  hopes  of  soothing  her,  ordered  an  empty  coffin, 
strongly  fastened,  to  be  presented  to  her,  whidi  she  eageriy  embraced, 
weeping  and  groaning.  — "  My  ^es,  (said  the  afflicted  princess),  were 
continually  watching  the  public  road,  in  expectation  of  some  news  of 

*  The  rtory  of  the  uaa  cage  is  rdsted  by  Bome  hiatoiians,  but  not  by  the  Per- 
uana. See  a  dissertation  on  that  subject  by  Gibbon,  Cb.  LXV.  The  truth  is, 
perbaps,  that  tbe  bouse  upon  wheeb,  such  as  Bajazet*  as  well  as  others,  travelled 
in,  was  secured,  to  prevent  his  escape,  by  irqQ  ban. 

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my  dear  childl   I  expected  not  this  cruelty  iivm  Fortone.    O  deplor- 
'  able  condition!  O  wretched  Canzadel  O  unfortunate  prinoe)  Herei- 
less  Fate  hath  snatched  the  sceptre  of  Iran  ttona  thy  hand ;  and  it  is  not 
without  cause,  that  tears  of  blood  gush  from  my  eyes.** 

Timur,  judging  it  proper  to  do  som^hii^  for  the  spiritiial  good  of 
his  soul,  ordered  a  funereal  banquet  AD  the  grandees  and  nobles  of 
Asia  sat,  according  to  their  rank,  at  the  Emperor's  table.  The  Alco- 
ran was  read,  and  Mehemed's  brass  drum  was  beaten;  at  sound  of 
which  there  was  a  sudden  and  loud  weeping;  and  the  dram  w«s  Ih-o- 
ken  to  pieces,  being  the  custom  of  the  Moguls.  The  Emperor  loaded 
the  doctors  with  ferours  and  honours,  and  pmnitted  an  order  to  be 
issued  for  leaving  off  the  sackcloth,  and  other  marks  of  grief. 

Timur  sent  Mirza  Aboubecre  to  rebuild  and  reinstate  Bagdat,  in  its 
former  splendour;  so  that  a  caravan  might  depart  the  next  year  for 

The  Emperor  invaded  Creoigia,  considering  it  a  gasie  (holy  war), 
and  a  duty.  Death  and  havock  were  the  consequences  to  the  Geor- 
gians; and  they  submitted  to  pay  tribute.  The  Enq>eror  arrived 
at  Teflis,  having  ruined  all  the  churches  and  monasteries  in  those 

In  one  mcmth,  being  the  cold  season.  Timur  rebuilt  the  city  of  Bai- 
lacan,  consisting  of  a  wall,  a  ditch,  four  maAet  places,  a  great  number 
of  houses,  bathe,  caravanserais,  squares,  and  gardens,  all  of  brick. 
The  great  Emperors  of  antiquity  could  not  have  achieved  this  in  a 
year.  The  circumference  of  the  walls  was  twenty-^our  hundred  cu- 
bits it^ge  measure,  the  thickness  eleven  cubits,  and  the  height  fifteen; 
with  a  ditch  thirty  cubits  broad,  and  twenty  wide;  at  each  comer, 
there  were  a  great  bastion,  a  gallery  with  battlements,  and  a  machine 
to  cast  stones.  The  soldiers  were  imder  the  direction  of  the  Empe- 
ror's sons  and  the  emirs. 



The  goTemment  of  fiulacan,  G«orgta,  Armenia^  and  Trebieond, 
was  given  to  Hirza  CalU  Soltaii.    As  water  was  mmting  at  Bailacan,  v. 
hn  Majesty  ordered  a  caaal  to  be  di^  from  the  Araxes;  six  leagues 
long  and  fifteen  cubits  in  breadth.    It  was  finished  in  about  a  month. 

'Hmur  sent  intendants  into  all  his  provinces,  to  distribute  justice 
with  r^our,  and  to  examine  the  state  of  affiura,  with  fioll  power. 

"  My  heart,"  said  the  Emperor,  "hath  always  been  set  on  the  en- 
la]^:ing  of  the  limits  of  my  vast  empire ;  but  now,  I  take  a  resolution 
to  use  all  my  care  in  procuring  security  to  my  subjects,  and  to  render 
my  kingdom  flourishing.  I  ordain  tiiat  private  persons  address  their 
complaints  to  myselt  I  am  unwilUng  that,  at  the  day  of  judgment, 
my  poor  oppressed  subjects  should  cry  for  vengeanee  against  me;  and 
I  desire  to  lay  up  a  treasure  of  justice,  that  my  soul  may  be  happy  af- 
ter death." 

The  assembly  lifted  up  their  hands  to  heaven,  and  said — *'  O  God, 
who  art  the  Lord  both  of  this  world  and  the  next,  hearken  to  the 
righteous  petitions  of  this  just  prince ;  and,  as  thou  hast  subjected  the 
earth  to  him ;  after  a  long  reign  in  this  world,  let  him  reign  with  thee, 
in  glory,  in  the  other." 

Justice  was  now  done  on  some  great  lords  and  governors. 

Timur  ordered  a  famous  chase  in  the  plains  of  Actam,  beyond  the 
Araxes.  The  dogs  had  coverings  of  satin,  embroidered  with  gold>  and 
the  hunting  leopards  had  chains  of  gold,  set  with  jewels,  about  their 
necks.  There  were  Grecian  greyhounds,  esteemed  for  their  swiftness, 
excellent  beagles,  and  huge  European  ma8ti£&,  as  strong  and  terrible 
as  tigers. 

After  three  days  the  cirde  began  to  ctoae,  and  the  slaughter  of  tions 
antelopes,  roebucks,  and  stags,  was  infinite*. 

*  Thii  is  a  fine  sporting  country.    "  We  came  to  the  Araxet,  and,  in  five 



CHAP.        TimuT,  having  made  himself  master  of  NatoUa  and  Syria,  with  their 
v-«--v-*^  dependencies;  subjected  Egypt  to  pay  an  annual  tribute;  and  fill- 
April  8.     filled  the  precept  in  the  Alcoran,  in  making  war  on  the  Christians 
of  Georgia;   reflected  that,  to  crown  his  happy  life,  he  had  no  more 
to  conquer  in  Asia  than  the  Emperor  of  China,  the  inhabitants  of 
which  empire  were  infidels.    He  therefore  resolved  on  that  conquest, 
and  departed  from  Carabagh  for  Samarcand. 
■'uly-  After  a  long  march,  during  which  his  Majesty  punished  some  re- 

>    '  volters,  he  reached  his  capital. 

An  ambassador*  arrived  from  one  of  the  greatest  sovereigns  of  Eu- 
rope, ^o  brought  Timur  many  curious  presents;  among  which  were 
some  of  tapestry,  so  curiously  worked  that  they,  disgraced  tiie  punter 
Manis's  greatest  performances. 

Timur  ordered  the  Damascus  architects  to  build  a  magnificent 
palace,  in  the  garden  south  of  Baghi  Chemal,  each  of  its  sides  be- 
ing fifteen  hundred  cubits.      There    were   perpetual    fountains   in 

(lays'  marcb)  to  a  plain  iull  of  wormwood  and  aromatic  shrubs,  but  no  trees ;  the 
most  numerous  wilj'creatures,  were  ostriches,  buatarda,  roe-deer,  and  asses;  the 
last  exceeded  our  horses  in  speed,  and  when  they  had  gained  ground,  they  stood 
still,  tiU  the  pursuers  approached,  and  agdn  they  fled ;  we  were  therefore  obliged 
to  hunt  them  by  relays.  Their  flesh  is  like  that  of  the  red-deer,  but  more  tender." 
Xenophon,  Retreat,  p.  27. 

*  Ruy  Gonzales  de  Clavijo,  from  Henry  111.  King  of  Castile.  Clavyo  pub- 
lished an  account  of  this  embassy,  which  bears  authentic  testimony  to  facts  related 
by  Sherefeddin;  and  he  gives  an  account  of  a  former  embassy  of  two  gentlemen 
of  the  court,  to  Timur;  who,  when  they  returned,  were  accompsnied  by  a  great 
lord,  as  an  ambassador  irom  Timur  to  Henry,  with  a  letter  and  abundance  of  rich 
presents;  among  which  were  two  ladies  taken  out  of  Bajazet'a  seraglio,  one  of 
whom  was  daughter  of  Count  John,  a  Hungarian,  and  niece  of  the  king  of  Hunga- 
ry, Her  name  was  Donna  Angelina  de  Grecta;  the  other  was  a  Greek  named 
Donna  Maria.  The  first  married  Diego  Gonzales  de  Contreras,  Regidor  of  Se- 
govia. The  latter  married  Payo  Gomes  de  Sotomayor,  one  of  the  ambassadors. 
They  were  both  respected  at  the  court  of  Castile.  See  the  French  Editor's  Pre- 
fiice  to  Sherefeddin. 

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great  variety,  mosuc  work^  marble,  porcebun,  and  every  rich  ornament.    CHAP. 
Here  Timur  ordered  a  banquet  to  be  prepared  with  all  the  deli^^ts  v.-^-v'^ 
frhich  mortals  can  desire  for  their  gratification.    The  European  am- 
bassadors were  invited,  for  even  Ihe  casses  have  their  place  in  the. 

Timur,  in  conformity  with  the  commands  of  the  Alcoran,  was  wil-  Oct.  17. 
Ung  that  his  grand-clnldren  should  be  married.    He  sent  circiilar  let- 
ters to  all  his.BoUes  andgovernors  of  the  empire,  (with  the  exoeption 
^  Shah  Rohk,  who  could  not  be  spared  from  the  kingdoms  of  Irac 
and  Azerbijan),  to  meet  at  Canighul,  for  this  grand  marriage-feast. 

The  tents  were  &stened  with  ropes  of  silk,  and  the  floors  co- 
vered with  carpets  wrought  with  gold ;  the  curtains  were  of  velvet  of 
Chuchter;  the  ceilings  of  ebony  and  iv<H7,  exquisitdy  engraved. 

The  Emperor's  division  consisted  of  four  great  euclosures,  regular* 
ly  planned.  The  Imperial  residence  consisted  of  two  hundred  tents, 
gilt  and  adorned  with  precious  stmies.  Each  tent  had  twelve  columns 
of  silrer  inlaid  with  gold:  the  outside  was  scarlet  and  seven  other 
ocdours,  and  they  were  lined  with  saiUn  of  all  colours. 

The  mirzas  and  emirs  had  their  tents  also,  which  were  supported 
by  columns  of  massive  silver,  and  spread  with  the  richest  carpets. 
The  generals,  governors,  and  lords  pitched  their  tents  in  good  and 
regular  order. 

The  people  came  &om  China*  MuscoVy,  Greece,  India,  Zabul,  Bag- 
dat,  Syria,  in  short  firom  all  Asia.  Mengheli,  a  principal  lord  of 
Egypt,  and  eloquent  man,  and  who  could  repeat  the  whole  Alcoran,  - 
arrived  as  ambassador  from  Farrudge,  the  son  of  Barcoc,  with  abund- 
ance of  rich  presents  in  gold  and  jewels,  and  also  a  Giraffe  and  nine 
lai^e  ostriches. 

*  Animals  about  the  size  of  a  grain  of  corn,  which  float  upon  the  sea. 

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The  Emperor's  sons  arrired  axtd  presented  the  most  precioiu  gifts; 
'  aivrajB  nine  of  a  sort.  In  flue,  Ctmighul  was  converted  from  a  garden 
of  flowers,  which  its  name  implies,  into  a  bed  of  precious  stones,  pearb, 
and  gold  *. 

Ad  amphitheatre  was  built  and  spread  with  brocade  and  Fersiaa 
carpets,  with  seats  for  vocal  and  instrumental  performers ;  and  places 
for  buffoons  and  jesters,  to  excite  mirth  by  their  facetious  sayings. 
Another  was  prepared  for  all  sorts  of  trades.  A  hundred  divisions 
were  laid  out  with  pomegranates,  pears,  apples,  and  fruits,  which  per- 
fumed the  air. 

Some  young  women  were  dressed  up  as  angels,  fitiries,  satyrs,  speaking 
goats  with  gilt  horns;  and  there  were  figures  of  elephants  and  sheep. 

The  fnrriers  appeared  in  the  guise  of  leopards,  lions,  tigers,  &c.  to 
represent  Crenii,  who  had  thus  transformed  themselves. 

The  upholsterers  made  an  artificial  camel,  which  walked  about  as 
if  alive.  The  saddlers  made  two  open  litters,  which  were  laid  upon  a 
camel ;  two  beautiful  women  were  placed  in  them,  and  diverted  the  as- 
sembly with  variety  of  postures  c^  the  hands  and  feet.  The  rope  dan- 
cers attracted  the  admiration  of  all. 

The  grand  cadi  of  Samarcand  received  the  consent  of  the  six 
princes  and  princesses;  the  articles  were  agreed  on;  the  ceremony 
read;  and  the  parties  joined  in  marriage;  which  he  registered.  Every 
one  sprinkled  the  brid»  and  bridegrooms  with  jewels. 

The  Emperor,  seated  upon  his  throne,  ordered  a  lAoat  magnificent 
banquet  to  be  served  up  to  the  brides  and  court  ladies,  by  the  great- 
est beauties  of  the  seragHo,  decorated  with  crowns  <rf  flowers. 

*  "  All  the  riches  of  Xerx«8  and  Darius,  of  which  our  historians  talk  so  ex- 
travagantly, were  trifling  in  comparison  of  the  jewels  and  gold  exhibited  on  this 
occasion,  on  the  delightful  plain,  called  Oanigul,  or  the  treasury  of  roses."  Sir 
W.  Jones.  Vol.  V.  p.  607. 



:    The  princes  of  the  Mood,  aaiia,  xwTians,  dmlfi},  foreign  udbasaa- 
dors,  the  emirB  of  tomans  and  hazares,  were  seated  according  to  their  . 
rank^  under  a  canopy  of  twelve  coUunns,  distant  frooi  the  naptial  hall 
«  horse's  course. 

The  Yesaoub  (or  Chaouz)  were  mounted  on  the  finest  horses,  witii 
aaddks  of  gold  uid  jewels,  magnificently  dressed  in  gold  broeade,  with 
eilTa  wands  in  their  hands,  to  shew  their  authority.  On  another  side 
were  elephants  of  a  prodigious  size,  with  a  kind  of  thrones  upon  their 
hackfl,  abnnibuitly  ornamented. 

Cammez,  wines,  brandy,  oxymel,  hippocras,  sinna,  and  other  li- 
quors, were  presented  upon  salvers  otgcUd  and  sUver,  in  cups  of  agate, 
rock  crystal,  and  gold,  ornamented  with  pearls  and  ^wels. 

Several  forests  were  cut  down,  to  dress  the  victuals  of  tbis  banquet. 
The  whoia  plain  was  covered  with  tables,  flaggons,  baskets  <^  provi- 
uon,  and  jars  for  the  court  and  people. 

It  was  proclaimed  by  the  crier,  by  the  Emperor's  command: — 

"  This  is  the  time  for  feasting  and  rtsjoieing,  let  no  one  encroach  on 
another,  or  ask—'  Why  have  you  done  this!' " 

After  the  feast,  mules  and  camels,  han&wmety  admned  in  satin  em- 
broidery and  little  golden  beUs,  were  laden  with  rich  habits^  crowns, 
and  bdts  of  jewds,  for  the  newly  married. 

The  brides  and  bridegrooms  dianged  their  ridi  dresses,  crowns,  and 
belts,  nine  times;  at  each  change  paying  their  respects,  and  being 
sprinkled  with  jewds,  till  the  ground  was  covered;  and  which  became 
the  profit  of  the  domestics. 

The  following  night  tJiere  were  illuminatMOs  in  evei^  place,  of  lan- 
terns, tordies,  and  lamps;  and  ihs  new  married  entered  the  nuptial 
ehandiers.  The  next  day  tim  ^npemr.  Empresses,  great  »nirs,  and 
dieriA,  visited  them  at  their  (qportneats.     The  sound  of  dnmis 



and  tmrapeis  was  beard  in  e7ery  place,  from  Canighid  to  Tous,'  in 
'  <%oraaBan. 

The  ambassadors  of  India,  Egypt,  Spain,  Gete,  Decht-Capchae, 
and  others,  witnessed  this  magnificence  and  pleasure,  which  lasted  two 
months;  and  Uiey  were  distinguished  by  particular  fovoors. 

The  marriage-feasts  being  over,  Timur  recalled  the  licence,  and  for- 
bade the  drinking  of  wine,  or  other  unlawful  act;  and  every  one  was 
Ordered  to  his  proper  employ. 

The  Emperor  returned  to  his  closet,  to  address  himself  to  God_ 
^  O  Almighty  Being,  whose  essence  is  unknown  but  to  thyself,  bow  can 
I  recite  thy  praise,  who  out  of  nothing  hast  created  me,  and  from  a  ^et- 
ty  prince  hast  rendered  me  the  mightiest  emperor  of  the  universe !  _ 
Continue,  then.  O  tho\i  Crreat  Creator!  thy  goodness  to  me.  I  know 
that  I  am  but  dust.  O  Lord !  put  me  not  to  shame  because  of  my 
vices,  who  have  been  so  long  accustomed  to  partake  of  thy  fovours: 
and  then  I  shall  rest  contented." 

Timur  having  sammoned  his  children  and  the  great  emirs,  addressed 
them  thus:  "  As  my  vast  conquests  hare  caused  the  destruction  of  a 
great  number  of  God's  creatures,  I  hare  resolved  to  atone  for  the 
crimes,  of  my  past  life,  by  exterminating  the  infidels  of  China.  It  is 
fitting,  therefore,  my  dear  Companions,  that  the  instruments  whereby 
the  faults  were  committed,  should  also  be  the  instruments  of  repent- 
ance, and  have  the  merit  of  that  holy  war,  to  demolish  the  temples  of 
the  idols  of  fire;  and  erect  in  their  places  mosques  and  chapels:  as  the 
Alcoran  assures  us,  that  good  works  efface  the  sins  of  this  world."— 
These  sentiments  were  unanimously  applauded —  "  Let  the  Emperor, 
(said  they)  display  his  standard,  and  his  slaves  will  follow  him." 

Timur  returned  to  Samarcand,  and  dismissed  the  princes  to  their 
governments,  and  the  ambassadors  to  their  countries,  with  honour  and 



The  Emir  Berendac  was  ordered  to  renew  the  troops.  He  hrought  CHAP, 
word  to  the  Emperor,  that  they  consisted  of  two  hundred  thousand  *,..— ^-^' 
men  complete;  capable  of  the  greatest  enterprises.  Timur  was  pleas^ 
ed,  and  ordered  them  to  begin  the  march.  Having  consulted  the  as- 
trologers; who  findiog  the  moon,  the  sun,  and  Jupiter,  in  favour- 
able aspects,  the  Emperor  seized  the  happy  moment,  and  began  his 

The  winter  was  very  violent :  the  Emperor  encamped  at  Ascoulat.  A.D.  1405. 
Prom  this  place,  Timur  strictly  enjoined  the  viceroys  and  governors  ' 

to  do  justice,  and  guard  his '  people  from  harm ;  that  he  may  not 
have  to  blush  for  their  shame  before  the  throne  of  God,  at  the  day  of 

The  army  was  well  supplied,  and  several  thousand  loads  of  corn  were 
carried  in  waggons,  to  sow  the  fields  on  the  road,  and  thousands  of  she- 
camels  were  taken  for  their  milk.  The  violence  of  the  cold  was  such, 
that  men  and  horses  perished ;  and  many  lost  their  hands,  feet,  ears, 
or  noses.  Timur  crossed  the  Sihon,  upon  the  ice,  which  they  found, 
on  digging  for  water,'was  two  or  three  cubits  thick. 

The  Emperor  arrived  at  Otrar,  seventy-six  parasangs  from  Samar-  Feb.  27. 
cand,  and  lodged  in  the  palace  of  Birdi  Bey,  where  all  the  princes  and 
lords  had  also  their  respective  apartments.  The  day  of  the  Emperor's 
arrival,  one  comer  of  the  roof  of  the  palace,  in  which  he  was  lodged, 
took  fire  from  the  tunnel  of  a  chinmey  running  by  it ;  but  the  fire  was 
soon  extinguished. 

On  the  10th  of  Chaban,  Timur  was  attacked  by  a  burning  fever,  and  March  «6. 
believed  he  heard  the  Houris  say  to  him,  "  Repent!  for  you  must  appear 
b^ore  God."    On  this  he  became  sincerely  penitent  for  his  crimes*. 

(saye  Locke)  is  a  state  of  mind  founded  neither  on  reason  nor 

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His  sickness  increasiiig,  and  faaTiog  no  rest,  he  was  much  weakened. 
Then,  neither  empire,  nor  armies,  nor  riches,  nor  crowns,  stood  him  in 
any  stead.  One  of  the  most  skilful  physicians  of  the  age  employed 
all  his  care* ;  but  &te  had  ordained.  His  mind  continued  sound,  and 
he  resolved  courageously  to  face  death.  He  called  the  empresses  and 
principal  emirs  into  his  presence.  "  I  am  satisfied, "  said  the  Emperor, 
"  that  my  soul  is  about  to  leave  my  body.  I  beseech  you,  instead  of 
uttering  cries,  rending  your  garments,  and  running  to  and  fro,  like  mad- 
men, to  say  AUa  Akbar!  and  the  Fathia,  that  my  soul  may  find  comfbrt. 
Since  Grodhasenabledf  me  to  give  laws  to  the  earth,  whereby,  through 

revelatioD,  but  rises  from  the  conceits  of  an  overweening  brun.  Timor  would 
now,  probably,  reflect  on  the  numerous  pyramids  of  ghaetly  heads. 

TiMua's  Dream. 
Hark !  I  hear  the  Houris  say — 
Soul  of  Timur,  wing  thy  way, 
Leaving  earth  and  mortal  things. 
Stand  before  the  King  of  Kings ! 
Awful  truth  must  here  be  told — 
If  thou  fougbt'st  for  God  or  gold. 

*  It  is  Bud,  that  Timur  had  imprudently  drunk  a  glaas  of  cold  water,  which,  not 
improbably,  saved  the  empire  of  China. 

t  Once,  at  the  siege  of  a  strong  castle,  Timur,  by  too  much  fatigue,  was  seized 
with  a  fever,  but  not  bdng  able  to  rest  without  sedng  how  things  went  on,  he 
ordered  his  attendants  to  carry  him  to  the  door  of  his  tent,  which  stood  upon  an 
eminence,  and  from  whence  he  beheld  the  attack.  He  was  supported  under  the 
arms  by  two  persons;  but,  being  very  weak,  he  soon  ordered  them  to  lay  him  gendy 
upon  the  ground,  which  they  did.  Then,  sending  one  of  them  away,  he  said  to 
the  other,  named  Mahmud  of  Marasm, "  Considermy  feebleness,  and  how  destitute 
I  am  of  strength.  I  have  neither  a  hand  to  do  anything,  nor  a  foot  to  walk :  if  I 
should  be  attacked,  I  cannot  defend  myself.  Should  I  be  abandoned  in  die  etrndi- 
tion  I  am  in,  I  should  remain  as  in  a  trap,  without  being  able  in  any  wise  to  help 
myself,  or  avoid  the  evils  that  must  befal  me :  yet,  see,  the  Almighty  has  subjected 
nations  to  my  obedience,  gives  me  entrance  into  the  most  inaoceesible  places,  fills 

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all  the  kingdoms  of  Iran  and  Toona,  no  one  dare  encroach  on  his  nogh-  CHAP, 
bour,  I  have  hopes  that  he  will  pardon  my  sins,  though  they  are  with-  s^^y-^.' 
out  number.  I  have  the  amsolation,  throughout  my  reign>  of  not 
having  permitted  the  strong  to  oppress  the  weak.  I  declare  my  son 
Pir  Mehemed  Gehanghir,  my  universal  heir,  and  lawful  successor  to 
the  empire.  He  must  possess  the  throne  of  Samarcand  with  absolute 
sovereignty;  and  I  command  you  all  to  obey  him*  that  my  labours 
for  so  many  years  may  not  be  lost." 

Tiiqur  then  ordered  all  the  generals  and  great  lords  to  come  before 
him,  and  to  promise,  on  their  solemn  oaths,  that  no  one  should  be  pei^ 
mitted  to  oppose  the  execution  of  his  will.  The  lords  melted  into 
tears  wi^  grief  and  despair :  and,  foiling  on  their  fkces,  asked  if  they 
should  send  for  Calil  Sultan  7  "  No,"  said  Timur, "  I  have  nd  other 
desire  than  to  see  Mirza  Shah  Rohk  once  more;  but  God  will  not 
have  it  BO."  The  ladies  in  the  anti-chamber  were  in  the  utmost  con- 
sternation. Timur,  turning  to  his  children,  said,  "  Remember  to  A.  D.  1405. 
keep  the  public  tranquillity;  be  valiant,  that  you  may  long  enjoy  a  *"^  ' 
vast  empire;  and  make  equity  and  justice  the  rule  of  your  actions. 
If  discord  should  creep  in  among  you,  irreparable  mischiefs  will  arise 
both  in  religion  and  government."  Timur  was  pleased  to  have  the 
doctor,  Moulana  Hebetulla,  to  read  the  word  of  God.  At  night,  at 
about  eight  o'clock,  Timur,  remembering  the  promise  of  Mahomet,  that 
he  whose  last  words  are,  "  there  is  no  other  god  than  God,"  shall 
surely  enter  Paradise,  made  profession  of  that  belief.  Then  he  gave 
up  his  soul  to  the  angel  Enrafi^  *,  who  called  him  in  these  words: — 

the  eaxth  widi  the  terror  of  my  naaie,  and  tnakea  longs  and  ]»iiioes  fall  down  be- 
fore me.  Can  such  woils  come  from  any  but  GoAt  What  am  I  but  a  poor  miaer- 
able  wretdi,  without  either  power  or  applicatkm  equal  to  such  great  exi^its?  " 
At  theae  words  the  tears  fell  from  his  eyes,  neitlier  could  Blahmod  refrain  fiwa 

*  Israel. 

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"  O  soul  that  hopest  in  God,  return  to  tkj  I^ord  with  resignation.  We 
>  belong  to  God,  and  must  return  to  him." 

Timur  was  seventy-one  years  of  age,  and  had  reigned  thirty-six*. 

This  dismal  night  was  passed  in  grief.  Horror  seized  both  on  his 
friends  and  enemies.  The  princes  of  the  blood  cast  their  crowns  on 
the  earth;  the  empresses  tore  their  faces  and  hair;  and  the  emirs  rent 
'their  robes;  tempests,  rains,  and  thunder- did  not  cease  through  the 
night,  as  if  heaven  shared  the  affliction  f. 

The  next  morning,  the  body  was  embalmed  with  camphire,  mask, 
and  rose  water;  and,  being  wrapped  in  linen,  was  laid  in  a  coffin  of 
ebony.  An  express  was  sent  to  Gazna  to  Pir  Mahomed,  to  beseech 
his  presence:  and  Timor's  death  was  not  permitted  to  be  published. 

*  Timur  was,  in  many  qualitieB,  unquestionably  a  great  man:  politic,  orcum- 
spect,  temperate,  generous,  and  just  except  in  warfare.  His  admirers,  like  his  de- 
scendants, (see  Dow,  Vol.  1 1,  p.  9),  must  deplore  his  fanatical  murders.  Religion, 
that  cordial  of  the  human  mind,  when  it  deviates  into  bigotry,  never  fiiils  to  confuse 
the  understanding;  and  ingeneral  it  inbumanizes  the  heart.  But  for  this  "  (^anuwrf 
^*,"  Timur,  as  a  conqueror  and  a  greatmonarch,  might  bavecommanded  a  dis- 
tinguished fame  on  the  page  of  history.  He  is,  for  the  extent  of  his  conquests, 
second  only  to  Genghis  Khan,  having  exceeded  the  Great  Cyrus  and  Alexander. 

The  horror  of  all  mankind,  except  those  of  his  own  sect,  attaches  to  such  a  mis- 
chievous being  during  his  existence:  and  probably,  even  most  of  the  followers 
of  Ah,  at  the  present  time,  are  softened  into  a  more  rational  character ;  and  the 
best  portion  of  them  look  back  on  faim,  in  that'  respect,  with  disapprobation. 
Timur  has  been  called  the  JDextrot/ing  Prince:  but  Genghis  Khan,  an  aml^tiotu 
fanatic,  has  a  prior  claim,  and  a  juster  right  to  that  infernal  pre-eminence. 

t  There  is  much  similitude  between  the  character  and  career  of  Cromwell  and 
those  of  Timur: — their  bigotry,  talents,  courage,  magnanhnou*  resolution,  success, 
death,  and  immediate  loss  of  their  empires.  "At  the  great  stormy  Monday,  on 
which  day  he  died,  Cromwell  (upon  a  revelation  they  say)  told  his  physicians  that 
he  should  now  live  to  perfect  the  work.  At  his  death,  he  had  no  sin  that  troub- 
led him,  but  only  his  want  of  faith.  I  suppose  he  meant,  as  the  divines  of  that 
party  do/  a  full  assurance  of  remission  of  sins  and  eternal  salvation ;  and  then  it 
was  no  wonder  he  wanted  it."  John  Barwick  to  Charles  11.  Lettet  LXXIX. 
Select  Collection,  1755. 



A  general  council  was  held,  and  it  was  resolved  to  continae  the  ex-     CHAP. 
pedition  to  China,  without  waiting  for  the  arrivai  of  the  new  Emperor    ^.,«^<y^ 
hut  Mirza  Sultan  Hussein,  who  had  deserted  at  Damascus,  and  fought 
against  Timur,  disbanded  a  part  of  the  left  wing  of  the  army;  and,    ~ 
with  a  thousand  horse,  took  the  road  to  Samarcand,  designing  to  8ur> 
prise  the  inhabitants  by  a  stratagem,  thdt  he  might  enter  the  city. 
Couriers  were  sent  in  all  directions,  and  the  whole  army  marched  for 
Samarcand.     The  emirs  and  soldiers  of  Calil's  court,  at  Tashkuud, 
hearing  of  the  defection  of  Hussein,  swore  allegiance  to  Calil  Sultan, 
a  grandson  of  Timur,  and  sovereign  of  Tashkund ;  and  placed  him  on 
the  throne. 

On  news  of  this,  Timur's  army,  with  the  treasure,  advanced  towards  April  16. 
Bochara.  The  empresses,  with  the  heavy  baggage,  were  admitted  into 
Samarcand.  Calil,  having  marched  to  Samarcand,  was  received,  and  April  27. 
took  possession  of  the  imperial  palace;  which  contained  all  the  trea- 
sures received  in  tribute,  and  the  plunder  of  thirty-six  years.  He  re- 
ceived the  submission  of  the  principal  men  of  the  state*.  He  ordered 
a  funereal  banquet;  and  the  Alcoran  to  be  read  through.  Timur's 
drum  was  beaten  mournfully;  and  then  broken  to  pieces.  When 
Calil  found  himself  fixed  on  the  throne,  he  distributed  gold  like  com 
out  of  bams;  and  it  was  carried  away  by  loads,  to  the  amazement  of 
the  people. 

At  the  death  of  the  nephew  of  Hadgi  Berlas,  his  empire  readied 
from  the  Irtish  and  Volga  to  the  Persian  Gulf;  and  from  the  Indus, 
(for  he  did  not  keep  possession  of  Hindostan),  to  Damascus  and  the 
Grecian  Archipelago.     Including  Zagatai,  Timur  had  placed  twenty* 

•  About  a  dozCD  emin  virtuously  remonstrated.  Pir  Mahomed  was  the  law- 
ful heir,  being  the  eldest  son  of  Timur's  eldest  son,  Gehanghir:  he  was  now 
twenty-nine  years  of  age. 

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wrta  crowm  upm  hie  hud.  AH  hu  coaqQwtft  ir«re  goremod  hj  his 
'  oluldrett,  or  his  princqud  noUea.  as  vieen^.  Hiadostaa,  Ama  Miaot, 
Russia,  Iberia,  Gcte,  Bogdst,  GeoiigU,  &&  had  been  inTaded  and 
plundo-ed.  E^^ypt,  and  l&e  Greek  empire,  had  fubmitted  to  pay 

It  would  require  a  huge  rolume  to  describe  the  castles,  cities,  pa- 
lacesj  bridges,  TDODasteriee,  mosqiMS,  hospit^,  pkasure  houses,  uid 
cararanserais  which  were  built;  uid  the  rivem  and  canals  which  yre» 
dug  by  this  pious  £iaperor. 

Timur  left  thirtj^x  sous  and  gnndsons*,  onedaughtn,  wid  fifteen 
grand-daughters.  He  was  a  rigid  observer  of  bis  word;  Uboal  aod 
onirteous  to  all.  except  Aose  who  refused  to  obey  bim.  He  passed 
his  letsure  hours  in  reading  books  of  scdeQc&  and  history;  in  playing 
at  chess,  in  whit^  game  he  made  some  sltenUions;  aad  in  the  «qb- 
versatien  of  learned  men.  At  Us  first  rise  to  distinction,  Asia  was  a 
prey  to  anarchy  frad  bad  govemment;  at  his  death*  justice  and  secu- 
tUf  were  enjoyed  throu^wut  his  dominitHisf . 

The  Mirza  CtlU,  at  the  age  of  twenty-<Mie,  without  striking  a  blow, 
was  now  in  possession  of  tlie  vastest  and  ricbest  eu^re  at  that  pe- 
riod m  the  universe. 

Duiing  the  absence  «f  Timur  in  Georgia,  the  mirna  had  prirately 
married  Shadi  Mule,  a  great  beauty,  one  of  the  concubines  of  the 
EoskHadgifietfeddin.  He  miixa's  wife  iuforoied  Timur;  who  or^ 
Jtaei  tiMt  Shadi  Mule  shoidd  make  her  ^peaj-anoe:  but  the  mim 

•  I%eexpfiiHe«f  Tionir'etraiiuly  muethovebeeiiiinnieaee.  His  eUest  som  te* 
ceired  the  subBistence  of  twelve  thousand  horsemen :  his  second  son,  of  ten ;  hU 
third  Bon,  of  nine:  his  fourth  son,  Shah  Rohk,  of  seven  thousand,  &c.  and  his 
sEandsons'  Bubeistence  and  lands,  of  from  three  to  seven  thousand  horsemen  each. 
— Jnstitutefl,  p.  S41. 

t  Sherefeddin.  Dow's  Hindostan.  Modem  Universal  History.  Gibbon.  Pur- 
chas.  De  Guines,  &c. 

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lumi^  comcetled  her,  Thnur,  enraged,  commanded  a  atriet  search.  — 
Being  ftnmd,  she  was  condemned  to  die;  and  would  hare  been  put  to  <• 
death,  but  for  the  intercession  of  Mirza  Pir  Mdiemed  Gehangbir. 

Calil  having  again  concealed  her  in  his  house,  and  information 
thereof  being  transmitted  to  Thnur,  the  was  forthwith  ordered  to  be 

The  empress.  Serai  Mule  Canum.  was  a^cted  at  the  deep  anxietjr 
and  despair  of  the  unhappy  mirza,  and  trusting  to  Timur's  love  of  his 
diildren,  she  prevailed  on  the  emir,  Noureddin,  to  inform  Timur  that 
the  lady  was  pregnant  by  the  mirza.  On  this  account  the  order  was 
reversed,  and  she  was  entrusted  to  the  care  of  the  Eanpress  Bon- 
yan  Aga;  that,  after  the  lying  in,  she  might  bring  up  the  child,  and 
commit  the  lady  to  the  care  of  the  black  eunuchs. 

On  th^  death  of  Timor,  Calil,  finding  himself  an  absolute  sovereign, 
being  crowned  on  the  27th  April,  resigned  every  thing  to  the  wlU  of 
the  beauty,  whose  charms  were  the  subject  of  all  his  thoughts;  and  he 
took  no  pleasure  but  in  her  company.  Calil  became  ha  slave,  and 
breathed  only  by  her  permission;  while  she  accounted  every  thing 
beneath  her,  and  shewed  no  respect  whatever  either  to  the  princes  or- 

The  state,  in  whatever  concerned  the  sovereign  authority,  was  now 
thrown  into  great  disorder.  The  mirza  squandered  fais  wealth  with 
such  profusion,  and  chiefly  among  those  who  were  afterwards  the  cause 
of  his  ruin ;  that,  though  all  the  riches  of  Hatem,  and  the  tribe  of  Tai, 
did  not  equal  the  tenth  part  of  one  of  the  imperial  treasuries,  it  was 
soon  entirely  gone.  Strtuigers  and  upstarts  were  suddenly  enriched  ' 
and  promoted  to  the  first  offices  in  the  state;  while  persons  of  the 
greatest  merit  were  totally  disregarded.  "  Bestow  not  honour  and 
riches,"  says  the  poet,  "on  him  thou  lovest,  unless  by  degrees;  lest  he 
become  insensible  of  the  obligations  he  owes  to  you.* 



Shadi  Mule,  being  inferior  in  taak  to  the  deceased  Emperor's  wiv^, 
^  those  empresses  became  jealous  of  her  greatness ;  at  which  Shadi  Mule 
was  very  indignant,  and  persuaded  Calil  to  force  them  to  marry  per- 
sons in  every  way  unworthy  of  them.  Calil  behaved  to  these  venera- 
ble ladies,  whom  he  ought  to  have  reverenced  as  his  mother,  with 
every  disrespect.  Even  the  soldiers  were  now  disgusted  with  the 
new  Elmperor,  and  the  afikirs  of  the  state  fell  into  the  utmost  con- 

Pir  Mahomed  had  been  put  to  death  by  the  treachery  of  his  own 
minfsters.  The  Emperor  Calil  was  seized  by  conspirators,  and  sent 
to  Cashgar,  where  he  passed  fais  time  in  writing  verses  on  the  charms 
of  his  beloved  empress  *;  while  she  herself  was  led  in  chains  through 
the  streets  of  Samarcand,  exposed  to  the  insults  of  a  justly  irritated 
populace.  In  1409,  Shah  Rohk  succeeded  to  the  throne.  Calil  was 
sent  to  Chorassan  where  he  soon  died;  and  Shadi  Mule,  who  was  sin- 
cerely attached  to  him,  would  not  survive  him,  hut  struck  a  poignard 
into  her  bosom,  and  was  buried  in  the  same  tombf. 

*  Thus  were  the  firuita  of  Timur's  conquests  puffed  into  the  air  like  a  feather ; 
the  amount  of  them  can  scarcely  be  guessedat.  The  lines  of  Hafez  are  more  appli- 
cable to  the  prince  than  to  the  poet. 

"  Sweet  maid,  if  thou  would'st  charm  my  sight , 
-    And  bid  these  arms  thy  neck  infold, 
That  rosy  cheek,  that  lily  hand, 
Would  give  thy  Calil  more  delight 
Than  all  Bocara's  vaunted  gold, 
Than  all  the  gems  of  Samarcand. 

SirWm.  Jones,  Vol.  IV.  p.  449. 

t  Shetefeddm,  and  Histoire  dea  Hnns,  Vol.  V.  p.  81. 



Is  the  year  of  the  Hegira  822>  A.  D.  U19,  Shah  Rohk  sent  Shadfti 
Khoja  as  an  ambassactor  to  China.  The  party  set  out  from  Herat,  and 
proceeded,  by  Balk,  to  Samarcand,  where  they  found  Mirza  Utug 
Bey,  Shah  Rohk's  son,  (the  great  astronomer)*,  who  sent  other  lords, 
and  some  Chinese,  to  join  the  embassy. 

They  passed  through  Taahkund,  Jayram,  Ash,  and  Ilduz,  (supposed 
to  be  Yelduz),  and  found  the  ice  to  be  two  inches  thick,  thoi^h  the 
sun  was  then  in  the  summer  solstice.  They  proceeded  to  Tarcan, 
Kamul,  and  thence  to  a  place  within  twelve  days  of  Selgu,  the  first 
city  in  Katay.  The  embassy  consisted,  in  all,  of  eight  hundred  and 
sixty-seven  persons.  In  the  desert,  on  the  borders,  the  whole  em- 
bassy was  magnificently  feasted,  and  accommodated  with  beds,  &c. 
even  for  all  the  servants. 

On  their  arrival  at  Kamju,  (Campion),  they  were  entertained  in  a 
noble  manner.  At  this  place  they  saw  a  temple,  each  side  of  which  was 
five  hpndred  cubits  long;  and  in  the  middle  ofit  was  an  idol  fifty  feet  in 
length,  lying  as  if  asleep.  The  hands  and  feet  were  nine  feet 
Icmg,  and  the  head  was  twenty*one  feet  in  circumference.  There  were 
other  idols  about  him,  each  a  cubit  high,  in  attitudes  as  if  alive.  They 
saw  ten  more  temples  in  the  city;  one  with  eight  sides,  and  fifteen 

*  Ulug  Bey  bad  a  qnadraDt^  at  Samarcand,  one  hundred  and  eighty  feet  high. 
His  Astronomical  Tables  are  found  to  differ  very  little  firom  those  afterwards  con- 
structed by  Tycho  Brahe.  Hia  principal  work  is  a  Catalogue  of  the  Fixed  Stars, 
Stom  hia  own  Obeerratioiu,  A.  D.  1487.    Enc.  Brit.  '*  Astroncmy." 



stories  in  height,  the  chambers  of  which  were  Taraiahed,  and  em- 
>  bellished  with  paintings.  At  the  foot  of  this  temple  were  figures  of 
giants,  which  seemed  to  carry  it  upon  their  backs.  It  was  of  wood, 
gilt,  and  so  rich  that  it  appeared  like  nusBjr  gold.  In  a  vault  under  the 
edifice,  is  an  iron  axis  or  pillar,  which  rests  upon  a  plate  of  iron,  and 
reaches  from  the  bottom  to  the  top.  This,  being  moved  with  ease, 
sets  the  whole  &bric  in  motion;  and  tums  it  round  in  such  a  surpris- 
ing manner,  Uiat  "  all  the  carpenters,  smiths,  and  painters  in  the  world, 
ought  to  go  thither  to  learn  the  secrets  of  tiieir  trades." 

As  the  embassy  approached  the  capital,  the  magnificence  increased. 
They  arrived  at  Karamuran,  (on  the  banks  of  the  Whang-hp),  and 
crossed  a  firm  even  bridge  of  boats,  fiutenedwith  iron  chains  attached 
to  thick  iron  pillars.  There  is  a  still  more  superb  temple  here;  and 
three  public  stews,  full  t>f  very  beautiful  harlots.  The  women 
here  being  the  handsomest  in  Katay,  this  is  called — "  The  City 
of  Beauty." 

At  Sad-in-fVi,  in  a  temple,  was  an  image  of  brass  gilt,  fifty  cabits 
high,  called  the  image  of  a  thousand  hands,  having  a  great  number, 
and  in  the  palm  an  eye. 

On  the  arrival  of  the  embassy  at  Khanbfdik,  (Pekin),  they  were  con- 
ducted to  the  palace  gate,  where  stood  five  elephants  on  each  side. 
They  then  entered  a  beautiAil  court,  where  near  a  hundred  thousand 
men  were  awaiting  the  Emperor;  and  three  hundred  thousand  out>- 
side.  Before  the  palaoe  were  two  thousand  musicians  singing  hymns, 
and  two  tjiousand  guards  armed  with  swords,  haU}erda,  &c.  It  was 
now  just  day-light,  and  drums,  trumpets,  flutes,  hantbois,  and  bells 
began  to  sound.  The  throne  was  massy  gold.  The  commanders  of 
ten  thousand,  one  thousand  &c.  and  an  infinite  number  of  guartts  at- 
tended, in  profound  silence.  The  Emperor  ascended  by  nine  steps  of 
silver.    On  «ich  side  of  the  throne,  stood  two  beautiM  maidens,  wiA 



tkir  ftees  and  neela  bote,  tlieir  hair  tied  at  the  top  of  their  heads, 
and  great  pearls  at  their  ears.  They  had  a  pen  and  paper;  and  re-  >. 
corded  whaterer  the  Emperor  spoke.  The  seren  (tmbassadors  ap- 
pnottched,  aaid  abo  seren  hundred  criminals,  none  of  whom  are  put  to 
deadiwithosiithennnatesteaquiiy;  and  die  Emperor  never  condemns 
any  but  diose  he  cannot  sare.  The  seven  ambassadors  were  ordered 
to  fall  vpon  their  knees,  and  knock  the  grotmd  wiUt  their  foreheads ; 
but  they  only  bowed  the  head  three  times.  They  delivered  the  letters, 
of  Shah  fiohk,and  other  princes,  {the  grandeur  and  oeremonies  are 
here  described,  but  need  not  be  repeated,  being  similar  to  the  accounts 
irtiich  appear  in  this  work  firon  Maico-  Polo  and  5fr  John  Maunde- 
ville).  In  tiie  court,  wei%  several  thoosands  of  different  birds,  which 
flew  about,  and  fed  upon  the  ground  among  the  people,  quite  tamed 
and  fearless.  For  five  months  there  were  occasional  grand  banquets. 
On  new  year's  day,  people  from  Thibet  and  all  parts  arrived  at  the 
grand  feast,  (for  which  see  in  this  volume  Ch.  II.  Maimdeville's  and 
Polo's  descriptions).  The  dephants  on  that  day  were  admned  with  a 
magnificence  not  to  be  expressed,  with  silver  seats  and  standards,  and 
armed  men  upon  their  bat^s.  Fifty  of  them  carried  the  musicians, 
Aeae  were  preceded  or  followed  by  fifty  thonsand  in  profound  si- 
lence and  order*.     Immense  illuminations  took  place  for  many  days. 

*  This  must  be  considered  na  a  mere  oriental  hyperbole,  to  mean  a  vast  num- 
bts.  (Kaundeville  rdates  that  TUaut  Khan  bad  one  hundred  and  thirty  tfaou- 
tand  registered  tnitistrek,  and  one  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  keepers  <^  Ihe 
elephants,  beasts,  and  birds'.  See  Cb.  II.)  We  find  the  same  expressionln  the 
travels  of  two  IVlaliomedans  through  India,  in  the  ninth  century. 

"  These  kiBgdomi  border  om  the  lands  o(  a  king  cdled  Rami,  vfao  is  at  war 
with  the  king  of  Harez  Aud  with  the  Balh&ra  aJ^o.  This  king  is  not  much  consi- 
dered for  bis  birth,'  or  the  antiquity  of  his  kingdom,  but  his  forces  are  more  nu- 
merous than  those  of  the  Balhara,  (or  king  of  kings,  sovereign  of  Kanuge  a  city 
am  the  GBngefi_aec  nates  to  Ahid  Gfaad,  VoL  U.  pp.  4ffS,  7M),  and  even  Aom 
of  Harez  and  Tafek.  They  say  that  when  he  takes  the  field,  he  appears  at  the 
liead  of  fifty  thousand  fAephants."    Hairi/s  Yoyoes,  Vol.  I.  p.  SS5. 



Debtors  and  all  felons,  except  murderers,  were  disdiarged  from  the 
>  prisons. 

The  Emperor  presented  shankars,  much  esteemed  birds,  to  tiiose 
who  had  brought  him  horses:  he  then  made  rich  presents  to  the  am- 
bassadors. Sending  for  them,  he  said  he  was  going  to  hunt;  and  de- 
ured  them  to  take  out  the  shankars  for  their  amusement ;  they  would 
fly  well,  said  his  majesty;  but  the  horses  they  had  presented  were  not 

The  next  morning  the  ambassadors  were  told  that  the  horse  sent 
by  Shah  Rohk  had  thrown,  the  Emperor;  and  that  his  majesty 
had  commanded  them  to  be  put  in  chains.  They  were  near  the  Em- 
peror's quarters,  and  were  ordered  to  wait.  His  majesty  was  per- 
suaded not  to  put  them  to  death,  as  it  would  be  violating  the  law  of 
nations ;  and  they  were  pardoned. 

The  Emperor  mounted  the  large  black  horse  sent  him  by  Ulug  Bey, 
and  had  a  parade  of  guards  about  him.  The  ambassadors  were  or- 
dered to  alight  near  him.  He  said,  addressing  them, "  the  rarities, 
beasts,  and  other  presents  sent  to  me  in  future,  must  be  better  chosen; 
the  horse  I  rode  is  so  vicious,  and  I  am  so  aged,  that  I  have  been 
thrown,  and  am  much  hurt  in  tiie  hand;  but  have  assuaged  the  pain 
by  laying  gold  upon  it." 

Shadai  Khoja  apologized  to  his  majesty,  and  represented  that  it 
was  the  horse  which  the  great  Timur  had  ridden  upon;  and  that 
Shah  Bohk  had  sent  it  to  his  majesty,  as  the  horse  of  the  greatest 
value  in  all  his  dominions.  The  Emperor,  being  satisfied  with  this 
answer,  called  for  a  shankar  and  let  it  fly  at  a  crane;  but  it  did  not 
seize  the  prey,  and  his  majesty  gave  it  three  strokes  upon  the  head. 
Then  sitting  upon  a  chair,  and  placing  his  feet  upon  another,  the  Em- 
peror gave  a  shankar*  to  Sultan  Shah,  and  one  to  Sultan  Ahmed;  but 

*  It  tfl  an  old  custom  among  the  Tartars,  to  giro  a  fine  falcon  tm  an  extraordi- 

y  Google 


none  to  Shadai  Khoja:  he  then  remounted  his  horse,  and  returned  to     CHAP, 
the  city;  where  he  was  received  with  a  thousand  acclamations.    The  v^^-y-^^ 
Emperor  being  ill,  his  son  dismissed  the  ambassadors  with  honour, 
and  they  reached  Herat  after  an  absence  of  two  years*. 


The  Gypsies  have  puzzled  the  world  almost  as  much  as  the  Mam- 
moths: but  the  history  of  Tamerlane's  invasion  of  Hindostan,  appears 
to  afford  the  true  solution  of  their  origin.  "Mr.  Grelhnan,  in  lus  dis- 
sertation, supposes  the  Gypsies  to  be  Hindoos  of  the  lowest  class,  and 
grounds  this  hypothesis,  chiefly,  on  the  similarity  of  the  gypsy-lan- 
guage to  the  Hindostanee,  shewing  mxuiy  words  to  be  the  same; 
though  many  are  d^erent.  He  coigectures  that  they  fled  from  India 
on  Timur's  invasion;  but  he  acknowledges  that  it  is  a  mere  sur- 

Sir  William  Jones  suggests,  that,  in  some  piratical  expedition,  they 
might  have  landed  in  Arabia  or  Africa,  and  rambled  to  Egypt  and 
Europe.  '^  The  motley  language  of  the  G3rpsies,  of  which  Mr.  Grell- 
man  exhibits  a  copious  vocabulary,  contains  so  many  Sanscrit  words. 

nary  present,  hawking  being  one  of  their  iavorite  amiuements.  In  the  province 
of  Dauria,  near  the  Amoor,  there  are  great  numbera  of  milk  white  fiilcons,  jrom 
.whence  China  i>  supplied. 

The  Tartan  in  Siberia  make  uae  of  three  »ort« The  first  is  called  in  their 

tongue,  Bkartscbeg  Aholphei,  or  Txtingar,  which  is  the  beat  and  moot  beantirnl 
kind;  it  is  pretty  lai^,  a^  coloured,  and  some  are  apeckled  white.  See  Strah- 
lenberg,  p.  862.  Abul  Gbazi,  Vol.  I.  p.  97,  says,  this  bird  is  white  except  Uie 
feet,  eyes,  and  bill,  which  are  red. 

•  Astley's  Collection,  Vol.  IV. 

t  Reee's  Encyc.**£gyptiRU*" 

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that  their  Indian  origin  can  hardiy  be  doubted.  The  authenticity  of 
>  that  vocabulary  seems  established  by  a  multitude  of  gypsy-words,  as 
litu,  earth;  eashth,  wood;  and  a  hundred  morej  for  which  the  collector 
of  them  could  find  no  parallel  in  the  Tulgar  dialect  of  Hindostan; 
though  we  know  them  to  be  pure  Sanscrit,  scarce  changed  in  a  single 
letter.  Near  the  mputh  of  the  river  Sindhu,  is  a  district  named  by 
NearchuB,  in  his  journal,  Sangada,  which  M.  D'Anville  supposes, 
justly,  to  be  the  seat  of  the  Sanganians,  a  piratical  nation,  well  known 
at  present  in  the  west  of  India.  Mr.  Malet,  the  resident  at  Poonah, 
procured  for  me  the  Sanganian  letters,  which  are  a  sort  of  Naguri, 
and  a  specimen  of  their  language,  which  is  apparently  derived  from 
the  Sanscrit:  nor  can  I  doubt,  from  the  description  of  their  persons 
and  manners,  that  they  are  the  outcast  Hindoos.  It  seems  f^eed, 
that  the  Gypsies  passed  the  Mediterranean  immediately  from  Egypt  *." 

The  Gypsies  are  found  in  most  countries  of  Europe.  The  writer 
has  seen  them  in  Moscow.  "  Descending  the  western  branch  of  the 
Ural  mountains,  I  passed  a  gang  of  gypsies  with  their  usu^  excen- 
tricities,  and  a  larger  gang  of  convicts ;  and  reached  Kimgour,  for- 
merly the  capital  of  a  province,  and  previous  to  that  a  favorite  place 
of  the  Tartara+." 

We  have  seen,  in  the  chapter  on  Timnr's  wars,  what  immense 
numbers  of  Hindoos  were  captured  and  brought  away  from  India: 
not  only  artisans  and  others,  for  the  Emperor's  service,  but  a  hun- 
dred and  fifty,  (men,  women,  and  childrm),  for  an  officer;  and  even 
as  many  as  twenty  for  a  private  soldier.  Timnr's  numerous  ele- 
phants of  war,  besides  those  brought  away  by  himself  and  others  as 
beasts  of  burUien,  and  for  presents  to  the  nobility  and  chiefii  of  the 

•  Sir  W.  Joues*!  Works,  Vol.  I.  p.  119. 

t  Captain  Cochrane's  Pedestoian  Jonniey,  p.  640.' 



pforinees,  were,  no  doub^  under  the  manBgement  of  Indians  *.  In 
aU  the  wariike  e^teditioni,  TimuTj  after  he  had  iilTaded  India,  was  v 
•ttended  by  his  elephants,  and  also  by^  his  hnnting  estaMifihingit:  he 
must  therefbse hare  had  a  great  number  of  dogs;  and  the  care  ttf  those 
fmjprn^la  is  one  of  the  occnpationa  of  the  pariah  Hindoos.  Bigairt 
was  taunted  by  Timor,  for  his  vanity  in  maintaining  hedoe  tbomtamd 
dog-keepers.  Hmnr,  yeey  yrchMj,  in  that  capacity  employed  a  cou- 
oAetMe  number  ai  IncUans. 

After  Timiir's  death,  A.  D.  1445,  his  comitry  was  for  a  long  while  in 
the  afaaost  oonfosion,  and  with  an  empty  treasury.  Ral^  Volatdius' 
affirms,  that  the  Gypsies  first  proceeded  from  among  the  Uwii,  a  pfiD> 
pie  of  Persia.  Mnnster  relates,  that  the  Gypsies  made  their  first  ap- 
pearance in  Gemuny,  in  1417,  in  pitiful  arny;  though  tiiey  afieeted 
quality,  and  travdled  with  a  tcaiB  of  hunting  dogs  after  than,  like  uo- 
blea.  Pope  Pins  II.  supposes  then  to  have  migrated  from  the  coon- 
try  of  the  Zigi,  near  Circassia, 

Ihe  Gypsies  are  called  Chigani,  or  Ziagani;  Egyptians;  Bohenu- 
ans;  Saracens;  and  Tartarsf.  Tliey  are,  according  to  Sir  William 
Jones^  remaclES,  Sangani^.  They  first  entered  Europe  from  Tarta- 
ty,  Syria,  and  Egypt;  both  ef  the  latter  kingdoms  were  at  that  tone 
under  one  monarch,  Famidge,  son  of  Barkok.  Wheutfaey  xeatdied  it»- 
kemia,  the  king  gave  them  passports  to  proceed  to  other  countries];- 

Thus,  the  various  denominations  by  which  the  Gypsies  have  b^en 
known,  are  satisfoctorilj  accounted  for;  and  little,  if  any,  doubt  can  re- 

*  Up«ii«aflh«4«phaiit  wevelnro^Dd-thirtyrtra^tneii,  beudei  tb«  Indiu  Ibat 
rale4  kiM.    I  MaocalMM.  Oh.  Vf .  «r. 

t  Reen's  fiDCTC.    «  EgyptiaM,*" 

X  "  Eacesann£es  (1417)  il  commen^a  de courir  en  .Menmi^  oertaiafis  baadM 
de  TttgabondB.    Od  les  nommoit  Tartant  st  Zigem."    MeEeray, 

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main,  that  they  were  the  Indians  brought  away  as  slaves  from 
'  Hindostan,  in  such  multitudes,  by  Timur;  and  who,  during  the  po- 
verty and  confusion*  caused  by  the  Emperor  Calil's  folly,  migrated  to 
Europe :  many  of  them  stealing  the  dogs,  in  order  to  procure  a  lirelj- 
hood  by  the  chace,  in  wild  countries;  and  by  poaching,  in  those  that 
were  cultivated. 

Being  of  the  lowest  cast  in  their  own  country,-aQd  ii^idela  in  Per- 
sia, the  Gypsies  were  probably  despised  and  ill  treated,  as  slaves:  they 
would  therefore  naturally  expect  a  better  &te  among  any  other  peo- 
ple than  those  who  they  felt  had  so  cruelly  oppressed  them  and  their 
native  land. 

With  regard  to  their  having  entered  Europe  from  Egypt,  as  well  as 
from  other  countries,  it  is  very  probable,  that,  when  they  had  resolved 
on  deserting,  they  looked  towards  Egypt  in  preferaice;  from  the  cir' 
cumstances  of  the  inhabitaatB  somewhat  resembling  themselves,  and 
the  climate  and  religion  being  in  many  respects  similar  to  those  of  In- 
dia; nor  is  it  impossible  but  that,  in  their  ignorance,  (very  excusable, 
as  the  royal  pupil  of  Aristotle  mistook  the  Indus  for  the  Nilef ) — 
they  might  imagine  Egypt  to  be  part  of  their  native  country :  but,  dis- 
covering their  mistake,  and,  probably,  being  refused  protecticm,  they 
wandered  they  knew  not  whither. 

*  "  And  I  ordained  that  in  every  kingdom  which  should  be  cooqaered,  the  men- 
dicants of  that  country  should  be  ^thered  together;  and  that  subsistence  and  daily 
bread  should  be  allowed  onto  them;  and  that  they  should  be  made  pensioners,  and 
htg  no  more.  And,  if  after  tbey  were  made  pensioners,  they  continued  the  prac- 
tice of  asking  alms,  I  commanded  that  tbey  should  be  sold  into  foreign,  conntries, 
er  expelled  from  the  realm;  that  the  race  of  beggars  might  become  extinct  in  my 
d<»ninian8,"    Timur's  Inst.  p.d6I. 

t  Strobo,  Oeog.  \xv.    Arrian,  B.  VI.  Cb.  L 



Many  of  the  Gypsies  appear  to  have  fled  to  the  mountains  of  Cur- 
distan,  where  they  are  called  Kara-Shee,  or  the  Black  Race.  Their  i 
persons,  manners,  and  customs,  are  described  at  length  by  Sir  R.  K. 
Porter,  who  passed  through  a  large  encampment  of  these  singular 
people*.  There  are  many  of  the  Gypsy-tribe  at  Voronetz,  on  the 
river  Donf .  The  Gypsies  themselves  are  perhaps  not  in  the  least  ac- 
quainted with  l^eir  own  origin. 

•  Port«r*«  TnTeb  in  Georg;ia,  Babylonia,  &c.  Vol.  II.  p.  ^8. 
t  B«ei*8  Eocyc.  "  Woronetz." 



Of  Siberia. Described  in   Summer. Fertility. Wild 

animals.' 'Magnifioeni  9cefKry. Mongol  sMereigns. 

Coronation  of  the  Grand  Khan  Keyuc  at  Olougyourt. ■ 

Invaded  from  China  and  India  beyond  the  Ganges. Jm- 

mense  armies  stationed  on  the  Irtish,  and  battles  in  the  Thir- 
teenth Century. Invasions  of  Tamerlane^  Fourteenth  Cen- 
tury.  Tombs;  Elephants'  bones,  golden  Chess-hoards  and 

m&i,  golden  plates  ^c.  found  in  them. Note  on  the  Con- 
quest of  Russia  by  Batou,  grandson   of  Genghis. Tarn- 

erlane  invades  Russia. His  terrible  battle  with  the  Khan 

of  Capschac  described. 

CHAP.  NiBERIA  was  Dot  knowa  to  the  Russians  till  the  middle  of  the 
v^^^l^^j  sixteenth  century.  A  ^Flussian  merchant  named  Strogonoff  had  esta- 
blished salt-works  in  the  goremment  of  Archangel,  and  traded  with 
the  north-western  Siberians,  for  the  valuable  furs  which  they  brought 
to  him ;  and  by  which  he  acquired  a  considerable  fortune.  The  Czar 
Ivan  Vassilivitch  II.  sent  some  troops  to  endeavour  to  open  a  com- 
merce with  the  natives;  and  one  of  the  chiefe  consented  to  pay  an 
annual  tribute  of  a  thousand  sables ;  but  that  chief  being  taken  pri- 
soner by  Rutchum  Khan,  a  descendant  of  the  great  Genghis,  and 


^'etaiil  m  tx,  7hmS  ^i^cA 

r  A  H  T  A  Ift.  S     T  H  A  V  F.  ■ ,  I.  I  \\  1 


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sovereign  of  Sibir,  there  was  no  further  iatercourse  till  the  year  1677, 
when  Timofeyef  Yennak^  a  Don  Cossack,  being  defeated  by  the  ' 
Czar's  troc^,  in  the  proTince  of  Cazan,  retired  eastward  with  a  few 
thousands  of  his  adherents.  He  crossed  the  Ural  mountains.  He  dis- 
covered and  attacked  the  Mogul  monarch  of  Sibir,  whom  he  defeated; 
and  Yermak  gained  a  rich  booty,  in  jeweb,  furs  &c.  He,  after  a 
while,  trav^ed  to  Moscow,  was  fovonrably  received  by  the  Csar,  uid 
supplied  with  succours,  with  which  he  returned  to  his  companions  at 
Sibir:  and  in  an  action  with  the  Moguls,  he  was  drowned,  in  the  year 
1584.  The  conquest  was  shortly  afterwards  completed  by  his  suc- 

Siberia  is  so  rich  in  zoology  and  botany,  that,  as  Mr.  Pennant  ob- 
serves, the  discovery  of  America  has  scarcely  imparted  a  greater 
number  of  objects  to  the  naturalist;  the  mineralogy  is  equally  fertile 
and  interesting. 

In  1 621 ,  the  first  archMshop,  whose  name  was  Cyprian,  was  appointed 
to  reside  at  Sibir*. 

About  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century,  all  Siberia  was  sub- 
jected.    No  known  part  of  the  earth  is  so  cold  as  that  country — 

"  Our  infhnt  Winter  sinks. 
Divested  of  his  grandeur,  should  "uur  eye, 
Astonirii'd,  shoot  into  the  Frigid  Zone. 
Wide  roams  the  Russian  exile.     Nought  around 
Strikes  his  sad  eye,  bnt  deserts  lost  in  snow. 
And  heavy  loaded  groves;  and  solid  fioods,  - 
That  stretch  athwart  the  solitary  vast. 
Their  icy  hotrors  to  the  frozen  main. 

*  Leresque  Hiitoire  de  Rnnie;  and  Tooke's  Hist,  ofRoasia,  Vol.  I. 



Tet  cherish'd  there,  beneath  the  shining  waste. 
The  furry  nations  harbour. 
Rough  tenant  of  these  shades,  the  shapeless  bear. 
With  dangling  ice  all  horrid,  stalks  forlorn." Thomson. 

Such  is  the  general,  and,  perh^s^  sometimes  the  only  impxession  on 
the  minds  of  many  persons  respecting  these  gigantic  regions;  and  as 
most  travellers  have  passed  through  them,  while  the  ground  was  co- 
vered with  snow ;  every  reader  is  too  well  acquwnted  with  the  descrip- 
tion of  Siberia  in  winter,  for  it  to  be  requisite  to  repeat  it  here;  but  a 
space  comprising  a  hundred  and  thirty  degrees  of  longitude;  and  from 
the  latitude  of  Normandy,  to  within  fifteen  degrees  of  the  north-pole ; 
and  more  extensive  than  all  Europe,  must,  of  necessity,  be  very  vari- 
ous in  climate  and  productions.  The  following  extracts,  from  some 
intelligent  travellers,  show  that  it  is  a  most  magnificent  and  abundant 
country,  in  very  many  places,  and  much  higher  in  the  north  than  is 
generally  imagined. 

"  The  severe  winters  are  rapidly  succeeded  by  summers  of  such 
intense  heat,  that  the  Tungnsiabs  of  the  province  of  Yakutsk  go  al- 
most naked.  Towards  the  frozen  ocean  the  sun  is  continmdly  above 
the  horizon  in  that  season,  and  the  v^etables  and  fruits  of  the  earth 
are  extremely  quick  in  their  growth. 

The  Russians  are  supplied  with  com  from  the  southern  part  of  Si- 
beria, where  the  soil  is  surprisingly  fertile. 

The  countries  east  of  Baikal  to  the  river  Argun  are  remarkably 
fruitful  and  pleasant*," 

At  Narym  (Lat  59"  5')  there  is  plenty  of  sterlet  and  other  fine  fish, 
too  numerous  to  mentiop.  Near  the  town  are  a  few  corn-fields,  and  gar- 

*  See  Beea's  Cyc.    "  Siberia." 



den  grounds,  abounding  with  greens  and  roots.  Here,  says  Mr.  Bdl,  CHAP. 
I  met  Mr.  Borlutt,  a  native  of  Flanders,  who  had  been  a  m^jor  in  the  v.^o-v-*.^ 
Swedkh  service,  and  was  sent  to  this  place  a  prisoner  of  war.  He 
was  a  veiy  ingenious  gentleman,  and  had  a  particular  turn  for  mechan- 
ics. The  commandant  treated  him'more  like  a  friend  than  a  prisoner; 
which  indeied  was  the  case  of  most  of  those  unfortunate  gentlemen, 
whom  the  fate  of  war  had  sent  to  this  country.  His  Czarish  Majesty, 
well  considering  their  circumstances,  sent  them  to  a  plentiful  country, 
where  they  could  live  at  their  ease  till  peace  was  restored. 

At  Jenesai,  the  country  is  pleasant  and  fertile.  On  the  first  of 
August  the  barley  was  all  reaped,  and  the  people  were  cutting  their 
oats.  This  is  early  so  far  to  the  north  (Lat  68°  16'),  and  must  proceed 
firom  the  beat  of  the  summer  and  the  snow  lying  so  long*." 

"  The  Ostiacs,  though  not  a  civilized  people,  are  far  from  being 
barbarous.  A  single  Russian  may  travel  among  them  to  purchase  furs 
without  fear  of  violence.  They  are  remarkably  honest,  and  are  punc- 
tual in  bringing  the  tribute  of  furs  for  the  Czar.  Many  of  them  are 
fidr,  and  resemble  the  x>eople  of  Finluid.  They  are  stout  fellows: 
two  of  them,  with  their  bows  and  arrows,  a  short  spear,  and  a  little 
dog,  will  attack  the  largest  bear.  They  supplied  us  with  plenty  of 
fish,  and  wild  fowl  of  various  sorts,  for  a  little  tobacco  uid  a  dram  of 
brandy;  and  tiiey  ask  no  more,  not  knowing  ihe  use  of  money. 

*  Joarney  to  P«kin  from  St  Pe(etabiii|ri  A.  D,  1719,  (nine  thotuand  five  hun- 
dred and  sixly'^eveD  versts,  or  about  *ix  thousand  three  hundred  and  wrenty- 
eight  British  miles,  by  Mr.  B's.  route  on  his  return). 



Od  the  journey  to  Irkoutsk,  says  Mr.  Bell,  I  called  on  Geaersl  Kaii<- 
>  nifer,  at  Elimsk,  who  had  been  adjutant-general  to  Chaiies  XII.  He 
had  a  musk  deer,  of  which  there  are  many  in  Siberia,  so  tame  that 
it  followed  him  like  a  dog,  and  leaped  upon  the  table  to  eat  the 
crumbs.  •  •  *  Along  the  tall  tfait^  woody  banks  of  the  Lena,  there 
is  abundance  of  game  and  wild  beasts.  The  natives  of  Yakutsk  differ 
little  from  the  Tungusians  in  person  or  way  of  life.  In  summer  diey 
make  hay  enou^  to  feed  their  cattle  in  winter.  •  •  •  We  arrived  on 
the  ice,  March  14,  at  Balaganski,  on  the  Angara:  on  each  bank  it  is 
a  fine  champaign  country,  with  tall  woods,  beautiful  and  extensive 
prospects,  well  peopled  villages,  com  fields,  and  fruithil  plains,  and 
every  where  great  abundance  of  fish,  llie  Burats  were  formerly  sub* 
ject  to  a  prince  of  the  Mmiguls;  they  are  honest  and  sincere  people, 
and  have  plenty  of  cattle:  the  wild  goats  have  long  thick  horns,  brown 
shaggy  coats,  and  are  twice  the  size  of  ours;  the  sheep  have  broad  tails, 
and  the  mutton  is  excellent.  For  their  horses,  cattle,  goats,  and  sheep, 
they  make  no  provist(Hi  of  fodder:  but  leave  them  to  the  open  fields, 
the  snow  being  seldom  deep  in  these  parts.  'Hiey  have  a  high  priest 
called  Delai  Lama.  *  •  *  Mardi  17 — ^The  heat  of  the  sun  was  intense, 
and  the  snow  suddenly  disappeared:  in  four  days  we  passed  fivm  a 
cold  winter  to  a  warm  spring,  and  we  quitted  our  sledges.  TTie 
Burats  kilted  some  hares  with  arrows . 

At  the  falls  of  the  Angara,  and  about  lake  Baikal,  there  are  such 
astonishing  scenes  of  nature  as  are  not,  I  believe,  to  be  equalled  in 
the  known  world.  On  the  south  side  of  the  lake,  the  ceunlry  is  very 
pleasant,  the  winters  short,  and  the  snow  does  not  lie  above  six  or 
e^ht  weeks.  There  is  plenty  of  all  kinds  of  game,  deer,  bears,  wolves, 
frc.  The  Mongols,  even  the  prince  and  high  priest,  live  constantly 
in  tents,  and  remove  as  convenience  requires ;  which  I  nmst  confess 
is  a  very  pleasant  life,  in  such  a  mild  and  di^r  climate.  «  •  •  ■  We 



Jdlled  in  these  parts  five  large  eSu,  foiir  stags,  twenty  antelopes,  some  CHAP, 
large  bustards,  a  dozen  roebucks,  wolves,  bares,  &c.  Siberia  is  an  ex-  ■_^^'-^_' 
cellent  country,  and  abounds  with  all  things  necessary  for  the  use  «f 
man  and  beast.  The  noblest  rivers  in  the  world*,  and  st<H«  of  such 
fine  fish,  as  are  seldom  found  in  other  countries.  And  as  to  woods 
flinushed  with  all  sorts  of  game  and  wild  fowl,  no  country  can  exceed 
it  It  contains  no  high  mountains,  except  towards  China,  where  at« 
pleasant  hills  and  fruitful  rallies,  and  there  are  few  places,  where  life 
might  be  passed  more  agreeably  than  in  some  parts  of  Siberia  f.  *  *  * 

In  February  and  March,  the  Yakutes  cut  down  the  young  pine  trees, 
while  the  sap  is  rising,  takeoff  the  inner  baric,  and  dry  it  for  their 
winter  provision ;  they  beat  it  into  fine  powder,  and  bml  it  in  miUc, 
with  dried  and  powdered  fish.  They  ^ft  their  habitations  like  tlie 
Tobolskians.  They  bury  their  dead  various  ways:  the  nuMt  eminent 
make  choice  of  a  fine  tree,  as  their  burial  spot:  smne  of  their  move- 
ables are  buried  with  them.  Their  luiguage  is  like  that  of  the  Crimea 
and  Tob<dsk  Tartars  J.  •  *  • 

The  quantity  of  hay  collected  for  the  catUe  (near  Takotsk)  is  pro- 
digiotu  |.  •  •  • 

"  The  Baikal  Sea,  or  the  Holy  Sea,  is  about  four  hundred  miles  Engliak 
Jrom  north  to  south;  and  in  breadth,  from  fifteen  to  fifty  miles;  it  is 

*  The  Lena  is  fire  thoannd  venti  in  length,  (about  three  thousand  three  ban- 
dred  and  thirty  miles  Eogliab). 

t  Bell  of  AntenaoD}'.  At  Telmgia^  a  Mongol  chief,  named  Taysha,  a  subject 
of  the  Czar,  dined  with  the  unbacsadw.  He  was  a  tneriy  <Ai  man,  near  ibur  score, 
but  so  vigorous  that  he  mounted  his  horse  with  agility.  His  five  sons  and  attend- 
ants treated  him  with  equal  respect  as  a  king,  and  would  not  sit  in  bis  presence. 
In  hia  yonlh,  he  bad  oflen  fought  agamst  iba  Chinese,  whom  be  bdd  in  gMil 
contempt.  One  of  the  company,  who  was  &t,  asked  the  chief  what  he  sboDld 
do  to  be  as  lean  as  he  was?  "  Eat  less  and  work  more,"  replied  the  old  man. 
t  Slrahlenbei^,  p.  382. 

§  Captain  Cochrane,  p.  448> 



surrounded  with  high  and,  mostly,  bare  mountains.  Towards  the  lat- 
'  ter  end  of  December,  it  is  usually  frozen  over,  and  the  ice  breaks  up 
in  the  beginning  of  May.  The  water  is  uncommonly  clear.  The 
lake  is  subject  to  violent  storms:  it  abounds  in  fish,  and  contains  plen- 
ty of  seals  §. 

'*  On  the  10th  of  May  1693,  we  arrived  at  Irkutsk  on  the  Angara; 
and  found  lake  Baikal  still  frozen.  On  the  camels  we  put  boots  shod 
for  the  ice.  In  the  breaks  of  the  ice,  there^  are  numbers  of  black 

After  crossing  a  barren  mountainous  country,  we  arrived  at  Nerts- 
chinsk,  on  the  20th,  where  there  are  grass  grounds  to  feed  their  camels, 
horses,  and  cattle.  The  environs  produce  white  and  yellow  lilies,  red 
and  white  pionies  of  a  charming  scent  and  of  several  sorts;  lavender, 
thyme,  rosemary,  and  many  odoriferous  plants,  unknown  in  other 
countries.    There  are  black  sables  of  exquisite  beauty. 

We  left  Nertschinsk  and  proceeded  to  Mongol  Tartary.  From  the 
riVer  Kalar  to  the  Jalischian  mountains,  the  vallies  are  wholly  covered 
with  fine  grass:  the  mountains  are  stocked  with  all.  sorts  of  herbs  and 
flowers.  The  country  abounds  with  large  harts,  roebucks,  wild  sheep, 
in  herds  of.  many  hundreds:  wild  geese,  ducks,  turkies,  (bustards  t), 
partridges.  On  the  river  Jala  axe  fine  oak  and  lime  trees,  and  small 
hazel  bushes  covered  with  nuts.  •  •  •  We  now  reached  the  first 
Chinese  guard.  The  charming  banks  of  the  river  Jala,  southward,  is 
a  perfect  paradise;  beautiful  pastures,  silver  streams,  the  pleasantest 
woods  in  the  world,  fine  towering  hills,  and,  for  a  mile  and  a  half  on 
each  side,  a  perfect  warren  of  wild  game,  harts,  tigers,  panthers,  wild 
swine,  extraordinarily  beautiful  partridges,  the  feathers  of  which  are 
of  several  colours,  and  their  tails  about  an  ell  long:  they  are  very  like 
pheasants  in  shape,  size,  and  taste :  they  harbour  in  plain  fields,  in  the 

*  Tooke,Vol.I.p.341. 



loDg  grass,  and  in  low  nut  bushes:  in  their  flight  they  clap  their 
wings  as  loud  as  a  stork.  ' 

After  four  days  travelling  without  seeing  a  house,  we  came  to  an 
old  ruined  city,  encompassed  with  a  quadrangular  mud  wall,  a  Ger- 
man mile  in  its  whole  extent.  In  six  days  we  reached  another  old 
desolate  city,  called  Taimingzin,  fortified  with  a  square  wall.  Carved 
upon  the  stones,  there  were  several  images  of  great  personages  or 
kings,  as  hig  as  life,  sitting  with  their  feet  under  them:  and  queens 
folding  their  hands,  with  crowns  upon  their  heads  with  rays  or  lustres, 
which  seemed  to  hint  that  this  tower  was  built  by  Christians.  Other 
parts  represent  warriors  with  pikes,  in  the  Chinese  manner,  and  the 
king,  bare-headed,  with  a  sceptre  in  his  hand:  the  by>standers  have 
diabolical  visages.  The  proportions  of  these  images  are  so  exact,  that 
they  look  like  the  work  of  Europeans.  Several  heaps  of  bricks  lay 
about,  and  atone  statues,  as  big  as  life,  of  men,  idols,  lions,  and  tor- 
toises. The  bulwarks  were  extraordinarily  large  and  high.  This 
great  city  had  but  four  entrances,  into  which  ran  multitudes  of  hares*. 

*.  The  number  of  tigers,  and  the  quantity  of  game,  in  these  parts  of  Tarlary, 
between  China  and  Siberia,  roust  be  prodigious. 

Ou  the  Bizleeuth  of  June,  l(i89,  Father  Gerbillon  mentions  that,  on  the  embassy 
to  Nertsbinak  from  Pekin,  they  saw  nuiny  thousands  of  wild  yellow  goats  un  the 
banks  of  the  Kerlon. 

The  tigers,  says  Du  Halde,  are  surprisingly  large,  of  a  &llow-red  and  striped 
with  black:  some  are  white,  with  black  and  grey  stripes.  The  wild  camels  are 
so  swift,  that  the  hunters  can  seldom  reach  them  with  their  arrows.  The  hun-ta- 
han  resenibles  the  elk,  they  delight  in  boggy  ground,  and  some  we  killed  were 
bigger  than  the  largest  ox. 

On  a  party  with  the  Emperor,  Pere  Verbiest  saw  abore  a  thousand  stags,  en- 
closed in  one  circle.  On  this  journey,  bears,  wild  boars,  and  above  sixty  tigers 
were  killed:  a  wild  mule,  of  a  yellow  colour,  was  seen;  two  or  three  hundred 
bares,  and  vast  numbers  of  wolves  and  foxes  were  taken  in  one  day:  partridges 
rose  in  flights  like  starlings. 

The  Emperor's  horses,  and  those  of  the  grandees,  are  us  large  and  handsome  as 
thoM  of  Europe.    The  Emperor  tires  eight  or  ten  horse*  every  day. 

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The  Chinese  relate  that  many  centuries  past,  Ungkban,  a  Tartu 
king,  governed  here,  but  was  conquered  by  a  Chinese  king  *. 

On  the  expedition,  iu  1691,  the  Emperor's  qnarlen  contaiDed  four  enclomrea: 
in  the  quarter  for  the  grandees,  were  the  trumpets,  drums,  music,  four  elephants 
sumptously  harnessed,  and  all  the  ensig^ns  of  imperial  dignity,  for  the  ceremony 
of  receiving  homage  of  the  Kulka  princes  and  the  Grand  Lama. 

On  the  4tb  of  June,  we  killed  above  fifty  yellow  goats:  we  roused  a  tiger;  it 
took  shelter  on  a  hill  in  a  thicket;  the  dogs  barked  around  him,  he  sprang  forth, 
the  Emperor  followed  him  closely,  fired  twice,  and  killed  him. 

In  September,  1692,  the  Emperor  sent  for  five  hundred  Korchin  JtongoU,  wlio 
are  excellent  hnnters.  We  killed  eighty^two  large  stags  and  roebucks,  one  stag 
weighed  upwards  of  five  hundred  pounds.  On  the  23rd,  we  killed  fifty  stags:  (he 
Emperor's  horse  fellas  be  was  pursuing  a  roebuck,  but  his  Majesty  was  not 

On  the  SSlh,  we  pursued  a  bear,  the  Emperor  pierced  his  flank  with  an  arrow, 
the  bear  gave  a  dreadful  ronr,  and  endeavouring  to  pull  out  the  arrow,  broke  it  to 
pieces;  bis  Majesty  dispatched  him  with  a  half  pike:  he  was  six  feet  trom  the 
bead  lo  the  root  of  the  tail,  his  hair  long,  black,  shining,  and  very  fine. 

In  June,  1696,  the  Emperor's  troops  gained  a  victory  over  the  Eleutbs,  on  the 
banks  of  the  Kerlon:  among  the  spoil  were  five  thousand  camels,  seventy  thou- 
sand sheep,  &c. 

On  one  day  in  this  year,  the  hunting  party  killed  one  thousand  one  hundred  and 
twenty-five  bares,  and  every  day  a  great  number  of  pheasants,  and  hares.  See 
Du  Halde,  Vol.  II.  from  page  254  to  360. 

The  Emperor,  Kanuhi,  was  stilt  living,  when  Mr.  Bell  was  at  Pekin,  with  the 
ambassador  Ismailoff,  sent  by  the  Czar  Peter.  Kam-hi  was  then  sixty  years  on 
the  throne,  and  sixty  eight  years  of  age:  beslill  retained  a  sound  judgment,  and 
his  senses  were  entire :  he  was  good  natured,  afiTable,  and  more  sprightly  than 
many  of  his  sons.  The  Emperor's  general  of  the  artillery  assured  Mr.  B.,  and  it 
was  confirmed  by  Kam-hi  himself,  that  gunpowder  had  been  used  by  them  in 
fire-works,  above  two  thousand  years;  but  that  it  was  a  lale  introduction  in  war. 
Mr.  B,  says,  the  fire-works  outdid  common  fame,  and  far  surpassed  the  perform- 
ances  exhibited  at  St  Petersburg  by  the  best  artists  in  Europe. 

*  Isbrandt's  Idea,  in  Le  Bruyn,  and  jn  Harris's  Voyages,  Vol.  11.  938.  There 
can  be  no  doubt  but  that  these  cities  were  Caracomm  and  Olougyourt.  See  the 
Chapter  on  Genghis.  The  Neslorians  had  places  of  worship  here,  and  there  were 
artists  from  Europe.  With  respect  to  the  rays  round  the  heads  of  the  queens, 
"  Genghis's  flalteren  had  (be  insolence  to  make  him  pass  for  the  Son  of  God,  but 

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<*  We  reached  Kan  Katon,  encompassed  with  oak«npalisadoes  as  a 
defence  from  tigers  and  leopards;  multitudes  of  them,  and  also  wild  \ 
boars  and  deer,  harbonring  in  the  grass  and  woods ;  so  that  no  one 
dare  travel  at  night.  All  the  camels,  asses,  and  cattle,  have  bells  about 
their  necks,  to  Mghten  the  beasts.  To  this  place  the  Emperor  comes 
to  hunt  We  obserred  here  a  sort  of  heron  with  a  neck  and  breast 
white,  and  the  wings  and  tail  of  a  bright  scarlet ;  the  flesh  firm  and 
good:  also  another  bird  as  big  as  a  parrot,  with  a  crooked  bill,  a  tail 
an  ell  long,  and  checkered  with  all  sorts  of  fine  colours.  "  We  arrived 
at  the  boundaries  on  the  3d  of  August. 

On  the  19th  of  Februarjr,  1694,  the  envoy  set  out  on  his  return 
from  P^n.  He  had  left  a  number  of  camels  and  horses  at  Numa,  of 
which  only  eight  hundred  remained;  the  rest  having  been  kilted  by 
bad  food:  others  were  accordingly  provided. 

The  party  crossed  a  desert  mar^y  country,  and  lost  eighteen 
camels  in  one  day  in  the  bogs.  Near  the  river  Gan,  they  killed  fifty 
wild  deer. 

From  Aigim,  where  Uwre  is  a  silver  mme  which  the  people  of 
Dauria  and  Nieuchen  fonq^rly  made  use  of,  to  Nertschinsk,  is  ten 
days'  journey  on  camels.    This  fine  country  is  full  of  small  rivers  and 

bis  inoAer,  more  modest,  said  only,  that  he  was  the  Child  of  the  Sun.  But  not 
beiDg  bold  enough  to  aver,  thtit  she  was  personally  beloved  by  that  glorious  body, 
she  pretended  to  derive  this  fabulous  honour'  iroin  Genghia's  ninth  predecessor, 
Buzengir,  the  root  of  the  Mogul  Emperon;  whose  mother,  when  a  widow,  lived  a 
retired  life.  Being  accssed  of  a  crime,  (pregnancy),  she  was  carried  before  the 
judge:  she  said,  that  she  had  not  had  conversation  with  any  man;  bat  that  when 
open  her  bed,  a  light  appeared,  and  penetrated  tliree  times  into  her  body.  De  la 
Croix,  p,  9. 

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CHAP,  the  most  beautiful  flowers:  in  the  hills  and  vales,  the  grass  is  three 
"^-^-Y-^-^  feet  high*. "  On  this  journey  many  hardships  were  suffered  frMu  ia- 
tigue.  marshes,  and  hunger ;  and  in  a  desert  the  gra^  was  some  how 
.  set  on  fire,  and  burnt  about  a  dozoi  of  the  foremost  row  of  their  tents, 
with  the  most  astonishing  rapidity.  Great  quantities  of  their  goods 
were  consumed,  and  fourteen  men  miserably  burnt. 

From  the  54th  to  the  57th  degree  of  latitude,  and  including  the 
south  part  of  Siberia,  and  all  Dauria,  the  air  is  pretty  temperate,  and 
produces  ^1  manner  of  fruits  and  vegetables,  and  com  in  abundance: 
there  are  few  mountains,  forests,  or  morasses;  many  rivers  and  lakes; 
all  sorts  of  venison,  wild-fowl,  fish,  cray-fish;  and  much  honey  and 
cattle :  in  short,  the  inhabitants  are  in  want  of  nothing  but  winef. 

The  regions  of  Nertshinsk  present  numerous  forests  of  the  pinus 
sylvestris,  larch,  birch,  firs,  and  cedars  J,  which  produce  boards  near 
four  feet  wide§.  The  nuts  of  the  cedar  u'e  in  such  abundance,  as  to 
be  exported  to  all  parts  of  northern  Siberia. 

llie  sublime  scenery  on  the  approach  to  Baikal  may  be  considered 
as  one  of  the  noblest  sights  in  the  world;  and  that  also  upon  the 
banks  of  the  Ingoda  not  less  delightful,  when  contrasted  with  ihe 
beautiful  and  fertile  pastures  every  where  around  ||. 

There  is  a  curious  Uisua  naiwis  on  the  Shamane  promontory  of  lake 

*  Isbrandts  Ides,  in  Hairis,  Vol.  11.  p.  938.  See  also  his  TraretB,  in  Le  Bniyn. 
While  the  euvoy  was  at  Pekio,  the  Emperor  bad  four  animals,  which  he  had  re- 
ceived from  aD  island  in  ihe  Eastern  Sea.  The^  were  as  big  as  ordinary  horses, 
and  each  bad  two  sharp  horns  promiuent  before.  The  missionaries  had  never  seen 
such  before.  The  envoy  had  not  time  to  |fo  to  the  Emperor's  park  to  inspect 

t  Strahlenberg,  pp.  182,  354.     Chappe  D'Anteroche,  p.251. 

X  Reea's  Encyc.    "Nertschiask  and  Siberia." 

§  Strablenbei^,  p.  316. 

II  Capt.  Cochrane,  pp.  466, 474,  477. 



Baikal;  namely,  three  roc^  adjacent  to  each  other,  upwards  of  two 
hundred  feet  in  height  above  the  water's  level  Their  tops  resemble  v 
human  heads  with  caps  on  them :  of  the  middlemost,  the  nose  is  seven 
feet  in  length;  in  the  slit  of  the  mouth,  two  families  of  sea-gulls  are 
commodiously  lodged:  even  the  eye-brows  are  not  wanting;  butthere 
is  no  trace  of  an  ear.  The  Tunguses  revere  these  rocks  as  the  sea- 
god  Dianda,  with  his  two  subordinate  deities:  he  is  able  to  save 
any  Tunguse  from  being  drowned,  or  to  cause  a  good  draught  of 

Fifteen  hundred  or  two  thousand  porpoises  (although  the  water  is 
fresh)  are  annually  captured,  by  being  shot  or  pierced  with  javdins, 
through  the  holes  in  the  ice:  sturgeon,  quab,  carp,  trout,  pike,  and 
vast  quantities  of  the  omul,  are  produced  in  the  lake. 

Such  numbers  of  birds  of  prey,  mews,  herons,  gulls,  &c.  arrive  in 
April,  which  feed  on  the  omuls,  (aalnto  migratoritu),  that  it  is  dif- 
ficult to  pass  along  the  rocks,  their  nests  are  so  numerous.  There 
are  rein  deer  on  the  north  shore;  the  wild  boars  are  silver-grey,  and 
scarce.  The  woods  are  overrun  with  hears,  which  serve  for  food;  also 
with  wolves,  elks,  stags,  roebucks,  sables;  ermines  so  numerous,  that 
a  contract  for  twenty  thousand  may  be  completed  in  two  days;  squir- 
rels, and  white  hares.  There  are  many  islands  in  this  great  lake;  on 
which  grow  pines,  poplars,  beech,  and  willows*. 

In  the  south  part  of  Siberia  there  is  a  steppe,  six  or  seven  hundred 
versts  long,  where  there  are  few  rivers,  but  very  fertile.  One  may 
ride  several  days  through  vast  fields,  full  of  cherry  trees  two  or  (Inree 
fieet  high.  They  are  prevented  from  growing  higher  by  the  negli- 
gence of  travellerB,who  leave  their  fires  burning;  and  the  grass,  being 

•  Bees'sEn<7c    "Baikal." 



long  and  dry,  catches  fire,  and  burns  for  thirty  or  forty  rersts,  with 
'  such  rapidity  as  to  endanger  the  traveller. 

The  cherries  are  red  and  handsome,  but  sour:  transplanted  they 
become  good.  There  are  in  this  forest  tulips,  red  roses,  others  like 
damask  roses;  asparagus,  larger  and  finer  than  ours;  onions,  marjo- 
ram, thyme,  succory,  sage,  endive  or  white  succory ;  and  other  flowers, 
herbs,  and  roots,  which  we  with  great  care  raise  in  our  gardens:  the 
turnip  is  frequently  met  with  there.  In  Samoyedia,  they  have  good 
parsnips  and  carrots*. 

Near  the  river  Wytzera,  they  generally  kill,  annually,  four  hundred 
losses,  or  elksf. 

At  Jenesai,  (lat.  58°  30'),  corn,  butchers'  meat,  and  poultry,  abound. 
It  is  too  cold  for  firuit,  except  gooseberries  and  strawberries.  The  in- 
habitants of  Fngunia,  farther  down  the  river,  send  out  ships  annually 
to  catch  whales. 

At  Shamanskoi,  on  the  river  Hay,  there  is  a  great  fidl  or  cataract, 
half  a  league  in  extent,  which  is  terrible  to  behold,  and  is  heard  at  the 
distance  of  three  German  leagues.  The  tops  of  the  rocks  that  cause 
the  &11b  are  so  covered  with  odoriferous  plants  and  flowers,  that  the 
circumambient  air  is  filled  with  their  fragrance  J. 

llie  Tungiues,  both  men  and  women,  go  naked  in  the  summer,  except 
a  leathern  girdle,  and  carry  a  vessel  full  of  smoking  wood,  to  keep  off 
the  insects  which  swarm  on  the  river  Tungusa.  In  winter  they  wear 
skins,  having  no  use  of  linen  or  woollen.    In  hunting  they  wear  the 

*  Memoirs  of  a  TVench  GenttemaD,  who  had  served  in  the  Russian  army:  ba- 
nished in  the  nign  of  Alexis,  about  1670.  Harris's  Voyages,  Vol.  II.  p-  ^8.-7 
At  Krasnaia  Sloboda,  there  is  abundanceofasparagfuaorextraordinaryhei^l,  and 
delicious  flavour.    Encyc.  Brit.    "  Siberia." 

.f  Slrahlenberg,  p.36I. 

t  PereAvril,p.l82. 



8kin  of  the  rein  deer  with  the  horns  on;  when  they  glide  along  the 
grags^  and  are  sure  to  dispatch  the  game  with  their  arrows.  The  me-  ^, 
thod  of  the  Burats  is  to  sarround  a  certain  limit  and  to  close  in  the 
game  by  d^ees.  They  go  on  horseback,  and  few  escape  their  heavy 
broad  arrows.  Their  country  swarms  with  fellow  deer,  stags,  musk 
deer  witii  tusks,  rein  deer,  hears,  wild  sheep  by  thousands  upon  the 
mountains,  and  wolves. 

Those  who  buy  camels  of  them,  pay  about  fifty-five  livres  each, 
in  silks,  red  cloth,  ingots  of  gold  or  silver.     Their  beeves  have  very  . 
thick  hau-.  •  •  •. 

Mako&koi  on  the  Ket,  abounds  with  heath-game,  pheasants,  and 
partridges:  it  is  a  pleasure  to  see  them  in  flocks  in  a  morning  and 
evening,  drinking  on  the  banks  of  the  river,  where  you  may  kill  what 
number  yon  please.  There  are  here  red  and  black  gooseberries 
strawberries,  and  raspberries.  Wehad  scarcely  left  this  village,  on  the 
7th  of  October,  when  it  began  to  freeM*. 

The  Ket  is  overshadowed  with  trees,  uid  very  dismal;  the  ban^ 
abound  with  wild  beasts,  the  black  currants  are  the  largest  and  best  I 
ever  ate  or  saw.     I  was  told,  the  bears  feed  much  on  themf . 

The  last  stage  in  approaching  Krasnoyarsk,  is  richly  luxuriant 
on  both  sides  of  the  Jenesai,  which  rolls  its  picturesque  course  over 
a  rich  and  well  cultivated  soil.  The  vicinity  may  boast  situations  fbr 
the  dwellings  of  a  prince,  peasant,  or.  philosopher.  The  extremes  of 
weather,  are  from  S2°  of  heat,  to  40"  of  frost,  by  Reaumur  J. 

What  can  surpass  the  scene  at  Malaya  Narimka  I  know  not; 

*  bb.  IdM.  t  Bell,  Ch.  XIII. 

i  By  Fahrenheit  104°  and  68°  belov  0.—"  December  7, 1786,  at  XJnting  Veliki, 

latitode  60°  60,  the  quicluilver  froze  to  a  solid  nw»,  m  as  to  bear  beating  with  a 

bamtner  in  a  warm  rown,  sereral  times,  before  any  pie«ea  flew  off  from  it    Bean- 

mur*a  thermometer  fell  in  one  day,  from  40°  to  61*."    Vide  Tooke,  Vo).  I.  p.  82. 




CHAP,     some  of  the  loftiest  granite  moimtaiiis,  enclosing  the  most  luxuriant 
\_»>Y-«,^  Tallies  in  the  world:  all  abandoned  to  wild  beasts,  to  constitute  a  neu- 
tral territory*." 

The  Jenesai  thawed  on  the  8th  of  April,  and  in  three  weeks  the 
country  resumed  its  verdure f.  These  districts  are  so  fertile,  that,  by 
leaving  the  ground  £dlow  the  third  year,  it  continues  bearing  summer 
com,  and  winter  rye  fifteen  years  and  upwards.  Winter  wheats  are 
not  known  X- 

In  the  woods  near  Tomsk  are  oxen  with  a  high  shoulder  and  flow- 
ing tail,  like  a  horse;  not  so  lai^e  as  theurus:  there  are  wild  asses, 
the  hair  waved  white  and  brown,  like  a  tiger;  and  chesnut-coloured 
wild  horses,  which  are  not  tameable.  The  town  of  Jeiiesai  is  pleasant, 
and  populous.  There  is  a  market  for  furs  of  all  sorts,  one  skin  of  a 
black  fox  being  worth  five  hundred  crowns  or  more.  On  the  Ist  of 
March,  we  saw  five  or  six  hundred  hares,  as  white  as  snow.  The  Tun- 
guses  are  descended  firom  the  ancient  inhabitants,  and  worship  the 
sun  and  moon:  they  will  attack  the  fiercest  bears §. 

"  At  Tobolsk,  we  dug  four  feet  deep  without  finding  the  earth  frozen, 
and  I  then  thrust  a  sword  into  it  with  the  utmost  ease  to  the  hilt.  It 
is  certain  that  the  ground  at  Tojtohk  thaws  entirely:  this  made  me 
cautious  of  advancing  facts  from  hearsay.  The  numerous  mistakes 
of  travellers  arise  from  credulity,  rather  than  from  a  want  of  truth  IJ." 

The  country  about  Tobolsk  is  well  peopled.  A  hundred  weight  of 
barley  flower  costs  sixteen  copecks,  (one  hundred  copecks  make  a 

•  Capt.  Cochrane,  pp.  1&2,  173.  t  Chappe  d'  Aoteroche,  p.  247. 

t  Tooke.  Vo  .  III.  p.  268.  §  Bell  of  ADtermony,  pp.  212. 220. 

II  Chappe  d'Auteroche. 

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rnble)j  a  hog  thirty-five  copecks,  a  stuigeon  six  copecks,  an  ox  six  or     CHAP, 
seven  florins.    This  country  produces  a  numlier  of  elks,  st^;s,  deer,   ^^•v-v'-*.^ 
hares,  pheasants,  partridges,  and  swans;  besides  all  other  sorts  of 
game,  cheapOT  than  butchers*  meat. 

At  Samoiarski-jam,  the  Irtish,  to  the  south-east,  is  bordered  by 
lofty  mountains,  crowned  with  cedars;  and  the  land  on  the  other 
side,  to  the  north-west,  is  low  and  fall  of  pasture-grounds,  where  are 
great  black  bears,  wolves,  and  foxes,  both  red  and  grey:  some  of  the 
finest  grey  furs  in  aU  Siberia  are  found  here.  In  the  winter,  the  snow 
is  sometimes  a  fathom  deep  *. 

The  woods  and  fields  about  Tobolsk,  are  stored  with  the  coq-bruyere, 
coq-limoge,  gelinots,  ptarmigaas,  partridges,  woodcocks,  snipes;  and 
no  country  in  the  world  can  produce  such  numbers  and  variety  of 
water  fowl:  they  are  so  numerous  that  three  of  four  hundred  may  be 
caught  in  a  night,  by  placing  nets  in  the  openings  between  two  rivu- 
lets, at  a  hole  cut  through  the  coppice,  and  lighting  a  small  fire. 

There  are  lynxes,  ermines,  sables,  martins,  otters,  elks;  incredible 
numbers  of  bares,  bears,  and  deer  of  all  kinds:  the  greatest  abundance 
offish,  wheat,  rye,  bariey,  oats,  Sec.  f. 

"  I  hired  a  meadow  eight  versts  from  Tobolsk,  for  six  grosses, 
(a  gross  is  two-pence),  and,  for  that  sum  and  the  labour,  I  procui^ 
ed  five  hay  stacks,  each  containing  twenty-two  waggon  loads  for  two 
horses  J." 

The  view  of  the  country  in  the  neighbouriiood  of  Tobolsk  is  really 
sublime;  and,  Jiotwithstanding  its  surrounding  but  distant  deserts,  is 
a  very  enviable  retreat  §. 

At  Tomsk,  there  are  magarines  of  rich  and  valuable  commodities, 
brought  thiUier  by  all  the  various  nations  inhabiting  the  heart  of  i^ia, 

•  hb.  Ides.  t  Bell  of  Antermoay,  p.  191;  aod  leb.  Ida. 

t  Strahlenberg,  p.  900.  §  Captun  Cochrane,  p.  118. 



and  with  whom  no  othei  nations  of  Europe  have  intercourse :  thither, 
and  to  Tobolsk,  are  brought  the  manu&ctures  of  China,  Corea,  and 
all  the  nations  to  the  north,  or  north-east  of  the  river  Amoor  *. 

The  Tartars  at  Tobolsk  live  mostly  on  the  hill.  Alcmg  the  banks 
of  the  river  are  several  large  Tartar  streets  occupied  by  the  ancient 
inhabitants.  They  enjoy  the  free  exercise  of  their  religion,  and  the 
privileges  of  trade.  Their  houses  are  very  cleanly,  they  are  courteous 
and  honest.  January  9, 1720,  we  lodged  in  a  Tartar  hut.  (near  Tara): 
we  warmed  ourselves  at  a  good  fire  on  the  hearth:  they  use  no  stoves 
as  the  Kussians  do.  They  dress  their  victuals  in  an  iron  kettle,  and 
are  very  neat  and  cleanly  both  in  their  persons  and  houses.  The 
walls  of  the  houses  are  built  with  beams  of  wood  and  moss,  the  roofs 
are  raised.  A  square  hole  is  cut  out,  and  a  piece  of  ice  (which  is  now 
and  then  renewed)  Is  fonned  to  fit  the  ]^ace  exactly,  which  lets  in  a 
good  light.  In  one  end  of  the  apartment,  is  a  bench  eighteen  inches 
high  and  six  feet  broad,  covered  with  mats  or  skins  of  wild  beasts, 
upon  which  the  &mily  sit  by  day  and  sleep  by  night. 

The  Tartars  of  the  Baraba  are  poor  and  miserable,  and  are  obliged 
to  pay  a  tribute  of  furs  uid  skins  of  wild  beasts  both  to  the  Czar  and 
to  the  Kontaysha  of  the  Calmucs,  who  both  consider  them  as  sub- 
jects. "  Considering  the  extent  of  Siberia,  and  the  many  advantages 
it  possesses,  I  am  of  opinion  that  it  is  sufficient  to  contain  all  the  na- 
tions in  Europe,  where  they  might  eu^oy  a  more  comfortable  life  than 
many  of  them  do  at  present  f ." 

*  Riusian  Discoreries.     Harris's  Voyages,  Vol.  II.  p.  1033. 

t  Bell's  Journey  to  Pekin,  Cb.  II.  aod  XIV.  with  respect  to  the  window, 
StrahleDbei^says,  p.  451 — "Windows,  througboat  all  Siberia,  are  made  of  isin- 
glass, called  in  Latin  lapis  apecularis,  of  nhicb  tbere are  two  sorts :  tbewbitsaad 
tbe  brown;  and  tbey  are  both  found  in  Russia  and  Siberia  in  great  plenty." 
(Mica  is  meant,  Isinglass-etone  was  a  name  given  to  tbat  substance.  The  otiier 
Isinglass,  ichthyocoUoy  is  made  from  the  Beluga  uid  Stui^;eon). 

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Genohib  Khan  gave  the  sovereignty  of  the  empire  of  Capschac  to  A.D,  1311. 
his  eldest  son,  Touschi  Rhan.    This  division  was  bounded  on  the 
south  by  the  Caspian  Sea  and  the  Palus  Msotis ;  on  the  east  by  the 
river  Irtish;  on  the  west  by  the  Don,  including  the  Crimea;  and  on 
the  north  by  Kazan  np  to  the  Arctic  Sea*. 

Batou  Khan  succeeded  his  father,  Touschi,  who  died  in  1226.    He  A.D.  1236. 
built  the  town  of  Serai  on  the  Volga,  and  made  it  his  residence. 

Batou  invaded  Russia,  and  reduced  that  country :  appointing  vice-  a.  D.  1240. 
roys  every  where,  without  expelling  the  Russian  princes. 

Sheibani  Khan,  brother  of  Batou,  with  fifteen  thousand  families,  ^d.  1242. 
was  sent  to  the  north,  and  settled  at  Tiumin  on  the  river  Tura,  which 
they  named  Genghidin,  in  honour  of  the  great  conqueror.  They 
afterwards  removed  abont  a  hundred  and  seventy  miles  north-east, 
'  and  founded  the  city  of  Isker,  or  Sibir,  sixteen  miles  from  Tobolsk, 
on  the  Irtish;  their  boundaries  being  the  rivers  Isset  and  Tavda -f. 
Sheibani  had  possessions  also,  by  inheritance,  on  the  river  Yaik 
or  Ural,  where  Batou  founded  the  Golden  Horde:  and  vestiges  of 
Saratchick  are  still  visible  %■ 

Kazan  was  built  by  a  son  of  Batou,   who  resided  there.     (The  A.  D.  1257. 
khans  of  Kazan  became  independent  in  1441.)    Kasimof  on  the  Oka 

•  Petis  de  )a  Croix,  p.  387.    Abnl  .Ghazi.  Vol.  II.  676. 

t  The  Tartan  gave  the  name  of  Tura  to  the  city  and  all  Siberia,  and  call  them 
•o  to  thia  day.  Sibir  (whence  Siberia)  is  probably  tbe  Ruaaian  word  north.  See 
Strablenbei^,  p.  452. 

t  StrahleDberg,  p. 966.  Tooke,Cb.ILp.  61.  Gibbon,Cb.iXIV.  Leveaque, 
Vol.  VII.  pp.  Wr2, 196, 343.    De  Gainea,  Vol.  IV.  p.  446. 



was  the  court  residence  of  a  khan:  there  are  remains  of  a  palace, 
'  lofty  tower,  mausoleom,  &c.  *. 

Old  Astrachan,  Tsaritzin,  and  Bolgar,  below  the  mouth  of  the 
Kama,  shew  remains  of  large  and  magnificent  cities  f . 


Kaidu,  great  grand-son  of  Genghis,  and  nephew  of  the  Grand  Khan 
Ktiblai,  governed  the  countries  about  Almalegh :  he  gained  the  chiefe 
of  the  hordes  that  encamp  north-north-east  of  Turfau,  and  those  north 
of  the  Altai  mountains.  He  rebelled  against  Kublai;  who,  being  engag- 
in  China,  gave  the  command  of  the  army  to  Chetien-tche:  many  lords 
from  the  countries  of  the  Igours,  Persia,  Arabia,  Capschac,  and  some 
Tartar  chiefs,  accompanied  him,  with  three  hundred  thousand  men, 
who  met  at  Siang-yang.  Omar,  an  Arab,  with  a  corps  of  western 
troops,  encamped  at  Tchingtou,  to  make  the  attack  from  all  sides ;  and 
Ktudu  was  defeated. 

In  1276,  Kaidu  was,  with  his  brother,  at  the  head  of  one  hundred 
thousand  troops;  and,  having  increased  in  power,  he  maintuned  his  in- 
dependence. This  king  and  his  armies,  at  all  times,  reanain  in  the 
open  plains,  vallies,  and  woods,  with  which  this  region  abounds.  They 
subsist  on  flesh  and  milk,  and  his  subjects  pay  implicit  obedience  to 
their  king.  They  possess  vast  herds  of  horses,  cows,  sheep,  and  other 
domestic  animals.  In  these  districts  are  found  bears  of  a  white  colour, 
and  about  twenty  spans  in  length ;  foxes  entirely  black ;  wild  asses,  and 

*  Kasimof  on  the  Oka  was  a  populous  Tartar  town  wttb  mosquet,  in  1686.^ — 
Father  AVrJI,  p.  128. 

t  Tooke.  Vol.  II.  p.  48.    Lemqne,  Vol.  Vll.  p.  191. 



Kibelitui;    beades  martins,  and  swarms  of  Pharaoh's  mice.     They    CI^. 
travel  in  sledges  without  wheels^  and  drawn  by  dogs  •.  k-.P^y-**' 

Raidn  concerted  a  rebellion,  against  the  Grand  Khan  Kubhu,  with  A.D.  1286. 
Nayan,  a  near  relation  of  both  parties,  to'  whose  ancestor^  Belgatai, 
brother  of  Cienghis,  a  considerable  district  in  Leao-tonghad  been  giv- 
en: but  Kayan  was  defeated,  and  put  to  death  by  Kublai,  before  Ku- 
du could  join  him.    (See  the  Chapter  on  Kublai). 

Kaidu  was  entirely  routed  on  the  banks  of  the  Irtish,  by  Timur  A.D.  1S89. 
Kaan,   grandson  of  Kublai,  and  viceroy  of  Yunan,  Burmah,  Ban- 
galla,  &c.  but,  after  that  commander's  departure,  Kaidu  gained  over  the 
hordes  to  the  north  and  north-west  of  Caracorum. 

Kublai  died  in  1294,  and  his  grandson  Timur  Kaan  succeeded  him 
as  Grand  Khan.    In  1297,  Kaidu  was  drtven  northward;  and  the  next  A.D.  1997. 
year,  a  great  victory  was  gained  over  him  near  the  river  Irtish. 

During  the  whole  reign  of  Timur  Kaan,  (he  died  in  1307),  there  A.D.  1298. 
was  scarcely  any  other  war  than  this  in  Tartary.    Kaidu  disputed  the 
««p»re  for  thirty  years;  which  he  pretended  Kublai  had  usurped.  Timur 
Kaan  wot  ahoaya  obliged  to  keep  numerous  armies  in  these  countries. 

Cfuchan,  nephew  of  the  Grand  Khan,  fought  several  bloody  battles 
with  the  rebels  between  Caracorum  and  the  river  Tamir. 

Kaidu,  after  having  lost  his  whole  army,  died  of  vexation.    Ton-ona,  A.D.  1301. 
his  brother,  was  dangerously  wounded,  and  submitted.    Thus  ended 
this  long  war+. 

•  SeeMandeii'8H8rcoPolo,B.II.Ch.I.  B.1I1.  Cb.XLIV.  AndDeGaineB, 
Voi.  IV.  p.  151. 

t  Marco  Polo,  and  notes,  in  B.  II.  Cb.  I.  and  B.  III.  Ch.  XL1V.  Since  the 
year  1373  the  Grand  Khan  employed  elephants  in  bis  wars.  In  the  chapter  on 
Kablai,  it  is  shewn,  that  the  kban  was  in  a  castle  borne  by  four  elephants,  in  the 
action  with  Nayan;  and  that  he  possessed  thousands  of  those  animals.  During 
the  wars  withKaida,  as  there  were  no  other  hostilities,  and  as  Kaidn  disputed  the 
En^re,  there  can  be  bo  doubt  bat  great  numbers  of  elephants  were  present  in 
these  wars  on  the  Irtbb,  and  in  driving  Kaidn  to  the  north.  There  are,  in  the 
ueigbourhood  of  Tomsk,  a  vast  number  of  ricli  tombs ;  and  these  wars  of  'Timnr^ 



[[This  position  of  Kaidu's  appears  always  to  hare  been  an  important 
one,  as  the  head  quarters  cfihe  Agiatie  Tartars. 

Justin  sent  an  embassy  to  the  Khakan  or  Emperor,  who  readed  in 
a  fine  Tale  near  the  sources  of  the  Irtish*. 

The  appellative  TvrksytaR  borne  about  A.D.  516,  (howmadi  earli- 
er is  not  known,)  only  by  that  part  of  the  nation  which  had  loi^  had 
its  habitation  in  the  Altai  mountuns  along  the  Irtish,  where  that  peo- 
ple became  so  powerfid  as  to  give  disturbance  to  China  and  Persia. 
In  the  same  century  the  state  split  into  petty  Khanates,  and  at  lengUi 
became  a  prey  to  tiie  victorious  Arabs  f . 

Kaan  must  have  been  those  which  caused  many  of  them,  for  the  following  rea* 
sons:  I.Man;  of  the  tombs,  being  very  rich,  and  about  four  hundred  years  old, 
when  discovered,  il.  Elephuito'  bones  being  found  in  tbem.  IlL  The  Chinese 
wishing  to  visit  them  aa  those  of  tbeir  ancestors,  (as  will  be  shown).  IV.  The  ar- 
mies having  marched  from  Yunan  and  Bangalla,  Timur  Kaan  being  governor  of 
those  provinces  before  he  was  Emperor  of  China  and  Grand  Khan  of  the  Moguls. 

The  Siberians  attr3>ute  the  tombs  to  the  wars  of  Geoghb  Kbwi,  and  Timur  Bee 
(Tamerlane).  The  Monarch  of  China  was  also  named  Timur,  and  was  the  great 
great  grandson  of  Genghis,  This  appears  to  clear  up  satisfactorily  several  iuter- 
estisg  points  in  the  history  of  Siberia,  probably  not  now  known  in  that  eotintry, 
nnd  possibly  not  ev«n  in  Ruseia. 

It  may  also  be  particularly  remarked,  that  Assam  was  under  Timur  Kaan's 
viceroyalty;  and  that  it  is  the  custom  of  the  Assamese  to  bury  an  elephant  with 
Ae  corpse  of  a  great  man . 

Mangalu,  uncle  of  Tieanr  Kaaa,  was  at  this  time  viceroy  <^SIien-ei,  residing  at 
Singan,  the  capital,  and  the  city  where  army  equipments  are  made.     Singan  was 
the  capital  of  China  when  the  Emperor  was  the  ally  of  Airasiab,  against  the  Per-  . 
siao  Booslum,  and  was  captured.     See  Chapter  IIL 

The  description,  character,  and  customs,  of  these  invaders  of  Siberia,  front  the 
earliest  times,  to  the  thirty  years  war  under  KuUni  and  Timur  Kaan,  correspond 
•0  truly  with  the  tombs,  and  their  contents,  as  to  leave  no  doubt  of  tbeir  ttrigin. 

These  Indian  countj-iea  have  probably  supplied  the  buffaloes,  fossil  remains 
of  which  hare  been  found  in  several  jilaoes  in  Siberia,  as  those  auinuilB  are  used 
by  the  Chinese  to  draw  carls.     See  Van  Braam's  Embassy,  Journal,  March  24 1795. 

*  Sir  Wm.  Jonei^  Vol.  L  p.  63^  Discourse  V.  &«  also  an  embassy  from  ibe 
Bwoan  Emperor  at  Goostaatinople  to  this  sama  pboe,  in  Ch.  IIL  of  this  Vol . 

t  Tooke,  Vol.  IL  p.  37.    "  In  the  yew  13^,  when  some  Russiao  regiments  went 



^  Tbe  coontr;  of  Uw  Getee,  and  Turqneatui,  was  included  ia  Totuchi's 
soreteignity  of  Cxpaebac*.  \ 

AJga,  grandson  of  Zagatai,  had  for  his  share  idl  tJie  country  lying 
between  the  Ahai  monntains  and  the  river  Aura,  (Oxiis)t. 

It  is  the  supposed  country  of  Afrasiabj  wbo,withhi8  allytheEm-^ 
peroT  of  China,  who  fought  upon  a  white  elephant,  were  beat«i  by  tJie 
Persian  hero,  Roostum.  The  Emperor  of  China  was  made  prisoner, 
and  the  territories  were  divided  ly  Roostum  amm^  the  Persian 

It  appears  certain  that  this  was  part  of  the  country  of  Ogos  Klian ; 
a  name  as  bmoua  in  the  east,  as  that  of  Alexander  or  CieBar  in  the 
west:  he  conquered  Kitai,  Cashmere,  and  nuny  other  conntrie&  He 
Ifared  above  a  hundred  years  $. 

from  tfae  city  of  Tobolsk,  np  the  rirw  Irtisb,  tbey  found  there  many  antiquities, 
and  temples  of  idols.  The  Tobokkian  Tartars  and  Russians  say,  that  from  this 
rirer,  fitrther  towanb  the  west,  mutk,  and  aoutk-w«st  frftm  the  «hy  of  Tobolsk,  be^ 
tween  the  sources  of  the  riven  Tobot  and  Ischkn;  parts  which  few  people  fre* 
quented,  there  were  to  be  found  great  numbers  of  images,  cut  in  stone,  of  men  and 
beasts:  and  that  the  ruins  of  several  cities  were  discernible  in  those  deserts. 

Themonntakis  ofUli^-luiandKita^4na,  hUo  called  AR-(ag  and  K{a>*i|f|lJe 
between  tbe  said  rivers;  on  the  fitst  of  which,  Tauerlatte,  when  there  with  his  ar- 
my, erected  obelisks:  and  near  which  place  the  great  Ogos  Khan  bad  his  resi- 
dence."   Vide  Strablenberg,  p.  4. 

•  De  h  Cntx,  p.  SOT.  t  Abol  Ghan,  p.  168. 

t  Sir  Jobn  MslcehnV  History  of  Perm,  V«l.  I.  ppt,  4ft  wid  134. 

§  Strablettbeif ,  pp.  4,  and  136 1*  141.  "  Abont  six  handred  and  fi%-«eT«a 
years  befw«  Cbrirt,  (this  was  tbe  vapfwaed  epoch  of  0^>,  says  Da  Hedde,  a 
prince  of  SheD-«i  revolted ;  bat  the  Emperor  SyoDg-Vaiig  sooa  deftateA  faMsi,  1^ 
tbe  help  of  an  army  of  Tartars,  whom  he  had  brought  over  to  bis  iMtyest  by  nau*- 
tjiMig  Ae  dsi^:fater  of  tbeir  chief. 

Tsi,  the  inag  af  SlHO-8i,die4t  mA  the  EmpsKn-,  fioed  ft«m  hit  fsars,  imMt* 
ctd  bis  Tartar  spowF,  anderprelcatellMcli*  itaasstiMget^  nbeMihehaii—r 
lied  fior  ^litical  reason*.  The  tbief  of  th«  TvIbtb  reso(««di  ea  nrmge^  flbi^ 
tay,the  Emperor's  stm,  was  a  discontented  prince.  Tbe  Tartar  prMkised)  ttfidafite 
hira  Emperor,  if  be  would  join  biHi^  wfaivbke'M.    tktfmmkaif  Ae  Apltal, 


The  Altai,  or  golden  mountaiiis,  are  said  to  be  so  called  &om  their 
>  containing  gold  mines,  and  having,  in  the  neighbouring  plains,  the 
finest  pastures  in  the  world.  In  the  year  1719,  the  Kontaish  of  the 
Calmucs  could  bring  into  the  fidd  a  hundred  thousand  excellent  ca- 
^ry.  The  Calmucs  live  always  in  tents,  as  anciently:  and  had  re- 
cently beaten  an  invading  army  of  three  hundred  thousand  Chinese. 
Bell  of  Antermony).] 

We  now  return  to  the  more  immediate  object  <>f  thete  notes.  From 
1359  to  1389,  the  King  of  the  Getes*  had  been  invading  the  empire 
of  Zagatai:  and  Tamerlane  had  invaded  his  country  five  or  six 
times.  In  the  latter  year,  Tocatmich,  or  Toctamich,  Khan  of  Caps- 
chac,  descended  from  Tonschi,  eldest  son  of  Genghis-)-,  having  insulted 
Timur,  it  was  necessary  to  revenge  the  indignity ;  but  Timur  dared  not 
leave  so  powerful  a  prince  in  the  north,  during  the  absence  of  his  army. 
He  therefore  resolved  in  person  to  invade  Mogolistan,  the  country  of 
Prince  Ancatoura,  and  of  Kezer  Coja  Agten,  descended  from  Zagatai, 
Emperor  of  the  Moguls  and  King  of  Gete  %. 

Timur,  with  his  army  and  the  troops  of  his  household,  departed  from 
Alcoachoun,  in  Capschac.  and  passed  by  Bouri  Bachi,  thence  to  To- 
palic  Carac,  and  ascended  the  mountain  Oumac,  or  Oumac  Ijomac§. 

tbe  Emperor  fled,  and  Sh(»4ay  was  proclaimed.  The  Empnttr  having:  >>ap)ored, 
and  received  succoort  besieged  the  Metropolis,  which  surrendered.  His  son  was 
put  to  death,  and  the  Tartars  were  vanquisbed."     Du  Halde,  Vol.  I.  p.  168. 

*  Whet  ia  now  called  Siberia,  and  the  Calmuc  country,  are  named  Gete,  or  Ge- 
ts, and  Mogolistan,  in  Timur  Bee's  wars. 

t  See  Chapter  IV. 

X  Sherefeddin,  Vol.Lp.325.  Kezer wasgrandsontoToglncTimurrseeAbul 
QhazifVoI.  II.  p.631 ;  aodTog^Kic  was  twenty-fifth  successor  to  Zagatai:  seeShe- 
refeddin,Vol.l.  p.  18,  note4.  The  capitals  of  these  sovereigns  were  Sibir,  near 
Tobolsk;  and  Tontoura,  near  Tomsk.  See  Stoahlenberg,  p.  266.  Levesque, 

S  A  note  says,  this  was  the  residence  of  Ogas. 



He  reflated  his  cavalry  at  the  rate  of  two  horses  to  each  man.  He 
T^ched  Aiker  Souri,  at  the  foot  of  Ouniac.  They  were  obliged  to  dig  ' 
weDs  for  two  or  three  days:  but  God  provided  for  so  great  a  multi- 
tude; for,  though  it  was  the  midst  of  summer,  there  was  in  the  desert 
an  extensive  meadow  covered  with  ice  and  snow;  wherewitii  all  the 
army,  the  horses,  and  cattle,  quenched  their  thirst.  Giving  thanks  to 
God,  they  departed*,  and  encamped  at  Togrul  Otlac,  traversed  the 
whole  plain,  and  caught  some  wild  asses:  they  kept  only  the  iiittest. 
At  length  the  army  arrived  at  the  plain  of  Oulanyarlic,  and  encamped. 
Here  they .  perceived  a  thousand  horse  belonging  to  Ancatoura :  they 
were  vigorously  attacked,  and  fled.  One  man  was  seized.  From  the 
information  gained,  Timur  marched  with  all  expedition  till  he  arrived 
at  Aiokuz,  and  encamped.  In  a  council  with  his  sons,  the  generals, 
princes,  and  lords,  it  was  resolved  to  divide  the  army  and  seek  the 
memy  by  two  different  routes.  Mirza  Omar  Cheik  was  sent  one  way 
and  Timiir  took  the  road  to  Coui  Meragh,  a  famous  well,  and  other 
places,  and  came  to  Caragoutchour,  a  temple  of  the  Moguls.  In  the 
mean  time  Mirza  Omar  Cheik  exterminated  all  he  met  with,  and  at 
last  came  up  with  Ancatoura  at  Coubrac.  A  vigorous  battle  ensued, 
Ancatoura  was  defeated,  and  fled:  ail  his  beautiful  daughters  fell  into 
the  hands  of  the  conqueror;  also  great  numbers  of  cattle,  and  much 

The  illustrious  mirza  joined  his  father,  Timur,  at  Actadictor.  Omar 
was  sent  on  another  expedition,  and  acquitted  himself  heroically. — 
The  whole  army  now  encamped  at  Caragoutchour;  and  the  booty  was 
divided  among  the  officers  and  soldiers.  Timur  staid  at  this  place 
long  enough  to  &tten  his  horses.    He  sent  two  commanders,  with 

*  Sherefeddin,  Vol  1.  p.S26.     The  desert  which  Timur  passed  over,  was  pro- 
bably the  Steppe  of  Issim. 

y  Google 


thirty  thousand  horse  townrda  Artish,  or  Irtish,  in  Ut.  Gtf  40',  in 
'  Karch  of  the  enemy.  They  mardied  day  and  vaghL  Arrtring  at  the 
river  Irtish,  which  runs  thnnigh  all  the  countvy  of  the  Get«s  and  Mo* 
golistan,  into  the  Oby,  half  the  army  msrdied  along  the  bonha,  othen 
entered  the  isles.  They  slew  nnmbcxs,  and  retnmed  to  the  royal  canp 
with  tiie  prisoners  and  the  spoil. 

Timor  haring  destroyed  those  who  opposed  him,  sent  the  captives 
in  chains,  and  the  spoil,  to  Samarcand.  He  then  passed  the  great  de- 
sert*, and  arrived  at  Aimal  Goujon;  and  lodged  in  the  palace  of 
S«rai  Ourdam,  with  a  p<Hnpoas  retinue^  and  the  greatest  magna- 

Tisnur  held  a  council  with  the  princea  and  Lords  of  theempirc;  and, 
reBolved  that  the  army  ftbonld  he  divided  into  several  bodies;  to  sur- 
round the  Getes  in  their  usual  dweUii^  places,  and  to  pursue  tluMe 
who  had  retired  to  Mogolistan.  The  officera  wrote  memoirs  of  the 
reads  and  different  passages  of  aD  these  quarters;  and  copke  w^e 
delivered  to  the  different  princes  and  gcoerals;  and  a  guide  for  cacik 
army.  The  coitntry  of  Tnlduz  waa  ordered  to  be  the  rendezvous  of 
aU  the  eommanderih 

Mirza  OmarCheik  led  the  tro<^B  of  AndecuL  He  made  imroada 
to  the  right  and  left,  of  the  mardi  marked  out  iut  him;  put  all  hia 
enemies  to  the  sword,  and  pillaged  every  thing  in  his  way.  He  croeaed 
the  mountain  Donbecfain  Andonr,  and  arrived  at  Cart  Ceja,  three 
months'  journey,  1^  the  caxavsA,  fr<»n  Sauurcand. 

Another  body  of  thirty  thousand  cavidry,  weU  equipped,  uad«-  the 
EUnir  Gehanca,  marched  to  Can  Art,  and  Chouiou^ne,  in  Mt^oliatan, 
slaying  and  pfamderittg  all  t^  Gates  th^  met. 

*  This  was  the  BarabintziaD  desert. 



Osman  Abbas,  with  twenty  thousand,  passed  by  St^izgan  and  Ge-    CHAP, 
veyar,  treating  the  inhabitants  in  the  same  manner.  v.^»>^«^ 

Codadad  Hnsaeini,  wiA  twenty  thooBand,  arrived  at  Bioout,  where 
they  met  die  faords  of  Boulgagi  and  Ilker.  The  batUe  was  bloody, 
and  hurted  twenty-fiMir  boars:  at  length,  swoid  in  hand,  Timar^s 
troops  were  nctoriQus. 

Timur  Mms^  b^an  his  march  with  his  guards  and  hoosehold 
troops:  he  took  the  road  of  Olac  Conl;  he  met  the  Boulgagis  who 
had  escaped  from  the  battle;  they  were  put  to  tiie  sword,  at  the  first 

The  Emperor  had  left  many  emirs  and  troops  in  western  Turquestan, 
between  Gete  and  Capsdiae,  whom  he  ordered  to  invade  the  country 
of  the  Mognls,  and  to  destroy  the  Getes.  They  obeyed.  After  many 
marches,  they  came  to  M<^zoredon,  where  they  met  the  King  of  Mo* 
golistan*,  Keser  Coja  Aglen,  at  the  head  of  a  great  army. 

The  Emirs  judged  it  improper  to  attack  him  <m  horseback,  but  they 
dismounted,  and  Ued  their  horses'  bridles  to  their  belts.  There  was 
fighting  for  forty-eight  hours;  which  ended  in  a  treaty  with  Keser 
Coja  Aglen;  and  the  emirs  returned  to  the  rendezvous  at  Yuldue. 
Cbah  Melic  Turcan  thought  it  advisable  to  fiy,  and  join  Timur  at  Kei- 
tou,  near  the  Irtish.  He  gave  the  Emperor  an  account  of  the  battle, 
and  every  thing  remarkaUe  in  itf .  Upon  this  news,  Timur  marched, 
joined  the  toman  of  Sultm  Mahmoud  Khan,  and,  with  expedition,  ar- 
rived at  YulduK ;  where  the  ranirs  who  had  made  the  peace,  kissed 
the  royal  eorpet.  His  Ifojesty  chose  the  bravest  of  his  army;  and, 
leaving  all  his  attendants,  ibllowed  the  track  of  the  king,  passed  the  great 
desert,  and  arriving  at  Tabertadi,  (a  village  dependant  on  Caracorum), 

*  The  fugilire  MoogoU  from  Cbina,  in  1369,  appear  to  hare  joined  the  Mon- 
gol khans  of  Gete.    Abul  Gfaazi,  Vol.  II.  p.  507. 

t  This  lame  account  means,  no  doubt,  that  Timur'g  troops  were  well  beaten. 



then  at  Conchon  Cai,  where  he  found  the  enemy's  army,  he  passed  the 
uight  there.  During  the  darkness,  the  enemy  fled  towards  the  desert  and 
distant  places ;  every  regiment  taking  a  different  road,  and  flinging  away 
their  ensigns,  which  were  black.  Many  of  them  fell  in  the  way  of  Mirza 
Omar  Cbeik,  Ali  Behadur,  and  the  Emir  Gehanca;   and  were  slain. 

TimuT  having  passed  the  mountain  Naizin  Keutel,  pursued  the  ene- 
my to  Caratach.  The  king  had  suffered  great  fatigues,  seen  his  war- 
riors, his  wives,  and  children,  slain  or  taken  prisoners,  and  his  country 
ruined;  he  therefore  abandoned  it,  to  save  his  life. 

The  soldiers  made  abundance  of  both  sexes  slaves;  and  the  booty 
was  great  in  horses,  camels,  sheep,  and  other  beasts,  &c.  Timur,  on 
his  march  back,  at  Jalich,  divided  the  immense  spoils;  and  then  con- 
tinued his  route  to  Yulduz.  The  emirs  all  returned  to  the  same  place, 
laden  with  booty,  and  with  an  infinite  number  of  captives.  Yulduz 
is  a  place  of  delights  and  pleasure.  The  grass  in  the  meadows  is  so 
nourishing,  that  the  leanest  horses,  when  they  have  been  there  a  week, 
become  &t  and  strong.  Poets  have  sung  its  praise;  the  beauty  of  its 
fountains  is  the  reason  of  its  name,  for  Yulduz  meims  the  morning 
star.  The  Emperor  had  marched  above  a  thousand  leagues;  and 
now  resolved  to  return  to  Samarcand,  being  contented  with  his 

The  next  year  Timur  was  necessitated  to  send  an  army  into  the  coun- 
try of  the  Getes.  Four  emirs,  with  twenty  tjiousand  horse,  were  joined 
by  five  thousand  more,  under  Mirza  Omar  Cheik.  They  marched  by 
Atjatou,  and  arrived  at  Caratal,  where  they  learned  that  a  guat;d  of  four 
hundred  men,  sent  forward  to  ^in  intelligence,  had  been  nearlyall  killed 
by^Camereddin.  They  came  to  the  field  of  the  slain,  and  found  a  man  of 
the  horde  Malangou  yet  alive,  though  he  had  eaten  nothing  but  herbs 

»  Sberefeddin,  Vol.  I.  pp.  324  to  338. 



for  fnrty  days.  He  assured  tbem  that  Camereddin  had  marched  Awards 
Itdtna  Boutchna.  Tbey  puiBued  that  route  and  arrived  at  Keptadgi,  t 
where  they  left  their  baggi^e,  and  pushed  on.  ^Vhen  they  arriTedat 
Uie  Irtish  they  found  that  Camereddin  had  crossed  it.  and  gone  tOr 
wards  Taouks  (in  latitude  60°)  into  the  woods  where  sables  and 
ermine  are  said  to  be  focind.  They  saw  the  rafts  and  boats  the 
enemy  had  -built  to  cross  tiie  water.  The  emirs  stayed  some  time  at 
this  place,  and  crossed  the  river  to  engrave  their  arms  and  red  char- 
acters *  with  fire  on  the  pine  trees  of  these  woods,  as  an  assurance 
to  future  ages  of  their  omiquests  beyond  the  river  Irtish.  Having 
been  six  months  m  these  deserts,  and  living  on  hunting  and  wild  roots, 
and  the  air  becoming  extremely  cold,  they  returned  by  the  banks  of 
the  great  lake  Etrach  Ghenl,  and  arrived  at  Samarcandf. 

The  writer  will  now  oideavdnr  to  show  that  the  Mongok  pos- 
sessed equal  sovere^ty  over  EASTERN  SIBERIA,  which  was  a 
branch  of  the  Grand  Khan's  divisiOTi.  The  north-east  parts  of  Sibe- 
ria are  nsmed,  in  the  map  to  Petis  de  la  Croix's  Life  of  'Hmur,  North- 
em  Turqueetan. 

-  "  Upon  leaving  Caracorum  and  the  Altu  mountains,  you  proceed, 
in  a  nothem  direction,  through  the  plain  of  Bargu,  (by  Baikal  Sea.) 
sixty  days  journey.  The  people  live  on  the  flesh  of  stags,  and  m^e 
use  of  them  for  the  purpose  of  traveling:  this  plain  borders  on  the 
ocean  at  its  northren  extremity,  and  the  people  are  subjects  of  the 
Grand  Khan.  They  have  neither  com  nor  wine,  the  cold  is  excessive. ' 
Upon  traveUu^  forty  days  it  is  said  you  reach  the  northern  ocean. 
Near  to  this  is  a  mountain  where  vultures  and  peregrine  falcons  breed: 

*  These  amia  aiwl  imeriptioM  are  bamt  upon  the  tarees,  or  cut  in  (be  rocka, 
and  are  filled  with  red  colour.    See  Strableuberg,  p.  346. 

t  SberefeddiD,  Vol.  I.  pp.8'Uto347.  Thia  ftuillew  expeditton  waa,  no  donbl, 
•gainat  tfce  prince  re^nMg-  at  Sibfr.  The  nunea  diffar  so  entirely  Jrom  the  id»- 
deni  ^ography,  that  it  is  impoaaible  to  trace  Timor's  marchea,  vith  Miy  accuracy. 



CHAP,    neitiier  men  nor  caMJs  a»  found  there;  and  of  birds  only  the  bju^h^ 
t^«*pv^^  ^"^  ^^  falc<ma  to  which  they  srrre  for  food.    WhiNi  the  Grtod 
Khan  u  desirous  to  have  per^rine  Sticom,  he  pioeures  them  at  thi« 

There  is  also  an  i»Und  off  the  coast,  wheee  geiv-falcow  breed,  aed 
are  f>Mmd  in  such  numbers  that  bis  faajesty  may  be  supplied  with  a8 
many  of  them  a«  he  pleases  V  (See  the  Oiapt^  on  Kubisi  lor  the  vast 
number  of  these  birds  be  posaessed), 

"  Jouini,  or  Aladdin  Atamulc,  who  died  m  1284,  composed  hia 
history  in  IS60.  He  observes,  that  Gen^jbis  JUion's  territories  lay 
much  to  the  north  and  east  <^  the  desert  side  of  Tartary:  and  was  of 
so  great  extent,  that  the  true  country  of  the  Alogols  was  eight  moidh* 
journey.  That  the  several  sorts  of  people  that  inhabit  it,  w^w  divid- 
ed into  tiihes,  called  Moguls:  and  that  amoi^  all  these  tribes  there 
was  but  one  that  was  ctriliflad,  which  was  that  oaUed  Nirtm  Cawt;  o£ 
whidi  Genghis  became  mT«areign  by  the  death  of  his  fiitfaer  Pjaonoaft" 
A.D.  1S4<5.  *  *  *  "  In  the  same  country  with  Bnrin  and  Cadov,  grandsoos  of 
Genghis,  (says  Carpini)  Shiebani,  the  brother  of  Baton,  reomneth  (4t 
Sibir).  We  were  tcavellmg  through  it  itom  the  feast  i^  the  Ascen- 
sim,  till  eight  days  befora  the  feast  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  (I  e.  by 
the  Boman  c^endar,  b«t  three  months);  when  we  eotored  the  ooiut- 
toy  of  the  hiaiik.  CathayansJ,  where  i^ie  fimperoir  had  biult  A  house; 

*  Marco  Polo,  p.  220,  and  the  notes;  where  it  wilt  be  seen  that  Polo  had  re- 
ceived very  accurate  accounts  of  the  country,  for  bis  text  implies  that  tbe  people 
rode  upon  the  reindeer,  wbich  is  prorad  to  be  trqa  by  Mr.  A^insf  who  foaal 
rnin*  pf  ancient  fbrJ^  near  ihe  mouth  vf  tbe  i«nB,  and  Also  mvxUated  remaiiia, "  dt 
figuret  gTOteaques."  SeetfaeChap.on  tbe  Lena£)epbant.  It  is  only  in  summer  that 
ymple  Tisit  thaie  «x£eaHFely  oold  parta.  Fm-  a^CMriptiMi  «f  than  we  Chap.  VI. 

t  P.  delaCroix,p.42J. 

X  Th«(  is,  Cum  CaMiay.w  Shnk  Catfaaf :  s»  twoted  from  the  iwloHr«f 4be  tich 
•oil,  t«  distMKaisk  it  froM  the  dasfirt.  C^ra  Cathay,  oo  De  J'ble'«  nap  l»  tha  Vfy 
of  dsngfaii  Kban,  is  ftwa BDvtb  LaL  f^toW  iMrth.«ast  of  Cuacoruro. 

y  Google 

gpMWtrous  coimr  of  kIeyuc  or  crmicR, 

Uft  dopaty  ordeted  some  itmk  foi  ns,  And  a  dance  bf  his  two  Ams. 
I>0part;iiig  benee,  we  found  a  ma&Q  bob,  very  atonny;  along  its  shores  < 
we  tetfrtllcd  many  days ;  tbevearessanyidQitdfl  init;  and  we  passed, 
leavii^  it  «■  MR*  left  Itaad  *. 

In  this  land  dwclkth  Ordn,  the  most  aneient  of  the  Tartarian  dnkes. 
It  is  the  oidti,  or  conrt  of  kts  Mi^e,  which  he  inhah^teth :  amd  one  of 
Ms  wives  beareth  rule  there  f;  for  it  Is  a  caatota  not  to  disstdve 
Mm  coorts  of  princes,  but  to  aprpmnt  women,  on  wh<mi  gifts  are  be- 
stowed as  <M  their  lords.  And  so  we  arrived  at  tite  first  court  of  the 
fknpeiwt  we  eotdd  not  eater  the  orda,  Mot  having  seen  the  Em- 

Departii^.  m  cnCcved  the  Imd  of  the  Nunons,  full  of  mountains, 
and  reryaM.  Then  we  came  into  Mongoha^  aad  in  some  weeks,  ar- 
lived  at  the  oeurt  of  Cayne  t'    ^e  sent  hte  the  pope's  letter,  and  the 

After  fire  days,  we  were  sent  t»  Ae  Empcsor^  mother,  nnder  whom 
there  was  nwintaiiied  a  very  scdono  and  roytl  conrt,  ha  a  fine  white 
iKA,  large  enough  for  tw«  tboniand  persoosi  AH  the  dakca  were  as- 
aenAled,  riding  about  the  hUk  and  dales  wHh  tMr  tvaiflSL  The  first 
dt^*  they  were  dad  m  whxt«,*  the  second,  in  scarlet  robes,  TUi 
day  Coyne  entered  the  tent.  The  ^d  dvf  the  dresses  were  blue;  and 
the  foralb  tkk  Balderkin  doA§b  There  were  many  that  had  pore  gold 
oa  tbeir  tnqipnagB,  worth  tvren^  maito.  The  dukes  ccnoDuned 
about  the  election  of  Cnyne. 

*  Lake  Baikal. 

t  In  the  chapter  oa  GeDghn  it  a  shown  that  he  wa«  l:H)ni.iiithia  neigbbouriiowl; 
and  also  his  empretM  Purta  Coogine.  the  loother  of  the  foyr  great  monardis  who 
succeeded  to  his  Tut  conqneata.     They  were  tbeiefore  complete  Siberiana. 

t  Cuyne  (Keync  is  the  propa  natDe»  it  ia  probably  a  misprint)  had  removed 
Ijw  court  fran  Canconua  to  Oloagbjart  ia  IStAA,    Petia  de  kt  Croix,  p^SSdi 

S  Clodt  of  gold. 



Without  the  door  stood  Duke  Yerofllaus  of  Suzdat  in  Rugsis;  and 
'  a  great  man;  dukes  of  Cathay,  and  of  the  Solangi,  two  sons  of  the 
king  of  Greorgis,  ten  Saracen  Soldans^andanenvojftomtheCalif  of  fiag- 
dat.  We  were  told,  there  were  more  than  four  thousand  ambassadors 
and  deputies  from  such  as  paid  tribute  and  presented  gifts.  We  rode 
four  leagues,  and  arrived  at  a  place  called  the  Golden  Orda.  There 
was  a  tent  covered  with  balderkin  clo^,  and  supported  by  pillara 
plated  with  gold,  fastened  on  with  golden  nails.  Here  Cuyne  was 
placed  upon  the  imperial  throne.  He  was  sou  of  Octai,  forty-four 
years  old,  of  middle  stature,  wise,  politic,  and  passing  serious.  He 
erected  the  flag  of  defiance  against  the  Roman  Empire,  meaning  to 
subdue  the  whole  world.  On  his  seal  is,  "  God  in  Heavrai.  Cuyne 
Khan  upon  earth — the  power  of  God*.  The  seal  of  the  Emperor  of 
all  men."  The  gifts  presoited  were  infinite,  robes  of  purple,  horses, 
mules,  &c.  Five  hundred  carts  full  of  gold,  silver,  and  sHk  gfuments, 
were  divided  between  the  Emperor  and  his  dukes.  A  canopy,  set 
full  of  precious  stones,  was  carried  over.the.Emperor's  hud.  *  *  * 

The  Emptor's  concubine,  and  many  of  her  confederates,  were  ex- 
ecuted, for  having  poisoned  Octai.  At  the  same  time,  Uie  Russian 
duke  Teroslaus  deceased.  He  had  been  invited  by  the  Emperor's  mo- 
ther to  a  feast,  and,  after  the  banquet^  returning  to  his  lodging,  fell 
sick,  and  died  in  seven  days.  Afler  hi?  death,  his  body  was  of  a  strange 
blue  colour;  and  it  was  commonly  reported  that  the  duke  was  poisrai- 
ed,  that  the  Tartars  might  wholly  possess  his  dukedomf . 

We  had  audience  o(  the  Emperor,  and  received  his  letter  for  the 

*  At  this  rery  period,  the  popea  were  ioduBtrioiis  in  incolcating  the  maxim,  that 
the  bishop  of  Rome  is  the  supreme  l^rd  of  the  unwerte,  and  that  princes  have  no 
lawfiil  power,  that  is  not  derired  from  him.  Carpini  vna,  do  doubt,  carefal  not 
to  commuDicate  these  interesting  pretensions  to  Cuyne. 

t  Janslaf  II.  **  C'est  oublier  qae  le  poison  est  I'arme  da  tatble;  et  que  lei 
Tartarea  n'en  avoient  pas  besoin."    Leveaque,  Vol.  II.  p,  106. 



pope,  in  the  Tartar  and  Latin  languages,  carefully  translated  by  us. 
We  travelled  all  winter  long,  tiirough  deserts  of  snow,  and  arrived  at 
Kiev  in  Russia  *. 

The  Yakutes  of  the  Angara,  and  of  the  Syane  mountains,  wexe  per- 
secuted by  the  Buriats  and  Mongols;  and  moved  to  their  present  rude 
and  inclement  districts,  where  they  are  found  oa  ]}oih  sides  of  the  Le- 
na, to  the.  Frozen  Ocean  f. 

The  present  inhabitants  of  Yakutsk  (the  city)  are  supposed  to  be 
the  descendants  of  Uie  invading  Mongols.  Chie  of  the  chiefe  had  a 
stud  of  two  thousand  horses,  in  very  good  cmidition,  when  M.  Les- 
seps  was  there,  though  he  liad  lost  a  considerable  number  by  Commo-' 
dore  Billings's  expeditioD.  They  pretend  to  ride  better  than  any  other 
nation  in  the  world  {. 

The  Yakutes  consist  of  Mongols,  Tartars,  and  Mantchews :  ihey  are 
spread  to  the  eastern  extoemity'of  Siberia  upon  the  cosists  of  the  gulf 
of  Pinjinsk  and  on  the  shores  of  the  Kovima ;  "  an  coit  en  ems  Vhomti- 
tete  que  pent  domier  la-ntUvre."  They  hunt  in  most  places:  on  the 
borders  of  the  Lena  and  Indigerska  they  are  occupied  with  their  fish- 
mes.  In  the  south  they  have  many  homed  cattle  uid  horses.  Those 
years,  when  the  snow  is  excessive,  are  ruinous  to  the  cattle  and  their 
owners:  for  horses,  reindeer,  and  homed  cattle,  all  seek  their  own 
nourishment  under  t^he  snow,  receiving  no  aid  from  their  masters  §." 

The  Buriat  Chief  (near  Lake  Baikal)  gave  me  a  passport  in  the 
Mongolian  dialect:  his  mother  had  three  thousand  homed  cattle,  ten 
thousand  horses,  and  forty  thousand  sheep  ||. 

•  Friar  John  Do  PIbdo  Corpiui.    Hakluyl.  Vol.  I.  pp.  66  to  71. 
t  Tooke.  Vol.  II.  p.  80.  %  Note  id  MandeD's  Marco  Polo,  p.  747.      . 

g  LeVesque,  Vol.  VIL  p.  439.    It  appean  that  they  might  always  procure  bay» 
ifprorident.     NearOlekoia  there  are  plenty  of  grass  meadows. 
a  Capt  Cochrane,  p.  476. 



The  Rnsnan  Mongols  inhabit  the  regioiH  about  the  Selenga,  be' 
•  tween  the  50th  and  53rd  dejpvea  of  north  kttttude,  and  the  izaad  to 
the  125th  longitude*. 

Para  Hotmi,  on  the  Kerlon,  was  bniH  b^  the  Mongols  when  thej 
took  to  the  Chinese  caBtoms,  onder  Mangu  and  Knblai;  it  was  of  a 
square  figure,  and  two  leagues  in  drcumference.  The  fonndatiow 
are  still  to  be  seen  (1710),  with  some  large  pieces  of  the  wall,  and  two 
pTramids  in  rums,  lliere  are  ruins  of  their  cities  in  twen^  places. 
We  met  wiUi  but  one  inscriptsim,  near  Holostaj,  in  the  hi^wst  at 
some  marble  \AodkB,  in  the  Chinese  chazacta:  it  miported,  that  th« 
Chinese  army,  under  the  Emperor  Yong-lo.  (who  coBomeiKed  his  reign 
A.D,  1403),  arrired  there  the  14th  of  May.  Hence  it  (^ipears  that 
he  did  not  pursue  the  Moguls  beyond  the  Kerlon.  He  was  thrice  fan 
quest  of  them,  and  pushed  them  to  lat.  50°  f. 

When  Siberia  was  conquered  by  the  Russiuis,  in  the  beginning  of 
the  seventeenth  cmtnry,  the  Moguls  were  still  a  free  and  numerous 
people,  goTemed  by  their  own  khans ;  under  whose  sorereignty  were 
sereral  Siberian  nskionst. 


In  Siberia,  the  southern  frontier  mountahK,  from  the  Tobd  to  the 
Jenesai,  and  the  tteppet  i*  the  imddie  regioiu  of  the  JLtma,  have  been 
inhabited  by  the  Mongol  Tartarsr  and  pardonkriy  in  Oie  gorers- 
ments  of  Ufa,  ELazan,  and  Tobolsk.    Frequent  memorials  are  found 

*  Tooke,  Vol.  II.  p.25.    Mr.  Tooke's  longitade  it  fron  Ferrol;  which  Rgreet 
with  other  histone*- 
t  DuHalde.  Description  orTBrtary,Vol.II,  p.2&l. 
t  Tooke.  Vol.  II.  p.  S8. 


tbere,  of  their  aacieiit  grandeur,  magniftcence,  and  eultare;  of  which 
tome  are  of  oa  antiquity  ddmoiutrably  of  above  a  thouauid  years.         v. 

It  Is  no  rare  thing  to  come  suddenly  upon  the  ruins  of  some  town, 
which,  in  Hs  crumbling  remains,  plainly  erincei  the  progress  which 
the  arts  had  made>  among  a  people  whom,  we  are  wont  to  consider  as 
barbarians.  Still  more  freqnenfly  are  seen  sepulchres,  which,  by  their 
inscriptions,  throw  light  on  the  history  of  this  nation ;  and,  in  the  Tea- 
sels and  implements  preserved  in  them,  supply  us  with  interesting 
proofs  of  its  opulence,  its  taste,  and  its  industry. 

In  the  museum  at  St.  Pet^sburg,  are  preserved  a  multitude  of  ves- 
sels,  diadems,  wei^ns,  military  trophies,  ornaments  of  dress,  coins,  fto. 
which  have  been  found  in  the  Tartarian  tmnbs,  in  Siberia,  and  on  the 
Volga.  They  are  of  gold,  silrer,  and  copper.  The  greatest  antiquity 
of  the  tombs  is  one  thousand  one  hundred  years,  the  latest  four 

The  surprising  quantity  of  golden  ornaments  found  in  the  tombs  of 
Siberia,  were  they  not  evident  to  the  sight,  would  eiLceed  all  belief. 

The  richest  of  the  tombs,  says  Muller,  were  made  in  the  time  of 
Genghis  Khan  and  his  immediafae  successors;  the  most  valuable  being 
found  on  the  books  of  the  Volga,  Tobol,  and  Irtish.  The  next  in  va- 
lue Are  in  the  deserts  of  Jenesftt,  and  the  poorest  near  Lake  Baikal. 
He  supposes  them  aJl  to  be  the  work  of  the  Mongol  hordes  f . 

*  Tooke,  Vol.  II.  p.  4S.  This  remark  refers  to  the  period  of  the  discovery  of 
these  tombs  in  the  serentecnth  century.  Aa  the  Turks,  who  had  elephants,  and 
who  io  the  aiKtfa  eentary  midod  at  the  Altai  mouRtaiiM,  and  conqHered  ap  to  the 
Arctic  Sea,  (Gibbon.  Cb.  XUI.  Purcbaa,  L  397),  aad,a«  the  rebetlioo  against 
Kublai  and  Timur  Raan  took  place  at  the  end  of  the  thirteenth  century,  and  Ta- 
merlane's principal  inrasion  was  in  1389,  the  different  epochs  correspond  so  ac- 
CWrwUly  Bs  t«  1mv8  no  dvnbt  ■  to  tke  origin  of  these  cari«us  sep«lclire«. 

t  Cox's  Travels,  Vol.  III.  p.  179.  The  reason  of  ibe  poorest  baag  at  Baikal 
is,  that  the  Grand  Khans  and  their  families  were  buried  near  the  Chinese  wall. 
Bee  map,  flag  7. 

y  Google 


In  the  tombs  of  Siberia,  and  the  deserts  which  border  it  southward, 
are  found  thonsands  of  cast  idob  of  gold,  silrer,  copper,  tin,  and  brass. 
I  have  seen,  says  Strahlenberg,  some,  of  the  finest  gold,  three  inches 
long,  in  the  form  of  minotaurs,  harts,  old  men,  and  other  figures;  all 
sorts  of  urns,  trinkets,  scimitars,  medals  of  gold  and  silver,  chess-boards 
and  chess-men  of  gold ;  large  golden  plates,  upon  which  the  dead  bodies 
have  been  laid,  (not  unlike  the  Bractei  aurei),  and  clothes  folded  up, 
such  as  the  corpse  is  dressed  in. 

Some  of  the  tombs  are  of  earth,  and  raised  as-hi^  as  houses,  and  in 
such  numbers,  upon  the  plain,  that,  at  a  distance,  they  appear  like  a 
ridge  of  hills;  some  arepartlyofroughhewnstonesorof  freestone,  ob- 
long and  triangular;  others  of  them  are  built  entirely  of  stone.  Col- 
onel Kanifer  told  me  that  the  ambassadors  of  the  Chinese  Tartars,  when 
passing  the  city  of  Jenesai,  asked  permission  to  visit  the  tomhs  cf 
their  ancestors,  but  were  refused ;  not  improbably,  because  they  would 
have  seen  that  they  were  rifled  and  demolished. 

Golden  medals  bave  been  dug  out  of  a  tomb  not  &r  firom  the  Irtish, 
between  the  salt  lake  Jamischewa  and  the  city  of  0mm,  or  Omm- 
ostrock.  About  twenty  or  thirty  years  ago,  before  the  Czars  of  Rus' 
sia  were  acquainted  with  these  matters,  the  governors  of  the  cities 
Tara,  Tomskoi,  Crasnoyar,  Batsamki,  Isetskoe,  and  others,  used  to 
give  leave  to  the  inhabitants  to  go  in  caravans,  to  ransack  the  tombs, 
on  condition  that,  of  whatever  they  should  find  of  gold, -silver,  copper, 
jewels,  and  other  things  of  value,  the  governor  should  have  the  tenth. ' 
These  choice  antiquities  were  often  broken  and  shared  by  weight. — 
They  have  dug  for  years,  and  the  treasures  are  not  exhausted. 

The  graves  of  the  poorer  sort  have  such  things  of  copper  and  brass: 
arrows  of  copper  and  iron,  stirrups,  large  and  small  polished  plates  of 
metal,  or  mirrors,  with  characters  upon  them.  Urns  are  found  of  dif- 
ferent sizes,  some  almost  two  feet  high,  and  some  more ;  some  with,  and 



same  without  handles-  Some  of  these  graves  are  very  deep,  and  pttH 
bably  of  great  antiquity.  Hawking  and  hunting  are  represented  upon  ' 
an  urn  dug  out  of  a  tomb  at  Crasnoyar*-  A  whole  skeleton  of  an 
.  elephant  was  found  in  one  of  the  tombs  f.  Bones  of  horses,  and 
sometimes  of  elephants,  are  found  in  the  numerous  graves  near  Tomsk; 
also  figures  of  deer  in  pure  gold,  an  armed  man  on  horseback,  in  brass, 
of  no  mean  des^  and  execution  X ;  and  figured  of  the  hippopota- 
mus §. 

The  idols,  minotaurs,  and  and^nt  manuscripts  in  the  Mongolian, 
Tuigut,  andCalmuc  chaiaoters,  stamped  on  paper  made  from  silk 
or  cotton,  and  vami^ed  blue  and  black,  were  brought  from  the  deserts 
on  each  side  the  nppw  Irtish ;  found  in  the  temples  and  tombs.  The 
letters  are  partiy  of  a  goLd,  and  partly  of  a  silver  colour  ||. 

After  the  Irtish  hath  run  many  miles  through  a  hilly  country  co- 
vered with  wood,  it  passes  through  a  fruUfiil  plain ;  we  continued  on  the 
ri^ht  of  the  river,  and  found  a  regular  edifice  in  the  middle  of  a  de- 
sert: there  are  seven  rooms  under  one  roof;  and  it  is  called  Semi- 
palati,  or  the  Seven  Pidaces.  It  is  of  brick  or  stone,  well  finished, 
and  still  entire.  Several  rooms  are  filled  with  scrolls  of  glazed  paper, 
fairly  written,  some  of  them  in  gilt  characters.  A  few  have  been  trans- 
lated :  tixey  are  supposed  to  be  forms  of  prayers  of  tiie  Lamas. 

Upon  the  hills,  and  in  the  valleys  in  these  parts,  grows  the  best  rhu- 
barb in  the  world,  without  the  least  culture. 

While  Mr.  Bell  was  at  Tomsk,  a  grave-digger  told  him,  that  once 
they  found  an  arched  vault,  in  which  were  -the  remains  of  a  man,  with 
a  bow,  arrows,  lance,  and  other  arms,  lying  together  upon  a  silver  table. 

•  Strahlenberg,  pp-325to407.  B«II,  p.909.  See  the  Plate,  copied  tma  that 
in  Stmblenberg:.  t  Cox't  TnTcIs,  Vol.  III.  p.  170. 

f  Bell  of  Antermony,  p.S09.  §  Bee***  Cyc  "  Hippopotamiu."  - 

II  Strablenbei^,  p.82&. 



CJiAP.     On  toaching  the  body,  it  fell  to  dust.    The  Talue  of  the  table  and  am 
v^M'-v^**.^  ««B  Teiy  coDsideraMe*. 


Gbnohis  Khan  havnig  conquered  the  whole  kiD|[dom  of  Carisme, 
A.'D.  1211.  and  the  neighbouring  countries,  gave  the  sovereignty  of  Capschac,  to 
his  eldest  son,  Touschi  Khanf:  who  dying  six  nKmths  before  his  fa- 
A.D.  1226.  ther,  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Batou  Kfaan.     Batou  Rhan  entered 
A.D.  1237.  Rassia,  with  MX  hundred  thousand  troops  {.     Rczan,  Moscow,  Sons- 
dal,  Torjok,  Vlademir§,  Roselsk,  and  other  places  were  taken,  plun- 
dered and  bumtt  most  of  the  mhabitants  being  massacred,  or  loaded 
with  fetters.    Another  army  having  reduced  Kief  and  ot&er  pUces 
in  tlM  south.  Baton  returned  to  Senu>  his  head  quarters,  on  the  banks 
of  the  Senola,  a  small  river  whkfa  runs  into  the  Volga.    Serai  became 
ft  great  city  ||. 
A.  B.  1340.      ^  RuBsia,  except  Novt^rod,  was  now  tcibotary  to  the  Mongoh, 
who  appointed  vtoeroys  every  wh«e,  wMumt  expelling  the  Busiiui 

*  Bdl  of  AnMmoBy,  Ck  lU.  Mr.  Bell  ^n  MMie  of  the  Mmmiriftt  to  % 
Hans  Sloaae. 

t  Petis  de  la  Croix,  Life  of  Genghis,  p.  105. 

t  Tbe  Tartars  or  Mongoh  were  not  known  to  die  Rossiana  befbre  the  year 
UBi.     Took«,Hi*I.Vai.  1.^2301 

i  Hie  Graod  Prince  of  Russia,  iiamedYury  Vsevolodoritch,  and  one  of  his  sons, 
were  slain  in  this  terrible  iDrasion:  his  consort  and  his  other  two  sons  vere  con- 
SQtned  in  the  flames  ofthe  charch,  at Vlademir.    Tooke,  Hist.  ofRnssia,  Vol.  1. 246. 

J  Ler«sqti«  Vo). II.  Uioborina  leWa,  Aat,  tel6ia.thm«««ce  ruinssf  three 
hilndred  tem^Ua  al  6«mJ.  DvsnriptioQ  of  the  Caspian  in  TarerntiSl^  at  tbe  «nd  vf 
hia  TolunM. 

••  Tooke,VoI.  11.  p.  3. 



Betou  founded  the  dij  of  CastB.    Thig  monarch  w«s  sueeeeded    CIUP. 
by  hia  hrotbar  Bertke,  who  beouneaMafaomedan;  but  he  died  before  <^^»-v-^-' 
he  could  peiwade  his  mibjecta  to  foUow  his  example*. 

The  Mimgol  general  Nogu,  haring  subdued  the  nations  on  the 
north  of  the  Bladk  Sea,  revolted,  aadfc^t  thoee  countries  for  himself.  A.D.  ISfid. 
The  B-nsaiaas,  taking  advantage  of  this'  disBensioc,  and  impatient  of 
titeir  hearr  chains,  maaaaored  all  the  Tartars  is  thoae  towns,  wfaidi 
had  confederated  for  thia  purpose. 

The  Grand  JhikB  Akzander  was  aommanded  to  ^ipear  at  Hie  horde 
with,  his  troops:  but  elading  this  dango-,  he  went  alone,  made  has  A.D.  1^64. 
peace  with  the  Khan;  and  died  a  few  days  after  he  had  taken  leoTef. 
TheGrrandDukeof  Moscow  married  the  nater  of  Usbeck  Khan  ^:  a 
grandsoBi  of  Alexander  Nevaki.  and  other  Buaaian  prinecB,  formed  a^  ^q,  1313, 
•Bcea  with  the  Mmgolaf, 

The  Rusrian  Gtrand  Duke  SSmitri,  sunwmed  Don^oi,  vanquished  A.D.  1880. 
the  Khan  Mamai,  in  a  signal  and  bloody  battle  on  the  Don  j|. 

Toctaaatdi,  ct  Tocatmidi,  waa  now  Khan  of  Capschac.  He  had  a 
very  powerfiil  army,  and  hia  fiat  decided  the  fate  of  the  Russian  grand, 
dnkes.  He  had  been  placed  on  the  throne,  by  the  fnendship  of  Tara- 
erlane>  with  whom  he  quarrelled,  and  brought  on  himself  tlw  ve»<  A.D,  1991. 
geance  of -that  conqueror,  who  defeated  him  fai  a  bloody  and  tanK[e 
battle,  bigh^in  tJbe  north*  *.    Tootamlsh  reestablished  himself  in  hia 

*  Peti*  dc  k  Croix,  p.  SS7.    L«r«que,  Vol.  II.  130. 

t  Leveujot,  Vol.  II.  p,  133.  BIr.  Tooke,  Brnt.  Vol.  I.  p.  SM^  Oiiaki  it  probabU 
tbat  be  was  poivoued. 

X  Usbeck  Was  desceoded  from  Genghis  in  lb«  fourth  degree :  be  was  tbe  sixth 
••venigD  flf.  Gi^aiAma,  a«d  intradaeed.  tba  MahoBMdra  rcKgiun.  8m  Ab«l 
Gbazi  Bahadur,  Part  VII.  Cb.  a 

§  Levesque.  Vol.  IL  p.  175.  ||  Leresque,  Vol.  II.  p.  245. 

*  *  For  some  accouat.of  this  rcpnrkable  baltlje,  in  which  thera  wen  wn  than 
d^t  boodred  thouaand  cotDbataots,  Me  Chapter  IV.  in  thia  Toltma. 



CHAP,  kingdom,  and  invaded  Timur*8  dominions.  The  Emperor,  being  then 
v^^'-y-'.,^  ™  Georgia,  resolved  to  avenge  himself,  and  aent  his  empresses  and 
children  tq  Sultania.  He  reviewed  his  army;  and  it  is  said,  that,  since 
the  time  of  Genghis  Khan,  there  had  never  been  one  lo  numerous,  nor 
so  well  equipped*.  All  the  emirs  and  principal  commanders,  on  their 
knees,  assured  the  Emperor  of  their  fidelity.  Timur  marched  by 
Derbend,  till  he  found  the  enemy.  Toctamich  was  encamped,  and 
strongly  fortified  on  the  banks  of  the  Terek,  a  few  leagaes  from  the 
Caspian  Sea,  with  a  mighty  and  formidable  force:  his  regiments  were 
surrounded  by  waggons  and  great  bucklers,  like  a  wall.  On  the  2and 
A.  D.  1895.  of  April,  the  two  armies  came  to  action. 

[^The  writer  of  these  notes  has  purposely  avoided  giving  long  de- 
scriptions of  battles;  but  as  this  was  one  of  the  most  famous,  and, 
probably,  near  a  million  of  combatants  engaged,  besides  the  person  of 
Timur  being  exposed  to  extreme  peril,  the  reader  may  find  it  .inter- 

"  On  the  morning  of  the  23rd  of  Jumaziulakher,  says  ^erefeddin, 
the  soldiers  of  both  armies  began  to  move,  and  raised  a  noise  like 
two  oceans  heating  against  each  other,  when  agitated  by  the  tempestu- 
ous wind. 

The  commanders  displayed  their  standards,  and  put  on  their  hel- 
mets at  the  first  sound  of  the  Emperor's  kettle-drums.  Hmur  had 
formed  his  army  into  seven  bodies,  placing  at  the  head  those  who 
had  the  title  of  Bahader:  the  in&ntry,.  being  covered  wiUi  their  buck- 
lers, were  placed  before  the  cavalry.  Mii;za  I^hemet  Sultan  com- 
manded the  main  body,  which  he  strengthened  with  the  bravest  men 
of  the  army.  Timur  again  rode  before  the  soldiers,  to  see  whether 
they  had  all  their  arms,  which  were  swords,  lances,  clubs,  bows,  and 

*  **  And  1  renewed  ray  artniea,  and  behold,  they  stood  on  four  fnraungs  (abont 
thirteen  English  milea)  of  ground  in  bsttltt  array:  and  I  gave  thanks  to.  God." 
Timur's  Institutes,  p.  127. 



nets  to  catdi  men*.    Then  he  mounted  at  the  bead  of  twenty-seven 
^osen  comiMniea,  who  composed  the  body  of  reserve.    The  enemy  ' 
abo  ranged  his  army,  opposite  Timnr's,  and  displayed  hi^  ensigns. 

The  fi|At  began.  The  .great  shout  was  heard  on  each  side ;  and  on 
a  sudden,  the  air  was  d^kened  with  arrows,  and  filled  with  the  cries  of 
dart  or  ghirt  that  is,  give  and  slay,  hold  and  take.  Then  came  a  man 
from  the  left  wing,  who  told  Timur,  that  Condge  Aglen,  Bicywoc  Ag- 
len,  Actao,  Daoud  Sou&  (son-in-law  of  Toctamish),  and  Otourcou,  were 
advanced  with  a  considerable  detachment  from  their  right  wing,  to  at- 
tack his  left.  Whereon  Timnr  immediately  marched  against  them 
with  bis  reserve,  and  attacked  them  with  so  much  fury,  that  tiiey 
turned  their  backs  and  fled.  One  of  Ttmur's  choeen  companies,  pur- 
sued the  enemy,  till,  when  near  their  main  body,  they  rallied,  slew 
many  of  their  pursuers,  and  beat  back  the  rest  as  &r  as  where  Timur 
was.  This  created  a  confusion,  which  induced  the  enemy  to  advahce, 
and  they  boldly  attacked  the  Emperor.  •  Notwithstanding  his  rigor- 
ous and  intrepid  resistance,  in  which  he  discharged  all  his  arrows, 
broke  bis  half-pike,  and  his  sword,  they  liad  now  henuned  him  in,  if 
the  Emir  Sheik  Noureddin,  resolved  to  sfwrifice  his  life  for  bis  mo- 
narch's safety,  had  uot  dismoimted  close  by  bim,  with  fifty  others,  who 
kept  off  the  enemy  with  tiidr  arrows.  Mebemed  Azae,  bis  brother 
Alicha,  and  Touzel  Baonrchi,  seized  ■  three  of  tlie  enemy^  wagg(ms, 
which  they  joined  together  just  before  Timur,  to  try  to  break  the  ene- 
my's ranks:  Alladad  came  -also  to  his  Majesty's  assistance,  with  bis 
fiuthfiil  company;  he  got  off  his  horse,  and  poSted  himself  near  Nou- 
reddin. Hussein  Malec  Contchin  arrived  with  his  club  men,  and  Zi- 
rec  Tacou  with  his :  the  regiment  of  guards,  with  their  ensigns,  and 
witii  the  horse-tail,  came  up  and  gave  the  great  shont:  Ustoui  ad- 

*  No   iDstftnce  has  been  met  with  to  explain  how  the  Tartan  caagbt  their 

y  Google 


TUkced  with  his  company,  and  poated  himadf  behind  the  gtunvU.  AU 
these  troops,  having  dismounted,  stood  tfam  grovnd  against  the  eiM- 
my,  whose  soldiers  continued  their  aitoAB,  with  the  utmost  r^^Mir; 
nevertheless  'Hmur's  troops  did  not  recede,  but  poured  in  rast  showers 
of  arrows. 

Codadad  Hussein,  who  conducted  the  vanguard  of  the  left  wing, 
advanced  between  Condge  Aglen,  who  commanded  the  enemy's  right, 
and  planted  iumself  behind  Actao,  who  hoMly  fiwed  Timnr. 

In  the  meantime  the  M irza  Mehemet  Sultan,  with  his  recruits, 
marched  towards  the  left  of  the  Emperw:  these  brave  mea  rushed 
uptm  the  enemy^  and  with  their  scimitars  and  lances  routed  theii 
right  wing,  and  constrained  Actao  to  flee. 

The  Emir  HadgiSeifeddin,  whoconmunded  the  vanguard  of  TimuijS 
right  wing,  found  himself  more  pressed;  tar  the  enemy's  left,  whose 
VMiguard  was  commanded  by  ih&  Emirs  Aisa  Bey  and  Baeohi  Coga, 
had  the  advantage  of  this  emir:  they  got  behind  him  and  enclosed 
him;  »o  that,  dismounting  with  his  tmnan  (corps  of  ten  thousand), 
and  blading  bU  great  Judder  before  htm,  as  all  his  soldi^s  did  like- 
wise, they  put  themselves  in  a  posture  to  discliwge  their  arrows,  and 
defended  themselves  with  undiaken  rescdution  against  the  enemy, 
whose  number  continually  increased.  But  though  they  fell  apon  o«r 
men  with  their  lances,  scimitars  and  demHabres,  yet  onr  si^iers  did 
not  cease  repulsing  them  with  their  arrows ;  slaying  the  moe^  forward  i 
till  Crehanca  Bahader,  who  came  from  another  pait  of  the  field,  seeii^ 
the  dai^er  Seifeddin  was  in,  fiell  impetuously  with  his  tamaa  upon  tl» 
enemy,  who  were  almost  conquerors :  the  cluh^oen  gave  wsy  on  one 
side,  and  the  laneers  on  the  other :  the  attacks  were  sosfsined  so  vigta- 
onsly,  that  the  slaughter  was  tntly  honible. 

When  these  two  great  emirs  joined  against  the  enemy,  they  assault- 
ed them  with  so  much  courage,  that  their  left  wing  gave  way.    Mirza 


tUmatem,  b«b  of  Omar  Chcik,  nuhed  like  a  thunderbolt  with  his  toman 
upon  the  malD  hodj,  which  he  pnt  to  flight  after  having  slain  Beverd  v 
«t  them,  tfaOQgh  to  very  young,  to  the  honor  of  the  Emperor  his  grand- 

Tfl^ghlibi  BehriOi  a  farorite  and  even  a  relation  of  Toctamiafa,  wish- 
ing to  dhtingnish  himself  by  some  great  action,  advanced  with  a  troop 
of  brave  men,  and  haughtily  cried  out  that  he  dared  to  the  combat 
the  most  conregeous  of  TirauT*8  army :  he  even  called  with  a  lond 
voice  to  Osman  Bdiader,  and  told  him  that  the  place  he  was  in  was 
the  field  of  battle,  and  that  be  expected  him  there.  This  piece  of 
vanity  so  incensed  Osman,  that  he  instantly  marched  agunrt  him  at  the 
head  of  his  toman:  they  iboght  hand  to  hand,  and  having  broken  their 
sabres,  they  seized  their  war<clubs  and  poignards,  and  grappled  like 
two  enraged  lions.  The  soldiers  of  their  tomans  imitated  the  exam- 
ple of  their  chieft:  never  was  there  a  fiercer  encounter;  and  blood 
flowed  Ifte  a  torrent.  At  length,  Osmlin  Bahader  overthrew  hia  an* 
tagon{8t,and  fen  on  his  troops  with  such  fury,  that  he  entirely  defeat- 
ed them. 

All  OUT  generals  in  their  respective  posts  performed  their  dnty  so 
wen,  that,  after  a  long,  obstinate  battle,  they  made  the  enemy  give 
ground,  and  put  them  in  disorder.  Yet  we  were  not  certain  of  the 
defeat  till  the  flight  of  Toctamisfa,  who  shamefully  turned  his  back, 
with  the  princes  of  his  falood.  (that  is,  of  the  race  of  Touschi,  eldest 
«on  of  Genghis  Rhan),  the  Nevlans,  or  fiire^  princes,  dwellmg  in 
the  kingdom  of  Capschac,  and  tiie  emirs  and  generals  of  his  troops. 
Then  all  our  men  ratUed,  w>d,  joining  together,  fell  on  the  enemy, 
shouting  out,  Victory!  Vast  numbers  wefe  slain,  and  many  of  those 
who  were  taken  alive,  were  afterwards  hanged  *. 

*  Lienienant  Hart  of  the  Fourth  Dn||;ooDa,  nepfaew  of  the  writer,  in  eoapany 

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CHAP.        TimuT,  when  certain  of  this  result;  dismounting  from  his  horse, 

VMa-v-"*^  humbly  knelt  down  before  God,  acknowledging  that.tiu-ough  his  good- 
ness alone  he  had  gained  the  victory.  The  Emperor's  sons  and  other 
princes  fell  on  their  knees,  congratulated  his  majesty,  and  cast  upon 
him  gold  and  jewels.  The  monarch  oubraced  them,  and  loaded  them 
with  praises  and  thanks.  He  distributed  treasures  on  the  most  dis- 
tinguished: and  presented  the  emir  Sheik  N^oureddin,  who  had  with 
so  much  zeal  exposed  his  person  to  save  his  sovereign's  life,  with  a 
horse  of  great  price,  a  vest  of  gold  brocade^  a  belt  set  with  precious 
stones,  and  a  hundred  thousand  dinars  copeghi ;  besides  honorable  pro? 
motion  in  the  army  *. 

In  order  that  every  one  might  be  contented,  his  majesty  made  also  a 
general  promotion  of  all  the  officers  in  the  army-f . 

Timur,  leaving  the  baggage  and  the  great  booty  which  was  cap- 
tured, went  with  his  best  troops  in  pursuit  of  Toctamish ;  but,  on  his 
arrival  at  the  Volga,  finding  that  the  fugitive  monarch  had  crossed  the 
river,  Timur  invested  Coraitchac  Aglen  with  the  crown  of  Capsehae, 
and  the  whole  empire  of  Touschi  X- 
The  army  pressed  on  in  pursuit,  northward,  to  Oukek,  the  last  town 

with 'G«org€  Lamb,  Esq.  on  Ifaeir  joarney  Irom  Bombay,  in  1824,  passed  over 
the  extensive  desert  plain  upon  which  this  great  battle  was  fought:  it  ia  be- 
tween Kislnr  and  Mosdok,  Tfae  number  of  Tumuli  which  were  in  view,  was  im- 
mense: and  they  were  visible  as  far  as  the  eye  could  reach:  tfaey  were  of  differ- 
ent sizes,  but  perhaps  none  above  twenty-fire  feet  in  height.  The  soil  was 
barren  earth;  and  here  and  Ibere  some  straggling  weeds,  like  worm-wood. 

*  About  tbtrty-tbree  thousand  pounds.  A  dinar  cop^hi  is  seven  lirres  ten 
sous,  French  money.     Sherefeddin,  Vol.  11.  p.  147,  note. 

t  Sherefeddin,  B.  HI.  Cb.  LUl. 

i  Petisde  la  Croix,  p.38&,  asserts,  that  notwithstanding  this  installation,  Schadj 
Bee  succeeded  to  the  throne  in  1395,  Toctamish  fled  for  refuge  to  the  Duke  of 
Lithuania :  returned  to  dispute  the  throne,  and,  at  last,  perished  in  the  wilds  of 
.  Siberia. 

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of  the  dependaice  of  Serai;  and  thence  into  the  impeaetrable  fiorests  . 
d  Bouhu.  The  army  marched  on  the  west  side  of  the  rivw  to  Uie 
place  where  it  had  ravaged  the  country  in  1391,  whidi  is  near  the 
Icy  Sea.  On  their  retnra,  the  soldio^  acquired  an  immense  plunder 
in  gold,  silver,  pearls,  rubies,  fors,  and  several  wild  animals  unknown 
among  the  Zagataians.  Many  young  persons  of  both  sexes  were  also 
bron^  away  captive  *. 

As  Timor's  courage  was  not  satisfied  with  an  enterprise  till  he  had 
carried  it  to  the  utmost  perfection,  he  was  not  content  with  haying 
chased  Toctamich  from  his  empire  and  destroyed  his  army :  he  there- 
finre  resolved  to  reduce  to  obedience  the  nations  of  these  western  fron- 
tiers. According  to  this  graieroos  sentiment,  he  sent  forward  the 
Emir  Osman,  who  cut  the  Usbec  Tartars  to  pieces,  and  pillaged  their 
houses  f.  The  toman  of  Actao,  the  Usbec,  abandoned  the  country, 
and  fixed  themselves  in  the  plains  of  Isra  Yaca,  near  Natolia. 

Timor  then  went  in  person  towards  Grand  Russia,  plundering  the 
cities  as  he  went,  defe^ii^  and  cutting  in  pieces  the  princes  and  go- 
vernors, as  iar  as  the  borders  of  Reran,  with  an  army  of  four  hundred 
thousand  men. 

Appearing  to  take  the  road  to  Moscow,  which  had  not  remvered 
from  the  devastations  committed  by  Toctamich,  the  inhaMtants  of 
that  unfortunate  city  were  in  despair.  The  Grand  Duke,  VassUi  IL 
resolved  to  encounter  the  storm,  and  pitched  his  camp  on  the  borders 
of  the  Oka  {.     Against  Timur's  mighty  force  there  could  be  no  hope. 

*  SbenfeddiD,  Vol.  L  p.  499. 

t  The  reader  will  recollect  that  these  gmenmt  proceedingi  are  dcMcribed  by 
8  subject  of  Timur. 

X  Sberefeddia  hasaesertedthat|Timur  took  Moscow;  and  many  authors  hare  co- 
pied him:  but  Toctamich  had  plundered  Hoscova  few  years  before  Timur's  inrasion, 
and  he  did  uotgo  to  that  city.    See  Lerewine;  and  Gibbon,  Vol.  VL  p.  388. 



Contrary  to  all  expectation,  Timur  changed  his  coura^  and  turned  hi> 
'  foce  homeward  *.  His  fatoops  were  eori^^ied  with  ingots  of  gold, 
silrer,  linen  cloth  woren  with  gieat  neatness  and  skill,  skins  core»d 
with  spots,  in  con»di«aMe  loads,  the  most  beantiftil  sables,  enmnee^ 
and  oUiex  fois  in  such  quantities  as  to  supply  the  actors  for  tbBii  own' 
and  their  children's  l!v«s.  In  Little  Russia,  the  army  took  prodigtons 
droves  of  cattle,  an  infinite  number  of  colts  which  bad  not  yet  been 
shod,  besides  abundance  of  beautifol  girls  and  wnnen  of  all  ages. 

By  this  campaign  the  power  of  Toctunicfa,  and  of  the  kingdom  of 
Capschac,  were  considerably  shaken;  it  was  therefore  a  fortimaie 
event  for  Russia,  llie  soas  of  Toetamich,  and  other  prinees,  reigned 
in  rapid  succession,  and.  by  l^t^r  dissensiona,  paved  the  way  for  the 

A.  D.  1475.  Russian  conquests.  Ivan  IIL  being  required  by  an  order  undex  the 
great  seal  of  Afchmet,  khan  of  the  Crolden  Horde,  to  pay  the  accus- 
tomed tribute;  he  treated  the  orders  with  contend  and  put  Ae  de> 
.  puty  to  death.  The  next  year  Akfamet  Altered  Rossis,' ravaged  the 
fiitmtaws,  and  reached  the  river  OkM,  wime  he  was  surprised  at  the 
■ght  of  a  fiHinidsfale  army;  at  the  discovery  of  which  he  retraced  his 
steps,  and  no  sooner  reached  his  own  territory  than  his  troops  became 
'  '  victims  of  t^  plague. 

A.  D.  1562.  Casan,  after  a  terrible  siege,  was  tak^  by  stoim  by  Ivan  IV.  and 
the  oomrtry  subdued.  The  Russian  monarch,  when  he  entered 
GaoMk,  wept  at  the  horrid  sight  of  the  heaps  of  Hui  stainf. 

•  Levesqae,  Vol.  II.  p.  267. 
t  JeroDM  Bowes  was  sent  by  Qaeen  Elizabelb,  as  ambaandor,  to  Iran,  who  was 
the  first  who  took  the  title  of  Czar.  To  coDform  to  Ae  «tiqnettfl  of  die  times,  he 
mntiiiwd-witli  hn  hat  oq  at  the  first  aadi^ce.  Some  one  represented  tbedanger 
of  such  conduct,  and  the  evils  he  might  bring  on  himself  by  if  "  I  pm  not  unac- 
qradnted  wMi  ibeta^  mtd  be;  *  frat  I  am  the  ambassador  of  a  Qneen,  who  will 
"wrreBgo  any  afthint  ofl!bred  to  her  in  fte  person  of  her  minister."  Ihe  Czar,  t«r 
frombenigofendedipresentedhinitotheassembly.    '"Behold,**  said  he,  "abrare' 



Astrachan  &Us;    and    the  Tartar  domination  in  these  quarters    C^^- 
endi.  "^-.^/-^fc.* 

The  conquest  of  Sibir,  near  ToboUlf,  was  effected;   after  having  a!  D*.  1686. 
been  in  possession  of  the  descendants  of  .Genghis  Khan  about  three 
hundred  and  fifty  years*. 

When  king  James's  ambassador.  Sir  Thomas  Smith>  was  at  Mos-  A.D.  1604. 
cow,  in  1604,  the  Emperor  Boris's  table  was  served  by  two  hundred 
noblemen  in  coats  of  gold.    The  prince's  table  was  served  by  the 
'  young  dukes  of  Cazan,  Astrachan,  Siberia,  Tartaria,  and  Circassia  f . 

By  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century,  most  part  of  Siberia  was  A.D.  1650. 
reduced;  and  about  the  year  1711  Kamtschatka  was  added  to  the 
Russian  Empire. 

The  Crimea,  the  last  possession  of  the  descendants  of  Genghis  A.b.  1784. 
Khan,  in  the  kingdom  of  Capschac  and  in  Siberia,  fell  to  Russia, 
about  five  hundred  and  fifty  years  after  the  conquest  of  those  coun- 
tries by  the  Mongols. 

BOD,  who  baa  die  oobr^  to  upbold  (be  fawour  of  hn  aovMreign  with  dignity. 
Who  amongf  yoa  would  do  as  mncb  for  mef" — Ctaiuen. 

»  Lereaque,  Vol.  III.  f  Mihou'a  Hiatorical  Works,  Vol.  U.  p.  147. 



Fossil  remains  of  Elephants,  Rhinoceroses^  and  Buffaloes,  found  t» 

Siberia  and  Russia. Remarks  on  the  Elephant  found  in  the 

Ice  at  the  Mouth  of  the  Lena. Sublime  Scenery. Ruitis 

of  Ancient  Forts. Happiness  of  the  Natives. Numerous 

Errors  arising  from  Eur(ypeans  having  transferred  the  word 
Mammoth,  the  Siberian  Name  of  the  Walrus,  to  the  Remains 
of  Elephants,  Whales,  ^c. 

"  HThE  celebrated  Bayer  conjectures,  that  the  bones  and  t«eth  found 
,  in  Siberia  belonged  to  elephants,  common  in  that  country,  during  the 
wars  of  the  Mongol  monarchs  with  the  Persiaos  and  Indians ;  and  this 
plausible  supposition  is  in  some  measure  corroborated  by  the  dis- 
covery of  a  whole  afceleton  of  an  elephant  in  one  of  the  tombs  of  Si-  ; 
beria.  Pallas  refutes  this,  by  the  consideration  that  the  elephants 
employed  in  all  the  armies  of  India,  could  never  have  afforded  the 
vast  quantities  of  teeth  which  have  been  discovered*." 

"  Many  persons  go  from  Tomsk  (lat.  56°  30')  to  the  graves,  eight  or 
ten  days  journey,  where  they  dig,  and  find,  among  the  ashes  of  the 
dead,  gold,  silver,  brass,  precious  stones,  armour,  sword-hilts,  bones  of 
horses,  and  sometimes  of  elephants.  It  appears  that  many  warriors  must 

•  Coze's  Tnvels.  Vol.  IIL  p.  170. 



hftve  bOen  here,  firom  the  number  of  graves:  as  they  have  dag  for 
jears,  and  the  treasures  are.  not  exhausted.  The  Tartars  in  the  Ba- 
raba  told  me  tiiat  Tamerlane,  others  said  Genghis  Khan,  had  many 
eogagements  in  that  country  with  the  Cahnucs*." 

"  Mammotiis*  bones,  or  teeth,  says  Strahlenberg,  are  now  here  found 
in  greater  plenty  than  near  the  mpuths  of  the  Oby,  Jenesai,  and  Lena. 
-After  these  rivers  have  swollen,  and  have  washed  away  a  good  deal  of 
the  lower  part  of  the  day  and  sandy  banks,  then,  only,  these  teeth  are 
found.  They  are  of  different  sizes.  I  have  seen  some  above  four 
Russian  ells  long  (nine  feet  four  inches  English),  and,  at  the  thickest 
part,  nine  inches  in  diameter.  They  are  like  elephants'  teeth,  but  some- 
what more  crooked.  They  serve  to  make  any  thing  that  is  required 
of  ivory:  but,when  they  have  been  exposed  to  the  air,  they  are  a  little 
more  yeUowUk  and  brown  like  cocoa-nut  shells:  and  sometimes  of  a 
blackish  bluef .  Agreat  moMf  ((f  ikete  teeth,  which  are  white,  are  car- 
ried for  s^  to  China  %. 

I  have  taken  a  gpod  deal  of  pains  to  come  at  some  certainty  with 
respect  to  this  mineral,  if  I  may  call  it  so;  but  I  have  not  been  able  to 
obtain  such  an  account  as  is  capable  of  obviating  all  objections.  The 
name,  doubtless,  has  its  origin  from  the  Hebrew  and  Arabic,  denoting 
Behemot,  of  which  Job  speaks,  Cb.  XL.  and  which  the  Arabs  fpro* 
Bounce  Mehemet. 

•  Bel)  of  Antermony,  p.  209. 

t  See  Chap.  XVI.  on  the  Walraa.  The  writer  will,  with  tbe  aid  of  that  chap. 
ter,  eadesTOur  to  elucidate  this  coDfused  account  of  Strahleaberg^a :  he  does  not 
in  his  work  meotion  the  Walrus  fisheries.  He  was  thirteen  years  in  Siberia.  So 
fer  theaboTC  means  the  elephant. 

{  These  are  all  Walrus's  teeth.  "  The  Bussiaoa  bring  many  teeth  of  a  sort  of 
^AtoPekin;  they  are  tvAtf^r  than  ivory."  DuHalde,  Vol.ll.  p.263.  The  read- 
er is  reqaeated  to  bear  in  mind  this  important  distinction  in  tbe  txlour  of  the 

y  Google 


But  OUT  coiomentators  are  not  agreed  what  kind  ot  animal  is  to  M 
understood  by  Behemot  Luther,  with  many  otbav,  take  the  word  t« 
mean  only  in  general  a  monstrous  large  beast;  and  it  seemB  the  Ara* 
bians  were  not  at  a  greater  certainty.  It  is  they,  donbtleas,  who  brot^j^ 
this  word  into  Great  Tartary*.  for  the  Ostiacks  call  the  Maaunoth 
Khogar;  the  Tartars  call  it  Khir;  and  though  the  Arabian  name  ii 
Fyhl,  yet,  if  very  large,  they  add  the  adjective  Mehemodi  to  itf. 
These  Arabs  coming  into  Tartary,  and  finding  there  the  rdics  of 
some  monstrous  great  beasts,  and  not  knowing  what  kind  they  mi^  be, 
called  these  teeth  Mehemot,  which  afterwards  became  a  proper  name 
among  the  Tartars,  and  is  by  the  Russians  corruptly  pronouneed 
Mammoth.  (The  Tartars  about  Jenesai  have  many  Arabic  words  in 
their  language.  Bell  of  Antermony,  Ch.  III.)  Some  think  that  Job 
meant  the  hippopotamus ;  others,  that  he  meant  the  whale.  Be  this  as 
it  will,  the  Russian  word  Mammoth  certainly  came  from  Bdiemot. 
Father  Gregory,  confessor  to  the  princess  Sophia,  wag  many  years  an 

*  The  Arab  conquests  of  Persia  and  Maverulnere,  were  in  the  seventh  cen> 

t  In  tiK  Vocabniarium  Calmocko-Mungalicum  of  Strablenberg,  the  word  for 
ail  elephant  is  Sann  or  Sogo;  and  we  here  find  that  the  Tartars  and  Ostiacbs  do 
not  call  the  elephant  mammoth.  We  And  (see  Cb.  XV,)  that  the  Yakales,  with 
Mr.  Adams,  inscribed  selichaeta,  meaning  "  montagnede  maiWMrth ;"  and  olao 
that  the  governor  of  Siberia  means,  by  the  word  Behemot,  the  Walrus.  Job's  de- 
scription indicates,  clearly,  the  hippopotamus.  "He  ealelh  grass  as  an  ox:  he 
drinketh  uparirer;  the  willows  of  the  brook  compass  him  about:  he  lieth  in  the' 
covert  of  the  reed  and  fens."  The  Arabs,  who  could  not  be  unacquainted  with 
elephants,  finding  ivnry  in  Siberia,  which  was  from  an  animal  that  was  ampH- 
hious,  and  fed  on  grass  or  moss,  would  naturally  think  it  a  sort  of  Behemot;  for 
they  are  acquainted  with  the  Bible,  great  part  of  which  is  transcribed  into  die 
Koran;  and  among  the  figures  found  in  the  Tartar  tombs  in  Siberia,  the  hippo- 
potamus is  one  of  them,  "  There  is  every  reason  to  apprehend  that  the  morse  has 
been  confounded,  by  some  Irarellers,  with  the  hippopotamus. "  It«es's  Encyc. 
"  Hippopotamu*." 


exile  in  Siberia :  be  taiA  me,  tlut  formerly  the  name  wa»  Hemoth, 
ba[t  that  the  Rtuaom  dialect  had  made  the  Alteration  to  Mammoth. 

1^  next  qaestion,  since  tiiere  are  so  man^  tokens  of  prodigtously 
large  amtiudfl  faond  in  Siberia,  is  of  what  knid  they  must  have  been. 

As  to  <he  opinion  that  they  were  an^hUnoMs  creatures,  which  is 
eurreaUy  believed  bjf  tke  SSterkm  populace,  I  have  alwajrs  looked  on 
it  as  a  fable;  nor  have  I  erer  met  with  two  accounts  of  that  matter 
which  were  of  a  piece. 

The  author  of  Daa  Veramderte  Rtualamd,  p.  179,  says,  that  these 
aaaimab  were  nine  Russian  ells  long  *:  but  an  ancient  painter,  Reme- 
81^  who  lived  at  Tobolsk,  informed  me,  in  the  presence  of  Dr. 
Messasclunidt  axd  many  others,  that  he,  and  thirty  more  of  his  com- 
panions, had  seen,  between  the  cities  of  Xara  and  Tomskoi,  near  Lake 
Tsana,  an  entire  skeleton  of  oaie  of  tihese  creatures,  thirty-six  Russian 
eils  Iflog,  and  lying  on  oae  side:  and  tlw  distance  between  the  ribs 
was  so  great,  that  he,  standi^  upright  cm  the  coacavity  of  one  rib, 
eould  not  qiute  readi  the  imier  surfiu:e  of  the  opporite  rib  with  a 
pietty  long  batUe-axef .  To  which  may  be  added,  that  bones  of  a 
naf)  bigness,  and  grtndcis  twenty  or  twenty-four  pounds  weight,  are 
found  almost  aM  over  Siberia  }. 

Dr.  Messerschmidt  has  seen  the  bones  of  a  whole  skeleton  of  a  mon- 
atTMis  size,  in  a  ditch,  between  Tomskoi,  and  Kasoetsko,  on  the  banks 
of  theTQmber§. 

The  Swedish  prisoMrs  mw  a  head  at  Tumeen,  two  eils  and  a  half 
lot^,  which  the  Russians  reckoned  one  of  the  smallest  size  j|. 

*  That  is,  twenty-one  feet  English,  which  (s  fhe  lengfh  oTAe  Wafrat. 

t  A  whale,  no  doubt;  but  this  idea  seems  not  to  hare  been  entertained  by  fitrali- 
lenber^  or  Mesaerachraidt.    Tins  pfaee  is  eight  hundred  imlea  from  tha  oeean. 

X  Tbeaeare  grinders  of  Elephants. 

%  This  is  probiMy  another  wattle,  as  Dr.  H.  wotdd  not  ban  deened  elepbant^ 
bones  monMroos.  |I  Fire  feet  ten  inches  is  too  la^^e  for  an  elephant. 



If  we  look  to  the  mighty  size  of  a  whole  ekeleton,  and  the  teeth, 
and  theii  crookedness,  it  is  impossible  they  should  be  wrecks  of  ele- 
phants ever  since  the  flood;  though  I  formerly  thought  fhftm  to  be 
so:  but  there  is  no  manner  of  proportion  between  thean  and  the  ske- 
leton of  this  huge  animal*;  I  am  therefore  construned  to  beliere,  that 
,  these  teeth  and  bones  are  of  sea  animals,  such  as  the  Danes  used  for- 
merly to  bring  from  Greenland  and  Iceland,  and  sell  for  those  of  nni- 

What  inay  make  it  probable  that  they  may  be  relics  of  the  flood,  is, 
that  thirty  years  ago  the  whole  hull  of  a  ship,  with  the  ke^  to  it,  was 
found  in  the  Barabintzian  Tartary,  far  enough  (six  or  seven  hundred 
miles)  from  the  ocean :  and  a  shaped  oaken  beam  near  ToboUky,  at 
axty-f our  Jathomg  deep. 

Every  year,  near  the  habitations  of  the  Lamuti  and  Koraeiki  in  tbe 
bay  of  La&a,  whales  and  other  great  sea  animals  are  carried  into  the 
rivers,  and  when  the  water  falls,  are  left  on  the  shores.  Nor  is  it  int- 
probable  that,  when  the  Oby,  Jenesai,  and  other  rivers  swell  in  so 
extraordinary  a  manner,  there  should  be  such  teeth  or  horns  of  Green- 
land sea  animals,  carried  up  and  thrown  on  the  banks  of  the  rivers, 
as  we  have  seen  in  the  example  of  a  sword  &h:t.  Or  it  may  be  con- 
jectured, that  the  Mare  Glaciale  went  &rther  into  the  land  before  the 
flood ;  and,  at  the  fall  of  the  waters,  left  these  creatures  in  the  mud 

It  is  observable '  that  the  mammoths'  teeth  are  ttiostly  found  near 
the  Mare  Glaciale,  in  rivets  which  discharge  themselves  into  the  sea§. 

*  The  tuiks  are  here  atbribnted  to  the  whale. 

t  This  means  the  Monodon  or  Narwal. 

X  Thu  also  miMt  allude  to  the  Narwal. 

g  AlthoDgh  some  elephants'  tiuka  hare  been  foond  in  the  places  here  alluded 
to,  the  remark,  it  is  very  reasonable  to  suppose,  arises  from  .the  great  number  of 
walrus's  tnika,  found  in  that .  quarter :  Stnhleoberg  neaer  haviag  raentioaed  that 



Should  any  one  hereafter  accoant  better  for  these  appearances, 
shall  willingly  retract  my  opinion  *."    Strahlenberg,  p.  402. 

"  On  thebEutks  of  the  Oby,  and  about  Surgute,  a  great  many  tusks, 
called  Mammon's  horns,  are  found.  I  have  seen  them  weighing  above 
one  hmidred  pounds.  The  commandant  had  several,  and  gave  me  one 
which  I  presented  to  Sir  Hans  Sloane,  who  was  of  opinion  that  it  was 
an  elephants  tooth.  ■  The  Tartars  relate  many  fables  of  its  having  been 
seen  alive.  The  Siberians  in  the  Baraba  told  me,  that  they  have  seen 
the  creature  called  Mammon,  at  the  davm  of  day,  near  laies  and  rivers  : 
but,  that  on  discovering  them,  the  mammon  immediately  tumbles  into  the 
water,  and  never  tsppears  in  the  daytime.  They  say,  it  is  about  the 
size  of  a  large  e1ephant,'with  a  monstrous  large  head  and  horns,  with 
which  he  makes  his  way  in  marshy  places,  and  under  ground,  where 
he  conceals  hhnself  till  night.  I  only  mention  these  things  as  the 
reports  of  a  superstitious' and  ignorant  people.  I  have  observed  in 
mWt  of  the  towns  we  passed  between  Tobolsk  and  Jenesai,  many  of 
these  mammon's  horns,  like  the  best  ivory,  except  in  the  colour,  wbith 
was  pf  a  yellowish  huef ." 

*  The  reader  will  be  able  (o  form  a  jadg^tneDl  of  the  effect  of  •torma  from  the 
ooeaD,  flood*  from  the  melting  of  BQOw,  and  the  consequent  rapid  changes  of  the 
anrface  in  Siberia— ~.  Elephants  at  the  mouth  of  the  Lena,  whales  eight  hundred 
miles  inland ! 

t  Bell  of  Antermony,  Ch.  XIV.  It  appears  by  this,  that  the  natires  in  these 
parts  call  both  the  tnska  of  the  elephant  and  the  liriug  walrus  by  the  name  of 
Mammon ;  for,  what  they  told  Mr.  Bell  about  having  seen  them  alive,  may  very 
easily  have  been  true,  as  walruses  might  visit  those  waters ;  though  it  was  Da> 
tural  for  Mr.  B.,  like  Strahlenberg,  to  treat  as  ign<nance  the  assertion  that  ele- 
pfumta  live  in  the  rivers,  he  not  imagining  that  they  alluded  to'  the  walrus.  This 
is  the  usual  mistrnderstanding  throughout.  It  was  to  be  expected  that  numbers 
of  elephants' bones  might  be  found  in  these  parts,  where  Kublai's  andTimur  Kaan's 
wan  and  invasions,  sometimes  of  three  hundred  thousand  troops,  were  carried 
on  for  upwards  of  thirty  years,  as  is  shown  in  Chap.  V. 



The  reader  will  be  able  to  judge,  by  the  preceding  eximcts,  what 
'  confusion  of  ideas  exists,  even  in  Siberia,  on  this  subject,  among  the 
most  intelligent  gentlemen  who  have  resided  there  for  yeu^.  The 
main  facts  on  which  the  writer  founds  his  proo&  in  this  essay  were 
either  unheeded,  or  unknown  to  Europeans  in  that  country,  viz.  the 
immense  invasions,  during  the  rdgns  of  the  Grrand  Khans,  Kublai  and 
Timur  Kaan,  from  China,  and  India  beyond  the  Burrampooter:  and 
the  vastnumbersof  walruses  and  narwhals,  at  the  moudis  of  the  Leni^ 
Jenesai,  and  the  Oby. 

We  will  now  endeavour  to  show,  that  wherever  bones  which  are 
really  of  the  elephant  have  been  found,  they  may,  without  any  Tiola< 
tion  of  probability,  be  referred  to  the  wars  from, the  earliest  times 
with  China,  and  Tangut,  which  reaches  to  Assam^  besides  the  connec- 
tion there  may  have  been  witii  Hindostan  from  the  wesbenx  frontier  of 
that  country,  for  much  more  than  twenty  centuries. 

The  great  number  of  years  the  descendants  of  Genghis  Khan 
reigned  in  Siberia  may  also  account  for  many  of  the  remains  of  those 
animals,  which,  according  to  the  invariable  custom  of  the  Moguls, 
were  received  as  presents,  and  used  for  the  purposes  of  pleasure  and 
hunting.  In  those  instances  which  follow^  there  are,  probably,  some 
which  relate  merely  to  reports  made  to  Europeans  by  the  Siberians  of 
mammoth  bones,  (meaning  walruses) ;  and  which  the  Europeans  would 
erroneously  conclude,  meant  elephants:  sodi  as  in  the  goieial  asser- 
tion about  those  described  in  XXVII. 




L  Son  im  rivage  de  la  Toura,  dont  les  couches  sont  horizontales, 
je  vis  quelques  os  d'£lephans:  ils  ont  eU  trouve  avec  des  belem- 
nites  et  des  gloBsopetrea  petrifies.  (See  XL.)  Pallas,  Vol.  III. 
p.  334. 

NoU. — ^The  first  capital  of  the  Mongols  was  on  the  river  Tura,  or 
Toura>  an4  was  named  G^ighis  Toura,  two  hundred  and  fifty-four 
versts  west  of  Tobolsk  and  Sibir.—Tooke,  II.  60. 

I I .  At  XscfairikoTO  on  the  Siviaga,  thirty  versts  from  Simhertk,  bones 
of  elephahts  were  found  in  several  places. 

Note—IthaA  is  in  the  district  of  Kazan,  governed  by  Genghis's  de- 

III.  On  the  river  Irguis,  near  Samara,  a  horn  of  a  buffido  weig^iing 
more  than  eight  pounds. 

Note, — ^The  Samara  runs  from  the  Yaik,  Batou's  and  Sheib&ni's  ter- 
ritory, into  the  Volga,  government  of  Kazan. — Levesque,  Vol.  VIII. 
268.     (See  XXXVIIL  respecting  bufbloes.) 

IV.  At  Kahnyoova,  on  the  Yaiie,  bonn  of  an  elephant>  and  the  top 
of  a  bufi^o's  skull,  with  the  horns  upon  it. 

Note, — Batou  founded  a  Grolden  Horde  on  the  Yaik :  Sheibani  had 
hereditary  possessions  there,  and  the  vestiges  of  Saratchiensk  are  still 
visible.— Strahlenberg,  266.  Tooke,  II.  60.  Levesque,  VoL  VIII.  268. 

V.  Near  the  Oufi  the  head  and  bones  of  an  elephant. 
Note.-jnhK  Oufo  is  in  the  district  of  Kazan. 

VL  Near  the  river  Iset,  and  the  convent  Dolmatof,  fifty  vents 
from  Kameuaki  and  Taaakoulskaiai,  some  elei^uuits'  bones  were  found 
"  en  fouillant  une  mine  de  i&c.' — (Paltos).    Mammoths'  bones  were 



CHAP,    found  nedr  the  Tobol,  at  Alacul,  and  Dolmatoff. — (Herman's  Minera- 
Vmo-v-^m^  logical  Map). 

Note.^The  Iset,  Dolmatoff,  and  tiie  Tobol  are  near  Tinmen,  Shei- 
bani's  capital. 

YII.  On  the  borders  of  the  great  and  Uttle  Souvarisch,  many  teeth 
and  bones  were  fonnd  spread  about,  and  in  good  presiervation . 
Note. This  place  has  not  been  found  on  the  map. 

VIII.  Near  the  Ischim  and  Karrassoun,  on  the  river  bank,  bones, 
a  tusk  and  tooth  of  an  elephant. 

Note. — The  Ischim  runs  into  the  Irtish,  less  than  a  degree  south  of 
Sibir  and  Tobolsk. 

IX.  At  Tobolsk  there  is  a  very  remarkably  thick  tusk,  four  ells  and 
a  quarter  long.  (A  Russiaa  ell  is  twenty-eight  inches  English).  It 
was  found  near  the  river  Ischim :  and  an  enormous  buf&lo  horn  was 

,  brought  from    the  country   watered    by  the    Ischim,    Vagai,    and 

'  Note Sibir  is  on  the  Irtish,  close  to  the  Vagai,  or  Viaga,  and  lower 

down  is  the  Ischim. 

X.  Near  Tschenolonskaia-Krasnoyar  on  the  Irtish,  bones  and  teeth 
of  an  elephant. 

Note. Not  found  on  the  map.     Timur  Kaan's  battles  were,  most 

of  them,  on  the  Irtish. 

XI.  From  Beresof,  one  hundred  and  fifty  versts,  and  three  versts  , 
above  Kousevarzskoi-Pogort  on  the  Oby;  several  elephants'  bones, 
and  a  large  buffalo's  skull,  were  found. 

iVbfe— Beresof  is  north  of  Tobolsk,  Ut.  63°  56',  whither  the  To- 
bolskians  go  to  tra£Bc  with  the  Ostiacks  and  Vogoules. — I^evesque, 
VoL  VIII.  p.  283. 

XII.  At  north  Jenesai,  below  Selakina,  and  near  the  Krasnoyark;  a 
tooth  and  bones  of  an  elephant  (See  XXXIX). 



XIII.  At  Beresofski,  which  runs  into  the  Alei,  teeth  and  bones  of 
an  elephant :  teeth  supposed  to  be  of  a  buf^o,  and  of  other  animals  v 
unknown  to  me. — Pallas.    (See  remarks  on  XXXH). 

XIV.  Remains  of  a  rhinoceros  were  discovered  forty  versts  above 
Simovie  de  Vilouiskoe/  on  the  sands  of  the  river,  one  toise  lirom  the 
water,  and  four  toisesfroma  high  bank.  The  animal  was  df  ells  long, 
3^  high.  (Supposed  to  mean  a  Russian  arshine-;  twenty-eight  inches 
English),  tt  had  the  skin  on,  and  was  much  corrupted.  "  I  saw  the 
head  and  feet  at  Irkutsk,  the  skin  shewed  its  exterior  organization; 
the  head  had  aiil  the  skin  on :  the  eye-lids  were  not  entirely  destroyed ; 
and  there  were  many  short  hairs.  (The  above  extracts  are  from  the 
"  Voyage  dans  I'Asie  Septentrionale,"  by  Pallas.)  (See  XXXIX.  and 

Chap.  xvni). 

XV.  Mr.  Martin  has  a  jaw  bone,  several  grinders,  a  calcined  ivory 
tooth,  and  a  rib  of  an  elephant;  found  under  the  surface  of  the  soil  at  Le-  . 
vino,  fifty  versts  from  Penza,  and  a  piece  of  an  elephant's  tooth  found 
in  the  brook  Shuksha.  This  fragment  appears  to  be  part  of  a  per- 
fectly sound  toothj  very  crooked,  and  much  furrowed  on  the  outside. 
These  vestiges  of  a  former  deluge  are  discoverable  in  the  uppermost 
sandy  and  loamy  strata,  which  are  frequently  intermingled  with  cylin- 
drical stones :  and,  in  the  deeper  clayey  layers,  there  are  found  the  re- 
mains of  marine  productions:  even  on  the  heights  of  Penza,  in  sink- 
ing a  well  at  a  considerable  depth,  large  quantities  of  oysters  were  dis- 
covered in  a  bed  of  clay. — Pallas's  Southern  Travels,  Eng.  Ed.  Vol.  I. 
p.  47.  (See  XL). 

Note. — Penza  is  between  the  Volga  and  the  Don. 
'    XVI.  Near  Katinskoi,  on  the  Don,  thirty  versts  from  Voronetz,  on 
the  brink  of  the  river,  were  found,  in  1784,  vast  numbers  of  bones 
of  very  large  size,  disposed  in  the  greatest  disorder:    they  con- 



CHAP,    sist  of  teeth,  tusks,  jaw  bones,  ribs,  spinal  T»tebre,  the  os  pubis,  Idp 

v..,.»-v~'h-^  bones,  tibia,  &c,  not  petrified,  but  somewhat  decomposed. Setoctions 

from  the  Gent's.  Mag.  Vol.  II.  p.  463. 

Note It  will  be  seen  that  the  D<m  was  the  Mogul  fhmtier,  by 

what  follows.  "  There  are  high  promontories  on  the  sea  shore,  from 
Keraova  to  the  mouth  of  the  Tauais,  (Don):  uid  at  Keraova  and  Sol- 
daia  there  are  forty  castles.  Beyond  these  mouutains,  to  the  north, 
there  is  a  most  beautiful  wood,  in  a  flat  pleasajit  country,  fiill  of 
springs  and  rivulets.  Beyond  the  wood,  there  is  a  mighty  plain,  fire 
days'  journey  unto  the  end  of  the  province,  northward ;  and  there  is 
a  narrow  neck  of  land,  having  the  sea  on  the  east  and  west  aides,  and  a 
canal  from  one  side  to  the  other.  The  Tartars  drove  t^e  Cbmanians 
to  the  sea  shore. 

Towards  the  borders  of  the  province,  there  are  many  salt-pits  in  the 
Uikea^  where  the  salt  becomes  hard,  like  ice.  ~  Out  of  these  pits  Batou 
and  Sartach  have  great  revenues;  for  they  repair  thither  out  of  all 
Russia  for  aalt,  and  for  each  cart-load  they  give  two  webs  of  cotton. 
There  come  ships  for  salt,  which  also  pay  tribute. 

The  tiiird  day  after  we  left  these  precincts,  we  found  the  Tartars; 
and  I  thought  myself  in  a  new  world:  they  flocked  about  us,  and  were 
very  mquisitive.  I  answered,  that  we  had  heard  that  their  prince, 
Sartach.  had  become  a  Christian,  and  that  I  had  your  Majesty's  letters 
to  him,  and  was  proceeding  with  then) ;  and  that,  if  they  permitted  me 
not,  I  would  return  to  Batoa's  kinsman,  Zagatai,  who  was  in  the  same 
province,  and  to  whom  the  Emperor  of  Constantinople  had  written  to 
let  me  pass  through  his  territories.  (Voronetz  was,  probably,  this 
Zagatai's  government).  The  day  following,' we  met  the  carts  of  Zaga^ 
tai,  laden  with  houses,  and  moving  like  a  city ;  they  were  drawn,  some 
by  camels,  most  by  oxen,  of  which  I  counted  twenty-two  to  one  cart. 



the  ude  of  which  was  as  thick  as  the  mast  of  a  ship^  We  were  admit- 
ted into  Zagatai's  presenoe,  with  fear  and  bashfohieBB;  and  I  delivered  ' 
the  letter  from  the  Emperor  of  Constantinople.  He  inquired  the  su1>-. 
ject  of  your  Majesty's'(Louis  IX.)  letters  to  Sartach.  I  answered,  *'  the 
words  of  Christian  foith."  He  asked  what  they  were,  and  I  expound- 
ed the  Apostles'  Creed,  as  well  as  I  c'ould,  through  a  sorry  interpreter: 
which,  after  he  had  heard,  he  shook  his  he'ad. 

We  travelled  eastward,  having  the  sea  on  the  south,  and  a  plain  on 
the  north,  twenty  days'  journey  in  breadth,  without  tree  or  stone;  it 
is  a  most  excellent  pasture.  To  the  north  is  Russia,  wasted  by  the 
Tartars.  Wenowarrived  atthebanks  oftheTanais;  it  is  here  as  broad 
as  the  Seine  at  Paris.  Batou  and  Sartach  had  caused  cottages  to  be 
built  for  some  Russians  to  dwell  in,  to  ferry  over  ambassadors  and 
merchants.  This  river  is  the  limit  of  the  east  part  of  Rtusia,  seven 
hundred  miles  in  extent,  and  &lls  into  the  Black  Sea ;  and  all  the  rivers 
we  passed  run  into  it.  These  Tartars  remove  no  farther  north,  bnt 
begin  to  return  to  the  south  on  the  first  of  August.  The  two  rivers, 
where  we  travelled,  are  ten  days'  journey  firom  each  other. 

We  found  Sartach  within  three  days'  journey  of  the  Etilia,  or  Vol- 
ga; his  court  seemed  very  great,  for  he  had  six  wives;  his  eldest 
son  bad  three;  every  one  of  which  bath  a  great  house,  and  above  two 
hundred  carts.  We  were  introduced  to  Sartach,  and  entered  singing 
5a^  A&gina,  and  delivered  your  Majesty's  letters;  which,  being  in- 
terpreted and  heard,  he  permitted  us  to  carry  our  vestments  and 
books  to  our  own  lodging.  The  next  morning,  we  were  told  that  there 
were  difficulties  which  Sartach  dare  not  determine  on  without  the  ad- 
vice of  his  father  Batou.  This  Sartach  will  not  su£fer  himself  to  be 
called  a  Christtan. 

We  arrived  at  the  court  of  Batou,  (Serai),  which,  firom  the  numerous 



^H  AP.  houses  iand  tents,  appeared  like  a  mighty  city  three  or  four  leagues 
v-w^v-^^  long." — Rul^ruqutB,  in  Harris,  Vol.  1. 666.     A.  D.  126S. 

Note — VoTonetz,  according  to  Rubruquis,  is  on  the  frontier  of  Rus- 
sia: Casimof,  a  Tartar  Khanate  is  north ;  the  Crimea  south ;  Serai, 
Kazan,  and  Bolgar,  east;  all  residences  of  princes  of  the  imperial  blood 
of  Genghis.  It  is  very  probable  that  there  was  a  Khan  at  Voronetz, 
for  the  Tartars  appointed  viceroys  at  Kief  and  every  where. — Tooke, 
'  Vol.  II.  p.  1 1.  And  Voronetz  is  a  central  position.  Peter  the  Great 
was  of  opinion  that  the  bones  of  the  elephants  found  at  Voronetz  were 
left  when  Alexander  the  Great  crossed  the  Don,  according  to  some 
authors,  and  advanced  to  Kostinka.  But  Alexander  did  not  cross 
the  Don — Vide  Introduction,  and  also  Tooke's  Hist.  Vol.  I.  p. 
S98.  Ihere  are  many  gypsies  at -Voronetz. — Rees's  Cyc.  "Woro- 

The  Romans  were  posaibly  also  at  the  Don.  ."  The  Emperor  De- 
cius  posted  Gallus  on  the  banks  of  the  Tanais,  with  a  competent  force ; 
and  led  in  person  the  remainder  of  his  army  against  the  Scythians. 
This  expedition  succeeded  to  his  utmost  wish.  But  Crallus  intrigued 
with  the  barbarians,  and  retained  his  post  on  the  banks  of  the  river: 
Decius  was  decoyed  into  a  marsh,  and  was  so  assailed  by  missiles, 
while  in  the  mire,  that  he  was  killed,  and  also  his  son;  nor  did  one  of 
his  army  escape  with  life:  and  Crallus  succeeded  to  the  empire." — Zo- 
simus,  p:  15*.  , 

XVII.  Among  the  hills  not  br  from  Makofskoi,  retuains  of  mammuts 
are  found  also  on  the  shores  of  the  rivers  Jenesai,  Trugan,  Mongamsea, 

*  Gibbon,  on  the  auUiority  of  Tillenaoat,  says,  that  this  fetal  affair  wa?  on  the 
Danuhe.  Connt  Zosimus  was  Chancellor  of  the  Empire,  noder  llmMlosiiw  the 
yennger,  at  C<M»twiiiD(^le. 

y  Google 


and'  LenA,  even  to  the  frozen  sea.  The  ice,  from  its  vast  force  in  the 
spring,  carries  high  banks  before  it,  and  breaks  off  the  tops  of  hills;  v 
when  these- anhnals,  or  their  teeth  only*,  are  discovered.  A  pers(m  I 
had  with  me,  who  had  annaally  gone  out  in  search  of  these  bones,  told 
me,thathe  and  his  companions  had  found  the  head  of  one  of  these  crea- 
tures. The  greatest  part  of  the  flesh  was  rotten:  the  teeth  were  plac- 
ed like  those  of  the  elephant ;  they  cut  off  a  fore  foot,  the  circumference 
being  as  large  as  the  waist  of  an  ordinary  man.  The  bones  of  the 
head  were  somewhat  red,  as  though  they  were  tinctured  with  Uood. 
The  heathens  of  Yakuti,  TungusI,  and  Ostiaki,  say,  they  mostly  live 
under  ground,  and  tell  us  they  have  often  seen  the  earth  heave  up, 
when  one  of  these  beasts  was  upon  the  march,  and  when  he  was  pass- 
ed, the  place  sinks  in,  and  leaves  a  deep  pit  That  when  they  come 
Unawares  out.  of  the  ground,  they  die  on  smelling  the  air;  but  they 
are  never  seen.  The  old  Siberians  are  of  opinion,  that  there  were 
elephants  in  this  country  before  the  flood,  when  the  climate  was 
warmer;  and  that,  after  floating,  they  were  washed  and  forced  into  ca- 
vities; that  then  the  air  changed  to  cold,  and  flroze  them.  The  above 
person  told  me,  he  once  found  two  teeth  that  weighed  four  hundred 
German  pounds ;  a  great  many  lesser  teeth  axe  found.  No  one  ever 
saw  one  of  these  animals,  therefore^  all  we  can  say  about  its  shape  is 
conjecture. — Isbrants  Ides,  in  Harris,  II.  928. 

Note. ^The  great  many  lesser  teeth  are  of  the  walrus;  and  the 

tales  told  about  the  walrus  are  here  confounded  with  the  dephant. 
Vide  Ch.  XVI.  of  this  Vol 

XVIIl.  At  Astraohan,  a  grinder  was  found;  others  are  often  found 
on  the  borders  of  the  Ytuk,  encrusted  with  shells.  (See  XL.)    De  Lille 

*  Wdmaeaibed  their  tuBks,  elephanta  do  not,  except  once,  when  sboat  a  year 
old.    Vide  Cb.  XV.    WalniMS  climb  npon  emineDces  to  feed  on  the  mo«. 


KBMAOti  or  BLEPdANTd. 

found  some  fragments  on  the  borders  of  the  Talk.— ^tttier>  p.  148, 
'  (See  the  note  on  IV.) 

XIX.  At  Swijatowski,  serenteen  rersts  from  tk.  Petersburg,  in 
1775,  remains  of  a  lai^e  elephant. — Cnvier. 

Note Presents  of  elephants  have  often  beeo  sent  to  St.  Petersburg. 

Tfaaknas  KouU  Khan,  in  1741,  srat-at  one  time  fourteen,  for  the  Em- 
peror and  the  great  lords  of  the  Court.— Levesque,  Vol.  V.  p.  2S1. 

The  writer  saw  an  elephant  at  St  Petersburg.  Two,  he  was  told, 
had  been  sent  by  the  sovereign  of  Cabul  to  the  Emperor  Paul ;  one  of 
th«n  died  on  the  journey. 

XX.  Near  the  Volga,  a  large  skuU.— Cuvier,  p.  140. 

Note. — Astrachan,  Serai,  and  Cazan,  residences  of  Mongol  KluuM, 
for  three  hundred  years,  are  all  on  the  Volga. 

XXI.  At  Malochnye  Vodi,  near  the  Palus  Mseotis,  at  the  depth  of 
forty-fire  feet,"  une  portion  de  tcte  de  femur,  qui  annonce  un  indiridu  de 
quatorze  ou  quinze  pieds  de  faaut.  Deja  Phlegon  de  Tralles,  sur  la  foi 
de  Theopompe  de  Synope,  avoit  parle  d'un  cadaTre,  disoit  il,  de  vingt 
quatre  coudees,  mis  au  jour  par  un  tremblement  de  terre,  pr^  du 
Bosphore  Clmmerien ;  et  dont  on  jeta  les  os  dans  le  Palus  Meotide."— 
Cuvier,  141. 

^o<«._  These  parts  were  during  five  hundred  years  frequented  by 
the  Mongols.     The  cadavre  must  surely  foe  ft  whale. 

XXII.  At  Stanoi  Jarks,  on  the  banks  of  the  Indigerska,  a  skull. 
J.  B.  MuUer  Bpe^3  of  a  tuA,  the  cavity  of  which  was  full  of  a  sub- 
stance resembling  curdled  blood. — Cuvier,  145.  See  XXXIX. 

XXlil.  Anctephantneariyaitfi'e,  and  some  long  hairs  upon  it,  was 
diftoovered  by  Suytchef,  on  the  banks  of  the  Alaseia,  beyond  the  In- 

In  i«OS,  M.  Tilashts  reoeWed  a  bmich  (ftls^ean)  of  hair  pnUed  by 
one  Fatapof  from  the  carcass  of  a  mammoth  near  the  shore  of  the 



frozen  SflB.    Some  of  tlie  hair  aad  a  piece  of  the  skin  of  thu  indivi-    C^^^- 
dual  is  in  the  cabinet  du  Roi— Cuvier,  147.    (See  XXXIX.)  v^>-v^ 

XXIV.  Elephanls'  bonee  hare  been  found  along  the  KAma^  ntixed 
witii  marine  «hells,  by  the  River  Ii^tiin.  And .  Bovte  mixed  with 
rhinooerofi'  bones.— Cuwr. 

Note. The  Kama  runs  into  the  Vol^  near  Kazan.    The  Irguln 

is  not  fooad. 

XXV.  At  Kazan,  a  thig^  bone  of  an  ele^iant:  and  near  BtxwhoB, 
in  the  govenunattof  Cazan,  a  whole  skel^on.— Cuvier,  148.  (See 
the  resiark  on  XX.) 

XXV J.  Pallas  gives  a  kmg  list  of  tusks,  grinders,  and  bones  of  ele- 
phants and  rhinaoeroses  sent  from  the  bwders  of  the  Siviaga. — Cu- 

Note. — The  Siviaga  runs  into  the  Volga>  some  miles  west  of  the 
'City  of  Kacan.    See  remarks  on  XX. 

XXVII.  The  Samoyeds  find  many  elepbimta'  b<mes  on  the  naked 
plains  through  wfaicii  Uie  Oby  runs  to  ^e  sea. — Cuvier. 

Note.  In  Ch.  y.  it  it  ^evm,  that  immeiue  armies  tofre  kept  in  Si- 
beria for  vumy  jfeart  to  tUtpute  the  empire:  that  ihey  were  stationed 
about  the  Iriish,  and  that  Aef  drove  Caidou,  the  rebel,  in  the  year 
1297,Jiirther  into  the  north. 

XVni.  An  enonnouB  heap  was  foond  at  Kutschewarski  on  the 
Oby.— Cuvier.    (SeeXXXIX.) 

Note. — This  place  is  not  oa  the  maps  which  Uie  writer  has  seen. 
The  ruins  of  the  M<Htgol  town  of  Tontoura,  near  Tomsk,  are  cm 
the  Oby. 

XXEX.  A  jpindfflr  and  some  bones  were  procured  by  Pallas,  near 
the  mouth  of  the  Obdorsk.— Cuvier.  (See  XXVII.) 

XXX.  The  Irtish  and  the  Tobol,  the  Tonra  and  the  Isete,  have, 
pohaps,  affiMrded-the  greatest  quantity  of  remains:  they  are  found  at 



CHAP.     Verkotourie,  near  the  source  of  the  Toura,  and  along  the  Irtish,  un- 
^.^v*^  dsi*  various  soils,  and  mixed  with  shells. — Cuvier,  149. 

Note. These  rivers  are  all  in  the  very  neighbourhood  of  the  places 

where  the  Mongol  sovereigns  resided  during  three  centuries. 

XXXI.  The  banks  of  the  Ticuman,  the  Tom,  and  the  Keta,  furnish 
elephants'  remains. — Cuvier.     (See  remark  on  XXX.  and  Ch.  V.) 

XXXII.  Remains  were  found  on  the  Alei  and  at  the  foot  of  the 
mountain  in  which  the  Oby  rises. — Cuvier. 

Note.-— The  Alei  runs  into  the  Oby  near  the  country  of  the  AI- 
bintzi,  who  are  supposed  to  be  Mongols,  two  or  three  degrees  south  of 
the  ruins  of  Tontoura,  near  Tomsk. — Levesque,  Vol  VU.  420. 

XXXIII.  "Pallas  assure  avoir  ime  molaire  tiree  d'une  minede 
la  montagne  de  serpens,  et  trouvee  avec  des  entrogues." — Cuvier,  p. 

^ote.-_:Remains  have  also  been  found  in  the  mines  of  Britain,  and 
may  have  been  conveyed  thither  by  miners.  There  can  be  no  reason 
to  conclude  that  the  entrdcfai  and  the  tooth  are  coeval. 

XXXIV .  Remains  have  often  been  found  near  Krasnoyarsk,  to  lat. 
70*  below  Selaniko.  (See  flag.  No.  27,  on  the  map).  On  the  Angara. 
On  the  Chatang.  At  Irkutsk.  Between  the  Lena  and  Jenesai.-^See 

XXXV.  On  the  banks  of  the  Kolyma  and  the  Anadyr,  remains  of 
elephants  have  been  found.     See  XXXIX. 

XXXVI.  The  greatest  quantity  is  found  on  the  islands  between  the 
mouths  of  the  Lena  and  Indigerska.  The  nearest  island  is  thirty-six 
leagues  in  length.  The  whole  island,  (it  has  often  been  repeated)  is 
formed  of  mammoths'  bones,  with  boms  and  skulls  of  buffaloes,  or 
some  tmiina.1  which  resembles  them,  and  some  rhinoceroses'  horns. 
Another  island,  five  leagues  farther,  and  twelve  leagues  long,  furnishes 
the  same  bones  and  teeth. — Cuvier,  151.     According  to  Pallas,  there 



is  Bcarcely  a  river,  from  the  Don  to  the  Tsdiutskoi  Nos.  in  the  banks 
'  ot  which  the  bones  are  not  Abundant.  And  the  two  islands  at  the  mouth '  i 
of  the  Indigeraka  seem  entirely  composed. of  these  bones,  and  those  of 
the  elk,  riiinoceroB,  and  otker  large  quadrupeds. — Rees's  Addenda. 
"  Manunoth." 

iVofe.— .These  are  the  paragraphs  and  allusions  which  have-filled  the 
world  with  aatonishment;  and  history,  geology,  and  natural  history, 
with  marvellous  perplexity  and  conjecture.  Instead  of  elephants, 
rhinoseroses,  elks,  and  buffaloes  of  foreign  regions  having  furnished 
these  heaps  of  bones,  it  will  be  seen  that  they  are  remains  of  native 
animals  of  the  places  where  they  are  found.  The  elephants  and  rhi- 
noceroses, which  hare  been  found  in  Siberia,  have  caused  the  con- 
fusion. Here  mammoths  are  walruses:  to  prove  which,  the  reader 
is  referred  to  Strahlenberg,  p.  402;  Muschkin  Puschkin  in  Pere 
.  Avril's  Travels,  p.  176;  and  to  this  Vol  Chap.  XVI. 

Unicorns  are  narwhals,  which  are  called  sea-unicorns,  and  abound 
in  that  sea:  they  also  go  up  the  rivers. Rees'  Cyc.  "  Unicom."  Strah- 
lenberg, p.  40S. 

Elks  abound  in  Siberia,  and  in  the  most  northern  parts.  The  Rus- 
sians call  them  Losh;  the  Siberians  name  them  Ruyck.  They  are  of  an 
immense  size;  the  hides  are  valuable,  and  they  su{^y  a  great  quanti- 
ty of  food.  The  natives  kill  about  four  hundred  annually  at  Wilwa, 
near  the  river  Pytschiora,  the  mouth  of  which  is  in  latitude  67°. — See 
.Strahlenberg,  p. 361.  There  are  elks  also  in  Nova  Zembla. — Abul 
Ghaxi,  notes.  Vol.  II.  p.  663. 

The  horns  of  the  animal  resembling  a  bufiklo  may  be  the  cattle  of 
the  country:  the  largest  cattle  of  this  kind  are  found  among  the  Cal- 
muc  Tartars.  (Encyc.  Brit. "  Bos.")  The  Burathairy  bull  is  more  like  the 
Yak  of  Thibet  and  Napanl  than  to  the  ordinary  cattle;  and  the  vici- 
nity of  Tangut  and  China  may  have  introduced  a  variety  of  such  ani- 



besides  which  there  are  yriii  cstUe  like  the  unu  m  SU>aiB. 
'  These  aninals,  and  the  elk,  way  bare  supplied  the  fidiers  with  diet  far 
many  centuries.  The  information  is  doived  fEom  the  waknK  and  nar- 
whal fifdiermen,  who  are  the  native  Tui^uses,  Yakutes,  and  Tuk^il^ 
no  traveller  or  naturalist  having  visited  those  islands.  Pdks  4loes 
not  appear  to  have  been  withm  twenty  degrees  of  the  latitude  of 
those  isles,  nor  does  he  mention  the  AFWrtw&heries;  neither'do  Steak- 
lenberg  nor  Mr.  Adams.  Goldsmith,  in  his  Natural  Histmy,  says, 
quantities  of  the  bones  (tf  the  walrtu  are  found  on  the  coasts  of  the 
North  Sea.  Do  not  these  elucidations  asust,  in  a  most  material  man- 
ner, to  untie  this  Gordian  Knot? 

XXXVII.  A  petrified  fragment  was  fonnd  in  the  sea  of  And.  See 
XL.  The  borders  of  the  Jaxartes  produce  some :  the  Bucbarians 
bring  ivory  from  that  place. — Cuvier,  152. 

Note. There  are  Bucharians  resident  at  Tobolsk,  Tinmen,  Tara, 

and  Tonrin^,  all  of  which  are  places  in  which  the  tusks  ctf  elephants 
and  walruses  are  articles  of  traffic. 

XXXVIII.  On  the  hills  and  in  the  woods,  near  Tomsk,  is  found 
the  urns,  exceeding  in  size  and  strength  all  the  honied  spedes:  no 
animal  is  so  fierce.  There  is  in  the  same  woods  a  species  of  oxoi  net 
so  big  as  the  Urns,  with  a  high  shoulder  and  a  flowing  tail  like  a 
liorse. — ^Bell  of  Antermony,  Chap.  III.  Qf  the  craniums  of  two  ani- 
mals found  in  Sibena,  Pallas  refers  one  to  the  oidinary  bufihlo,  bnt 
has  since  attributed  them  to  a  species,  natives  of  Thibet,  named  Ami. 
Cuvier  proves,  by  osteologic  comparison,  that  those  craniums  have  not 
belonged  to  the  bufiblo.  The  other  appeased  to  Pallas  io  have  be- 
longed to  the  c^>e  or  musk  ox  of  Canada.  Cnvier  shevra  that  they 
cannot  have  belonged  to  the  former,  bat  he  has  not  a  cranimn  of  the 
ami  or  musk  ox,  to  compare  with  them. — Reecfs  CycL  **  Bones." 

Note — ^The  bu£blo's  bones,  fonnd  in  Siberia,  wore  pn]1»bly£rom 



Antm,  Thibet,  or  Cfaiu;  and  of  a  ^d  tkat  maj  never  have  been 
kiunni  to  Euopean  natmafiits.  Thej  must  have  been  very  common,  '' 
as  armour  was  often  made  of  bufiUo  hides,  hardened  by  fire  *.  In 
1^  year  128d,  Timur  Kaan  was  Goveroor  of  Yunan  and  seven 
neighbonring  kingdomB,  Bongalla,  Mien.  &c.  It  was  he  who  invaded 
Siberia. — See  Marco  Polo,  p.  424,  note  827.  lliese  oountriee,  and 
Siberia  Hself,  prodnce  many  varieties  of  the  boa  genus,  some  of  which 
might  aecompany  a  Tartar  anny  as  beasts  of  burthen.  "  The  oxen 
wiiiefa  draw  the  lionaee  of  the  Mongols  are  the  finest  ornament  of 
tiMJr  equipages;  they  are  extremely  strong,  have  hair  like  horses. 
and  that  on  their  tails  is  white;  and  soft  as  silk.  They  are  firom  the 
country  of  Tangut.  and  are  very  dear." — Petis  de  la  Croix,  p.  358. 
In  addition  to  the  above,  it  appears,  in  Vui  Bream's  Journal.  March  26. 
179S,  that  buffidoes  are  employed  by  the  Chinese  to  draw  their  four- 
wheeled  carts;  and  many  may  thns  have  been  in  Siberia  with  the 

XXXIX.  In  the  Chapter  on  Siberia,  it  has  been  shewn  that  the 
oeigfaboorfaood  of  Irknt^,  Angara,  and  Baikal,  is  the  original  sove- 
reignty of  Gcnghis's  &mily.  and  his  birth  place.  The  most  ancient 
Tartar  dnke  liad  his  court  there,  when  Carpini  passed,  m  1346.  The 
Grand  Khans  sent  to  the  mouth  c^  the  Lena,  and  to  an  UloHd  in 
the  Arctic  Sea,  for  ger-^Uoons  imd  peregrine-ialcoos.  In  the  chapter 
on  Kublai,  it  appears  that  he  kept  many  thousands  of  falconers,  and 
that  his  elephanta  were  made  nse  of  on  all  occasions,  even  sent  to  any 
distance  to  fetch  evergreen  trees,  with  their  roots,  for  bis  gardens- 
There  can  be  no  doubt  but  the  tribute  in  furs  must  have  been  great, 
to  supply  such  numerous  and  rich  sovereigns,  and  their  sumptuous 
courts :  and  that  they  were  collected  up  to  the  Arctic  Sea,  at  the  Oby 

*  Marco  Polo,  p,  210. 



CHAP,     and  Jenesai,  as  well  as  at  the  I^na^totbe  mouth  of  whicb  the  natires 

^— 'v-*^  were  dnveti  by  the  Mongols.  Mongols  inhabit  above  the  riTer  Tim- 
gouska.  (Tooke,  I.  265.)  The  peissy,  some  white  and  some  dove 
colour,  the  size  of  a  fox,  with  a  thick  warm  fur,  which  is  found /or  to 
the  north  of  Jenesai,  is  much  esteemed  by  the  great  men  in  the  north 
of  China. — Bell  of  Antermony,  Ch.  III.  It  is  not  in  the  least  probable, 
that  the  Grand  Khan,  after  the  year  1272,  did  not  send  elephants  both 
for  the  purposes  of  war^  {as  he  always  used  them  in  his  armies),  and 
also  for  the  pleasures  of  hunting,  to  his  near  relations,  the  sovereigns 
of  Siberia  and  Capschac :  possessing,  as  he  did,  thousands  and  receiving 
them  annually  in  tribute*.  If  the  British  army  dared  meet  Caesar, 
but  fled  at  the  sight  of  his  elephant,  we  may  judge  how  useful  those 
animals  would  be  in  Siberia:  thus,  elephants  may  have  been  sent  to 
every  country.  It  is  not  necessary  that  the  elephants  and  rhinoce- 
roses should  have  been  sent  to  the  nioH/Af  of  the  rivers:  they  may 
have  floated  from  a  considerable  distance,  and  been  blown  into  other 

XL.  As  shells  and  marine  substances  are  found  every  where,  there 
appears  no  good  reason  to  conclude  that  they  are  coeval  with  the  fossil 
.bones.  The  Caspian,  Lake  Aral,  and  the  region  around;  are  all  salt: 
which  may  account  for  marine  shells  adhering  to  some  of  the  fossil 
bones:  and  also  for  their  petrified  appearance,  if  four  or  five  centuries 
be  not  enough  to  petrify  theuL 

The  reader  wiU  now  be  able  to  judge  whether  these  he^pe  of  bones 
in  particular,  so  amply  accounted  for  in  Ch.  XVI.  but  described  as 

•  In  Chapter  IV.  we  have  seen  tbat  Timor  presented  bis  frientb  with  ele^iants. 
The  Mogul  Emperor,  Akbar,  gave  presents  of  elephants  daily.  Ayetu  Akbari, 
Vol.  I,  p.  SSI,  Kublai's  means  of  doing  the  same  thing  were  much  greater  than 
Akbar's.  It  has  erer  been  the  cvMoat  in  these  coantries.  See  Xenophon,  CyrcK 
pKdiB,B.Vin.  p.214. 



elephants  &c.  Avm  the  reports  of  the  Siberians,  or  the  Europevis  in 
Siberia,  may  not  have  been  walrus,  narwal,  whale,  or  other  remains,  < 
snch  as  we  might  expect  to  find  accumulated  in  those  very  places, 
after  more  than  two-  thousand  years  that  these  fisheries  hare  been 


Mr.  Adahs  set  out  from  Yakutsk  oa  the  7tb  of  June,  and  towards 
the  end  of  the  month  reached  Rumak-Surka,  where  he  was  detained  by 
contrary  winds;  this  place  was  inhabited  by  forty  or  fifty  Tunguse 
families,  who  were  then  fishing  to  provide  the  winter  stock.  All  the 
coast  was  covered  with  scaffolding  and  cahaneg  quite  filled  with  peo- 
ple, full  of  innocent  gaiety,  actively  employed,  singing  while  throwing 
their  nets,  and  some  dancing  the  eharya,  a  dance  of  that  country. 
"  I  was  filled  with  emotiens  of  joy,"  says  Mr.  Adams,  "at  these  de- 
lightful scenes  and  so  much  happiness  amidst  the  polar  ice." 

There  are  not  any  islands  at  the  mouth  of  the  Lena,  near  to  which 
it  is  narrower,  more  rapid,  and  deeper  than  in  any  part  of  its  course*. 

The  opposite  side  of  the  river' is  highly  picturesque.  The  moun- 
tains present  a  variety  of  scenes  which  exalt  the  soul:  their  summits 
covered  with  snow,  with  an  azure  tint,  contrast  finely  with  the  deep, 
dark,  and  \n\A  vaUies.  The  painter  might  in  vain  seek  in  Siberia  more 
beautiful  scenes  than  are  found  at  Kumak-Surka,  and  which  are  cele- 
brated in  the  songs  of  the  natives. 

*  MonBienr  Lessepa  crossed  tbLs  nobje  river  Bt  Yakutik,  on  the  S9th  of  Jane : 
be  was  four  hours  od  ibe  passa^,  in  a  diagonal  direction,  vnd  estimstea  the  width 
fit  two  leagaea.     See  bis  Journal,  Vol.  II.  p.SSS. 



The  wind,  at  length,  heing  foir,  "  I  soit  mj  rein-deer  aerass  the 
river ,"  says  Mr.  Adams,  "and  followed  the  n«xt  morning,  im  Isver  dti 
tokil,  acc<Hapaiiied  by  Schumaohoff,  and  sixtem  others.  The  sad^ 
of  my  rein-deer  bdng  tied  only  with  a  leather  strap,  andtheTimgiues 
not  making  use  of  stirrups,  I  had  several  falls,  and  experienced  pun 
and  incoavenie  nee  *." 

After  two  days*  journey  over  mountains,  valUes,  and  arid  plains,  the 
party  crossed  the  isthmus  of  Tamut,  where  many  wild  rein-deer  are 
caught  in  the  autumn,  as  they  migrate  towards  Borchaya  in  the  Icy 
Sea.  On  the  third  day,  the  tents  were  pitched,  a  few  hundred  paces 
from  the  mammoth. 

Towards  the  end  of  August,  when  the  fisheries  of  the  Lenaare  over, 
Sohumachoff  and  his  brethren  visit  the  istfamm  of  Tamut,  to  hunt  or 
fish.  In  1789,  having  built  a  dwelling  for  his  wife  on  the  borders 
of  lake  Oncoul,  11  s'emburqua  pour  aller  voir  s'il  ne  trouv^oit  snrles 
ootes  quelques  comes  de  Mammouthf.  Un  jour  il  apperfutaumiUea 
dcB  glafons,  un  bloc  informe  qui  ne  ressembloit  en  rien  aux  amas  de 
biriB  flottant  qu'on  a  coutome  d'y  trouver.  D  ndt  pied  k  teire,  grim- 
pa  sur  un  rocher,  et  observa  dans  toutes  ses  faces,  cet  object  nouveau, 
mais  il  ne  pot  reoomioitre  ce  que  c'etoit.    L'annee  suivante  il  decouv- 

*  Marco  Polo  hid  nwfrted  Ant  the  DBtirea  of  Siberia  ride  upon  rein-deer, 
■which  was  auppofied  to  be  a  wrong  tratulation  of  an  early  veraioo.  This  is  aao- 
ther  and  a  very  remarkable  proof  of  that  trareller's  eztcnaire  iDfonnatioD,  and  of 
JHS  correctness.  See  Maraden'sM.  Polo,  p.  2fiS}  Bebring's  Trarels ;  Abnl  Ghazi, 
rToJrll.  p.  MO;  aadLoMpa'a  Jonrul,  Vol.  ILp.303.,  The  eastern  part  of  Sibe* 
ria,  in  which  is  the  Lena,  was  in  the  Grand  Khan's  division,  and  is  named  North- 
em  Turqaestau.  (De  la  Croix's  Map,  Life  of  Timur,  Vol.  II.  p.426.)  Mr.  Adams 
foand  rains  of  ancient  forts  in  these  parts,  and  also  mutilated  remains  ofgrotesqne 

f  By  which  Mr.  A.  no  donbt  understood  elephants*  tusks :  bat  these  are  tbe  re- 
igns where  the  natives  range  the  coast  in  search  of  tusks  of  the  walrus,  as  a  regu- 
lar and  certain  subsistence;  and  which,  as  has  been  shewn,  they  name  Mammoth. 



tit  au  meme  lien  la-  caicaiae  c^une  ya^e  marine  (trichechns  rMmaras). '  ^^^' 
La  masse,  qn'il  aToit  vu  autrefoiB,  ^it  plus  d^gagee  des  gtafons:  ^^*-s,^«^ 
mats  il  ne  Bftvoit  encore  oe  que  ce  pouvoit  etre.    Vers  la  fin  de  I'et^ 
wuvant,  le  flano  tont  entier  6.9 1'animal  et  one  des  defenses  etbient  dis- 
tinctement  sorties  des  gla9on8. 

A  son  retonr  aux  bords  du  lac  Oncoul,  il  communiqua  cette  de- 
coDT«rte  extnuwdinaire  a  sa  femme  et  &  qnelqnes-uns  de  see  amis; 
mais  leur  manidre  d'envisager  la  chose,  le  combla  d'amertume  et  de 
bri^esse^  Les  Tiefflards  racontoient,  qu'ils  avoient  ou'i  dire  k  leurs 
p^res,  qn'nn  monstre  pareil  s'etoit  &it  voir  jadis  dans  la  meme  pres- 
qu'ile>  et  que  toute  la  famiUe  de  celui  qui  I'avoit  aper^ u,  avoit  ^e  eteinte 
en  tr^s-peu  de  temps.  Le  mamouth,  p^r  consequent,  fut  unanime- 
ment  mvisage  comme  on  augure  d'une  calamitd  fature ;  et  le  chef  Tun- 
guse  en  confUt  nne  si  vive  inqni^ude  qu'il  tomba  dangerensement 
malade;  nuus,  enfin,  etant  im  pen  cMivdocent,  sa  premiere  idee  ftit 
le  profit  quil  pouvoit  avoir  en  vendant  les  ddtenses  de  cet  animal,  qui 
^ient  d'une  beaote  et  d'une  grandeur  extraordinaire. 

11  donna  ordre  de  cacfaer  soignensement  I'endroit  oil  le  mamonth 
se  trouToit,  et  d'en  Eloigner,  sous  diff^tens  pr^textes,  tous  les  gtran-  , 
gers:  chargeant  en  m£me  temps  des  gens  afiSd^,  de  veiUer  &  ce  qu'on 
n'enlevat  ce  tresor. 

Enfin,  vers  la  fin  de  la  cinqui^me  annle,  les  d^sirs  ardens  de  Schn- 
machoff  fiirent  heurensemrait  accomptis*;  car  la  paxtie  des  glacea  qui 
se  trouTOit  entre  les  tcrres  et  le  mamonth,  ayaat  fimdu  plus-  vite  que 
le  teste,  le  niveau  devint  pente,  et  cette  masse  ^orme,  poussSe  par 
son  propre  poids,  vint  s'echouer  h  la  c6te  sur  un  banc  de  sable.  Cest 
ce  dont  fnrent  t^oins  deux  Tonguses,  qui  depuis  m'ont  aceompagne 
dans  mon  voyage. 

*  The  reader  vill  judge  whether  it  caa  be  a  common  occarrence  to  find  tle- 
pkant^  tnska. 



Au  mois  de  Mars.  1804,  Schumacboflf  Tint  a  son  mamouth,  et  lut 
'  ayant  fait  couper  les  comes,  il  les  echangea  avec  le  marchand  Bat- 
tunoff  contre  des  marchandises,  pour  la  valeur  de  cinquante  rubles. 

Deux  annees  apr^,  par  cons^uent  dans  la  septidme  de  la  d^ou- 
verte  du  mamouth,  un  hazard  beureux  voulut  que  je  parcourusse  ces 
regions,  et  je  me  ieticite  de  pouToir  constater  un  fait  qu'on  auroit  cm 
si  invraisemblable.  Je  trouvai  le  mamouth,  encore  but  le  meme  lieu 
mais  tout-a-fait  mutile.  Le  proprietaire  se  tenoit  content  du  profit 
qu'il  en  avoit  tire,  et  lea  Jakutes  du  voisinage  depeceoient  les  chairs, 
dont  lis  nourissoient  leurs  chiens  pendant  la  disette.  Les  b^tes  fero- 
ces,  les  ours  blancs,  les  loups,  les  goulus,  et  les  renards,  en  fesoient  de 
•  meme. 

Le  squelette  presque  decbame  se  trouroit  tout  entier  a  I'exception 
d'un  pied  de  devant  Les  yeux  out  ete  preserves  et  Ton  distinguoit 
encore  h  I'ceil  gauche  la  prunelle.  Les  parties  les  moins  endomma- 
gees  sont,  un  pied  de  devant  et  un  de  derriere;  ils  sont  couvert  de 
peau  et  ont  encore  la  solle.  Suivant  rassertionduchef  Tunguse,rani- 
mal  avoit  ete  si  grosftsibiennoiirri,que  le  ventre  lui  pendoit  jusqu'an 
dela  des  jointures  des  genoux*.  C'est  un  mile,  avec  une  longue 
crini^re  au  col,  nuus  sans  queue;  et  sans  trompe,  selon  Schumachofff; 
toaja  il  me  paroit  plus  probable  qu'elle  a  ete  enlevee  par  les  betes  fe- 

La  peau  dont  je  poss^de  les  trois  quarts  est  d'un  gris  fence,  et  cou- 
verte  d'un  poil  rougeatre,  et  de  crins  noirs.     La  carcasse  a  une  hau- 

*  This  U  the  kind  of  elephant  which  is,  at  Tipera,  called  Koomareab,  or  Daunte- 
lah.     See  Ch.  XV.  of  this  Vol. 

t  If  thia  BDimal  bad  beea  killed  id  warftte,  the  trunk  might  have  been  cut  off, 
which  was  not  uncommon.  "  In  a  short  time,  the  6eld  of  battle  was  corered  with 
elephants'  trunks,  end  the  heads  and  bodies  of  the  slain."  Sfaerefeddin's  Life  of 
Timur  Bee,  Vol.  II.  p.  59.  In  the  battle  of  Magnesia,  Scipio's  troops  cut  off  the 
trunks  of  above  thirty  of  the  elephants  orAntiochas.    Livy,  B,  XXXVII, 

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teuT  de  quatfe  arcfalneB,  (nine  feet  fouT  inches  English)  sur  pt^s  de 
sept  de  longueur  (sixteen  feet  four  inches)  depuis  la  pointe  du  nez  jus-  > 
qa  'au  coccix*.  Chacune  des  deux  cornea  a  une  toise  et  demi  de  long, 
et  les  deux  ensemble  p^sent  dix  pouds  (three  hundred  and  sixty 
pounds)t.  La  t^  seule  p^se  onze  et  demi.pouds  (four  hundred  and 
fourteen  pounds).  Je  fis  fouiller  le  terrain  pour  recueiUir  tons  les  crins 
que  les  ours  blancs  avoient  foul^  dans  le  sol  humide,  en  d^vorant  les 
chairs.    Je  reussis  a  me  procurer  plus  d'un  poud  de  crins. 

Le  lieu  b^  j'ai  trouv^  le  mamoutb,  est  eloign^  de  la  cdte  d'environ 
60  pas ;  et  de  I'escarpenient  de  la  glace  d'oti  il  avoit  gliss^,  de  prds 
de  100  pas.  Cet  escarpement  occupe  precis^ent  le  milieu  entre 
les'  deux  pointes  de  I'isthme,  et  a  trois  verstes  de  long,  et  dans  la 
place  m£me  ou  se  trouroit  le  mamouth  cette  roche  a  une  elevation 
perpendiculaire  de  30  a  40  toises:  I'aninial  etoit  a  sept  toises  de 
la  superficie  de  la  glace.  Sa  substance  est  une  glace  claire,  pure  et 
d'un  gout  piquant;  elle  s'incIineTerslamer;  sa  cime  est  couverte  d'une 
coucbe  de  mousse  et  de  terre  friable  d'une  demie  archine  d'epaisseur. 
Pendtuit  les  chaleuis  du  mois  de  Juillet  une  partie  de  cette  croute  se 
fond,  mais  I'autre  reste  gSUe. 

La  curiosite  me  fit  monter  sur  deux  autres  collinea  assez  ^loignees 
de  la  met;  elles  ^toient  de  la  meme  mati^re  et  moins  couvertes  de 
momse.  De  distance  en  distance,  on  voyoit  des  morceaux  de  bois 
d'une  grandeur  enorme,  et  de  toutes  les  esp^ces  que  produit  la  Sib^e : 
les  habitans  appellent  cette  esp^ce  de  bois  Adamshina;  et  ]&  distin- 
guent  des  bois  flottants  qu'ils  appellent  Noahshina  J.  On  voyoit  aussi 
des  comes  de  mamouth  en  grande  quantity,  qui  s'^levoieot  entre  les 

*  "  Le  coccix qai  fimne  I'alongeiDeDt  du  baHin  proure  eTidemtDeDlqtiel'animal 
B*a  point  eu  dequeue,'' rays  Mr.  Adams;  but  when  the  skeleton  waa  carefully  put 
together,  it  waa  found  that  a  part  of  the  Uil  remaiued;  as  appears  in  the  engrar- 
ing  in  Baron  Cuvier'a  great  work. 

t  See  Plate.  Cb.  IX. 

;  The  Mahomedan  HoBgola  are  Amiliar  with  the  hialory  of  the  deluge.  . 


creux  dea  rocfaen.     faies  paroissdent  tontes  d^une  JreddKm  Htm- 
'   non/e*.  ToutelacdteetoitcoimnetopiBS^despluiteslest^VBnusees 
«t  les  plus  belles  que  produiaent  lea  6ords  de  la  mer  glacule;  mns 
elles  D'aroient  que  deux  pouces  de  haut. 

*  Mr.  Adams  does  not  mention  any  other  particulars  of  this  moat  extnionIiDat7 
ditcorery;  Dad,  astheaizeofthetuakais  not  mentioned,  it  is  probable  tliat Mr.  A. 
may  hare  seen  morse  tusks,  for  the  following  Kasons: 

I.  It  appears  (in  Chap.  XVI.)  thai  all  frriters  and  travellers  mention  the  extraor- 
dinary whiteness  of  morse  tasks;  but  that  the  Iarg«  elephants'  tasks  are  dirty  and 
stained . 

11^  Schnmacboff,  if  he  was  present,  would  naturally  call  them  Behemoth  or  Ma- 
moth  tusks,  that  being,  according  to  Muschkin  Puscbkin  and  Strahlenberg,  the 
name  of  the  morse  in  those  redone. 

III.  "  Nenr  Anadyr,  and  the  Tcbudskoi  promotitory,  an  attonishing  quantihf  of 
morse  teeth  are  found,  which  leads  Gmelin  to  believe  that  they  retire  to  these  un- 
frequented regions  for  shedding  their  large  old  tusks,  for  young  on^."  Tooke's 
R«ssie,  Vol.111,  p.  100.  Nnrw^'s  boraafuvalso  found  in  those  porta  of  Sibwia. 
Eucyc.  Briu  "  Siberia." 

IV.  "  Morses*  tusks  are  found  an  ell  and  a  half  long,  (a  Russian  ell  is  twenty- 
eight,  inches  English);  abd  thirty  pounds  weight."     BnSbn,  XXXIV.  62. 

V.  Eminent  naturalista,  even  Danbentoo,  hare  miatakeo  monea*  tioAa  for  those  of 
the  elephant.  (Guvier,  p.  142).  If  these  were  elephants' tusks,  it  may  truly  be 
said  to  be  a  greater  wonder  than  to  find  the  animal  floated  to  the  mouth  of  the  ri- 
ver; but,  when  we  consider  that  the  morses  are  natives  of  those  motty  rodts,  and 
that  it  ifl  their  habit  to  climb  upon  t^  rocka  to  seek  their  food,  there  is  every  pn>> 
bahility  in  favor  of  the  supposition,  that  what  Mr>  Adams  saw,  was  a  number  of 
morse  tusks.  If  one  or  more  have  been  brought  away,  (which  Mr.  A.  does  not 
mention),  the  doubt  now  expressed  can  easily  be  determined.  It  is  scarcely  pos> 
siUe  to  imagine  that  SokKmachoff,  who  had  sighed  five  long  years  afi«r  two  tusfc% 
should  have  left  this  "grande  quantity,"  to  "  waste  their  whiteness  in  the  desert 
air."  Elephants' tusks  long  exposed  to  the  air  are  not  white;  nor  do  elephants 
•bed  their  tusks  after  the  first  year  of  their  age,  wheo  dwy  do  not  exceed  the ' 
length  of  two  inches,  (Corse).  The  hunters  after  morses'  tusks  are  likely  to  deposit 
dtera  in  sutdi  places  til)  they  return  homeward.  Could  these  belong  to  Schum:^ 
choff  hnnselff  If  so,  he  certainly  would  not  ofier  Mr.  Adams  any  asaiabince  to- 
wards approaching  tbem.  If  they  were  not  his,  be  would  no  doubt  keep  faJS'  in** 
tention  to  appropriate  tbem  to  himself  a  secret  from  any  one.  On  the  whole,  it  ap- 
pears almost  certain,  that  they  were  walrus's,  and  not  elephant's  tusks;  and  would 
naturally  be  pointed  out  by  Schumachoff  under  their  real  name  of  mammodu. 

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Autour  de  la  carcaase  oa  voyoit  une  multitude  d'autras  plantea,  telles 
que  la  etnerana  agnatica  et  quelques  especes  de  pedieularis,  qui  ne 
sont  point  connues  encore  dans  I'histoire  naturelle.  Nous  erigefimes 
deux  croix,  chacune  assez solidement  c( haute  desix  toises: 
l*une  Be  trouve  sur  le  roc  de  glace  A'ad  ce  mamouth  avoit  gUsse ;  et 
Tautre  sur  I'^mineDce  meme  oti  nous  I'avions  trouve.  Les  Tunguses 
6ntdonnd  a  I'nne  le  nomde  Croix  de  TAmbassade,  et  k  I'autre  celui  de 
Croix  de  Mamouth.  L'  elevation  eUe  m^me  re9ut  le  nom  de  Selichaeta, 
ou  Montagne  de  Mamouth  *. 

Je  trouvai  une  grande  quantite  d'ambre,  sur  le  rivage.  *  *  *  Arrive 
a  Jakut^  j'eus  le  bonheur  .d'y  radieter  les  defcsuen  du  mamouth,  et 
de  la  j'expediai  le  tout  ponr  St.  Petersbourg. 

Le  mamouth  est  couvert  d'un  poil  tr^s  epais,  sur  tous  le  corps  et 
»8iir  le  col  one  longue  crioi^ef.  Quand  meme  je  mettrai  en  doute 
les  rapports  de  mes  compagnons  de  voyage,  il  est  cependant  ^ident, 
que  les  crins  de  la  iMigneur  d'une  archine,  qui  se  trouvteent  d  la  tete, 
aux  oreiUes,  et  au  col  de  I'animali  ont  dd,  necesaairement,  appartenir 
&  la  crini^re.  Le  poil  epais  semble  indiquer  qu'il  appaiteneit  aux  re- 
gions aeptentrionaks. 

On  a  trouve  des  restes  pareib,  il  y  a  deux  aos,  sur  lea  bords  de  la 
If^na  d  une  plus  grande  ^stance  de  la  met;  et  ik  i^toient  tomb^  dims 
le  lit  du  fleure :  «d  en  a',  trouv^  d'aotiM  dsas  les  provineea  jdos  meri* 
dionales  du  Volga,  en  Allemagne  et  meme  en  Espagne.  Ce  sont  au- 
tant  de  preuves  incontestiU>le  d'un  deluge  general*  &c. 

*  StUchaeta  beJDg  so  different  a  word,  it  appears  tliat  the  Tscbudskk  do  not  call 
i\ie  tUphant  hy  tbe  word  Mammoth:  and  this  agrees  with  StrahleDberg,(p.  404), 
who  Bayi,  that  the  Siberians  currently  believe  the  mamiDoth  to  be  an  amphibious 
creature.    The  Ostiacks  call  the  elephant  Khosar;  the  Tartars  call  it  KMr. 

t  Is  not  the  circotnstance  of  this  beast  being  thickly  covered  with  bair,  astrong 
presumption  that  it  did  not  die  in  a  Aof  climate?  See  remarks  on  the  ecliptic  iit 
die  introdnctioD. 

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Je  prie  le  lectenr  curieax  de  Touloir  bien,  dans  ce  moment^  se  con- 
teifter  de  cet  essai.  Je  me  propose  de  doDner  I'osteologie  du  ma- 
mouth,  avec  toute  I'exactitude  dont  Camper  nous  a  doim^  I'exemple 
dans  un  trarail  pareil  *." 


The  indefatigable  and  scientific  labour  of  the  Baron  Cuvier  enables 
the  writer  to  give  the  exact  descriptioD  of  the  hair  of  this  elephant,  the 
most  interesting  circumstance  attending  it. 

"  La  peau  est  semblable  i  celle  de  I'elephantTiTant,  mais  on  n'y  dis- 
tingue pas  les  points  bruns  qu'on  remarque  dans  I'esp^ce  des  Indes. 
M.  Adams  assure  que  la  peau  est  d'un  gris  fonc^.  R-y-a  trois  sort«s 
de  polls. 

I.  Les  plus  longs  ont  12  i  15  ponces;  leur  conleur  brunf,  et 
leur  epaisseur  &  pen  prds  celle  d'un  crin  de  cheval. 

II.  R-y-a  ensuite  de  plus  courts,  de  dix  de  neuf  pouses,  qui  sont  en 
meme  temps  un  peu  plus  minces,  et  de  couleur  fauve. 

III.  La  laine,  qui  paroit  aroir  garni  la  racine  des  longs  poils,  a  de 
quatre  d  cinq  pouces  de  longeur,  elle  est  assez  fine,  passablement  douce, 
et  un  peu  friste,  sur  tout  vers  sa  racine :  sa  couleur  est  un  fiiuve  clair! 

*  These  extracts  are  taken  from  tlie  supplement  to  the  "  Journal  du  Nord,"  No, 
XXXII.  published  at  St.  Petersbnrff,  in  1806.  The  writer  regrets  (hat  be  has 
not  seen  Mr.  Adams'a  second  publication.  He  wrote  to  a  friend  at  St.  Petersburg 
to  procure  it,  but  his  friend  could  not  find  out  that  it  bad  ever  appeared.  The 
plate  and  description  in  Cnvier's  fourth  volume,  gireallthe  informalion  that  is  ne-. 
cessary.  The  writer  saw  the  bones  of  this  animal  immediately  after  they  were 
taken  out  of  (he  chests  in  which  they  were  conveyed  to  St.  Petersburg:  tbeystill 
retained  a  most  powerful  stench. 

+  The  brown  colour  of  these  may  probably  be  accounted  for  by  their  having 
been  long  "  fouUs  dans  le  sol  buroide,"  by  the  wild  beasts ;  as  Mr.  Adaiiu,speaking| 
.of  the  areneral  quantity,  says  "  crina  noirs." 



Sar  ce  qui  reste  de  peau  k  Fetersbouig,  les  poils  xmt  uth  et  court*.     CHAP. 
H.  Adams  nous  dit  q'une  des  oreilles  de  son  individu,  etoit  garnied'une  \..i»-v^ 
toffe  de  crins."    The  above  is  a  correct  description  of  the  hairs  of  the 
same  elephant,  which  are  in  the  museum  of  the  Royal  College  of  Sur- 
geons, in  London: — 

Mr.  Adams  mentions  that "  il  est  trident  que  les  crins  de  la  longiieur 
d'une  archine  (twenty-eight  inches),  quise  trouT^rent  encore  ^  la  t£te. 
aux  Oreille,  et  au  col  de  Tanimal;  ont  dd  n^cessairement,  appartenir  k 
la  crinifere." 

The  first  kind  of  hair,  twelve  to  fifteen  inches  in  length,  is  of  the 
thickness  of  the  head  and  lip  hairs  of  the  living  elephant,  now  (1825) 
in  London;  one  is  three  inches  and  a  half,  and  the  other  two  inches 
and  nine-tenths  long*. 

The  second  kind,  of  nine  or  ten  inches,  is  in  thickness  like  that  taken 
from  the  fetlock  of  the  living  animal,  which  is  five  and  a  half  indies 

The  third  kind,  or  wool,  is  from  four  to  five  inches  long. — It  is 
shown,  in  Ch.  XV.,  that  Leeuwenhoek  discovered  the  skin  of  a  modem 
elephant  to  be  fiiU  of  small  hairs. 

The  hair  from  the  proboscb  of  the  live  elephant  is  stronger  than 
the  others,  is  three  inches  and  four-tenths  long,  and  corresponds  with 
those  discovered  upon  the  body  of  the  Dundee  elephant,  described  in 
the  Phil.  Trans.  No.  SM.  The  hairs  upon  the  body  of  the  London 
living  dephant  were  too  short  to  be  procured. 

Living  elephants  have  hair  about  the  ears,  Uke  the  one  found  by 
Mr.  Adams. 

Mr.  Adams's  account  of  the  mane  is  not  sufficiently  distinct,  to  allow 
an  accurate  judgment  to  be  formed  about  that  particular.  If  the 
quality  and  disposition  of  the  hairs  upon  the  fossil  and  living  elephants 

*  See  the  plate  in  Cb.  IX.' 

L  L 



should  be  found  to  be  similar,  the  only  remaiiiiiig  difference  would 
t  foe  in  the  length.  Elephants  bear  a  degree  of  cold  which  has  been 
fonnd  to  kill  men  and  horses:  would  a  change  of  food  enoourage  the 
growth  of  their  hairf  The  green  winter  food  of  a  northern  elimate 
must  be  extremely  warm  and  stimulating.  Elephants  wQl  eat  every 
variety  of  food.  Sheep  and  cattle,  in  hard  winters  in  England,  are  fed 
tm  the  tops  of  fir-trees  *. 

The  Siberian  climate  encourages  the  growth  of  the  hair,  wool*  and 
for  of  all  animals. 

The  Burat  ox,  near  Lake  Baikal,  is  covered  with  long  hair  some- 
thing like  the  Yak  (Bos  grunniens)  f  .  The  dogs  near  Sabatskoinos, 
-have  hair  a  quarter  of  an  ell  in  length  J.  "  The  black  ox  of  Tarttry, 
that  had  been  tamed,  had  long  hair  like  the  camel's,  but  much  thicker ; 
he  wad  quite  black,  hod  short  1^,  and  walked  slowly  and  heavily;  he 
had  a  saddle  upon  his  back,  and  a  man  led  him  witti  a  halter  §." 

The  summer  hair  of  the  Aigali,  or  wild  ram,  is  short  and  sleek ;  the 
winter  coat  long  and  sha^^,  much  mixed  with  wool:  tJlie  horns 
weigh  forty  pounds.  They  feed  on  bitter  and  acrid  mountain  herbs  |t. 
Is  human  hair  longer  in  Siberia  than  in  other  countries?  IslHaodts 
Ides  measured  the  hair  of  a  Tungusiim  Prinoe,  whieh  he  found  to  be 
four  Dutch  ells  long:  and  that  t^  his  son  (six  years  td  *ge),  seven- 
eighths  of  an  ell  **. 

The  Takutes  keep  their  horses  out  aU  tie  winter;  th^  scrape  aidde 
the  snow  with  their  hoofe,  to  get  at  the  grass;  they  eat  the  buds 
of  the  birch  and  aspen,  become  sleeker,  fatter,  and  handsoaner  than 

•  Keen's  Encyc.  '•  Fif  tree." 

f  bbrandta  Idea,  in  Harru's  Voyage,  11.  p.029»  with  m  engnwing. 

X  Strahlenberg,  p.d60. 

§  Pere  GerbUlon,  in  Da  Halde,  Vol.  IT.  p.  084. 

H  Tooke,Vol.IlLp.78. 

••  In  Harrii'*  Voyages,  Vol.  11.  p.792. 



]n  Bummer,  when  their  hair  grows  long  *.  Favorite  elephants  are 
waahed  clean  and  inled:  the  £knperor  Akbar  and  the  King  of  Fegu  ' 
allowed  sugar  and  ghee,  or  butter,  to  be  giren  to  their  best  elephants ; 
inch  treatment  might  promote  the  growth  of  hair,  in  cold  countries, 
where  they  wotdd  probably  not  be  rubbed  with  pumice-stone;  not  be- 
ing exposed  to  mud  and  dustf.  The  doubtful  circumstance  of  the 
mane  spears  to  be  the  only  material  difference  between  the  hair  of 
the  living  and  of  this  fossil  elephant.  Such  hairs  as  are  upon  the  pro- 
boscis of  the  live  elephant,  and  upon  the  skin  (as  described  by  Mr. 
Blair)  of  the  Dundee  elephant,  if  growing  upon  the  back,  as  in  the 
musk  ox,  might,  firom  their  atifibess,  appear  as  a  mane. 

There  does  not  appear  to  be  such  a  difierence  between  the  bones 
of  the  Lena  elephant,  and  those  of  other  fossil  skeletons,  as  to  entitle 
the  former  to  be  considered  as  a  dlGferent  species.  "  From  the  draw- 
ing I  have  before  me,"  says  Baron  Cuvier,  "  I  hare  every  reason  to 
believe,  that  the  sockets  of  the  teeth  of  Mr.  Adams's  elephant,  have 
the  same  pToporti<mal  lengths  wiUi  those  of  other  fossil  elephants,  of 
which  the  entire  skuUs  have  bcNen  found  in  other  places  X- 

"  The  alveoli  of  the  tutlu  of  the  fossil  elephant,  found  on  the  banks 
of  the  Indigerska,  of  another  found  in  Siberia,  of  one  (seen  by  Baron 
Cuvier)  at  Florence,  and  of  one  from  the  banks  of  the  Volga,  are  three 
times  as  long  as  those  of  India  and  Africa,  of  the  same  size.  The  alve- 
oli of  Bfr.  Adams's  elephant  had  been  somewhat  mutilated  by  the 
Tunguses,  and  therefore  an  accurate  idea  of  their  length  could  not  be 

*  Strehlenberg.  886.    LereMige,  Vol.  VII.  p.  486. 

t  **  We  went  to  the  river  to  tee  tbe  king's  and  gicM  noUeineD'B  elephants 
wubed.  When  they  hare  ■oaked  Uiemtelvea  in  the  water,  theyare  robbed  and 
cleaned  with  pnmice-stone,  and  after  they  are  dry,  they  are  nibbed  with  oil  of 
cocoa."    Tarernier,  P.  11.  B.  I.  Ch.  XIX.    Ayeen  Akbery,  Vol.  I.  p;  137. 

X  Theory  of  the  £arth,  p,  237. 

LL  a 



formed.  This  difference  in  the  alTeoti  is  of  the  more  importance,  as  it 
'  agrees  witii  the  form  of  the  lower  jaw,  and  required  a  differait  con- 
formatioD  of  the  trunk  of  a  fossil  elephant*."  The  reader  is  referred 
to  Chapter  XTIII,  for  the  reasons  adduced  why  the  foasil  elephants 
differ  firom  the  modem  individmah  wkieh  have  been  deteribed. 

•  Cnrier,  p.176. 



Description  of  the  ancient  City  of  Bangalla^  which  stood  at  the 

Eastern  Mouth  of  the  Ganges,  now  overflowed. Burmah. 

~ Pegu,  ^c.  in  the  Sixteenth  Century;  alt  of  which  had  been 

subfect  to  the  Grand  Khans,  in  the  Thirteenth  and  Fourteenth 

Centuries, Bloody  Wars  for  a  White  Elephant. Siege  of 

Pegu. Deplorable  Famine, Immense  Treasures. 

31UCH  historical  confusion  has  arisen  from  the  circumstance  of 
there  haring  been  two  countries  called  Bengal,  or  Bangalla;  one  of 
wluch  had  Gour  for  its  capital,  for  the  space  of  two  thousand  three 
hundred  years*:  the  capital  of  the  other  was  Bangalla,  a  very  ancient 
city,  situated  at  the  eastern  mouth  of  the  Granges. 

"  In  some  ancient  maps,  and  books  of  traTcIs,  we  meet  with  a  city 
named  Bengalla:  but  no  traces  of  such  a  place  now  exist.  It  is  de- 
scribed as  being  near  the  eastern  mouth  of  the  Chmges :  and  I  con- 
ceive, that  the  site  of  it  has  been  carried  away  by  the  river;  as,  in  my 
remembrance,  a  vast  tract  of  land  has  disappeared  thereabouts.  Ben- 
galla appears  to  have  been  in  existence  during  the  early  part  of  the 
seventeenth  century  f." 

*  Vide  HamiltoD'a E«at  India  Gvzetteer,"  Bengal*" 
t  Rennel'a  Memoir,  p.  57. 

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Marco  Polo  relates,  that  the  Grand  Khan  Kublai  oonqoered  Mien 
and  Bangalla;  which  has  been  contradicted,  in  consequence,  it  is  pre- 
sumed, of  its  not  being  generally  known  that  there  were  two  king- 
doms of  that  name.  The  object  of  these  notes  is,  to  prove  that  tiiere 
were  two  kingdoms;  and  that  Kublai  conquered  the  eastern  one. 

Hindostan  was  frequently  invaded  by  the  Mongols,  in  the  thirteenth 
century,  in  great  force,  by  way  of  MouHan;  and  Great  Bengal  was 
invaded  by  Chitta  and  Tibet;  bat  they  were  always  repulsed  with 

In  1272,  the  Grand  Rban  Knblai  sent  an  anny  into  the  coontries 
of  Vochang  and  Karazan,  for  their  protection  f^;ainst  any  attack 
from  foreigners.  It  was  afterwards  his  Majesty's  policy  to  ap- 
point his  own  sons  to  the  governments;  and  these  places  were 
erected  into  a  principality  for  his  grandson,  Timur  Kaan,  or  Cen- 

When  the  King  of  Mien  ( Ava)  and  Bengalla  heard  that  an  army  of 
Tartars  bad  arrived  at  Vochang,  he  advanced  immediately,  to  prevent , 
the  Grand  Khan  from  stationing  a  force  on  the  borders  of  his  dotni- 
nions.  He  had  a  niunerous  army  of  horse  and  foot,  and  a  multitude 
of  elephants,  with  twelve  or  sixteen  men  in  each  castle  upon  th^ 
backs.  Nestardin,  (a  Nestorian),  a  brave  and  able  officer,  was  much 
alarmed,  having  but  twelve  thousand  men,  (veterans,  indeed,  and 
valiant  soldiers).  The  king  had  sixty  thousand  troops,  and  one 
thousand  elephants.  N^tardin  reminded  his  troops,  that  their  very 
name  was  a  terror  to  the  whole  world,  and  promised  to  lead  them  to 

A  bloody  action  ensued,  which  lasted  from  morning  tin  noon. 

•  Vide  Dov'i  Hulory,  Vol.  1.  and  Chap.  IL  of  Hub  Vol. 

f  Timur  Kaan,  while  in  this  gOTemment,  inraded  Siberia.    See  Chap.  V. 

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The  Mongob  were  finAll;  Tictorioua,  which  wai  attributed  to  their 
wearing  armour.  Their  horses  bdng  frightened  hy  the  elephants,  the 
men  dismounted,  tied  them  to  trees,  and  fought  on  foot.  Two  hun- 
dred elephants,  or  more,  were  captured. 

From  this  period,  the  khan  ha$  alwap»  employed  elephant*  in  Ma 
amie*,  which,  before  that  time,  he  had  not  done.  Hie  consequences 
<rf'the  victory  were,  that  his  Majesty  acquired  possession  of  the  whole 
<tf  the  territories  of  the  king  c^Mien  and  Bangalla,  and  annexed  them 
to  hii  dominions*. 

"  The  kings  of  Bangala,  in  times  past,  were  chosen  of  Uie  Abyssini- 
an slaves.  Chandiguu  Aracan,  and  Siripur  are^  by  Femandes,  placed 
in  Bangala  as  so  many  kingdomsf.  Patenau,  by  Frederic  and  Fitch, 
is  reckoned  to  be  another  Bengalau  kingdom,  which  our  countryman 
Fitch  calleth  the  kingdom  of  Gonren;  so  tluit.  under  this  name,  Ben- 
gala,  there  are  many  seigniories,  all,  or  most  part,  subject  to  the  Mo- 
goL  (Latter  raid  of  the  sixteenth  century).  Goura  and  Bengala  are  fiur 

"  The  king,  (Shah  Jehan),  seqt  for  his  second  son.  Sultan  Sujah,  from 
Candahar  to  Lahore,  and  conferred  on  him  the  government  of  the 
great  aitd  Uttle  Ungdomi  of  Bengak§." 

Vincent  Le  Blanc  visited  the  eittf  of  Bangalla  about  the  middle  of 
the  seventeenth  century,  or  earlier.    "  Leaving  Coromandel,"  says  he, 

•  HarcoPoIo.B.11.  ChaptoraXXXlX.XLU.«iidnote«.HBrrii'«VoyagM, Vol.1, 
p.  614.     Id  the  first  is  a  iong  and  intereatii]^  account  of  thn  battle. 

Id  1279  the  goranor  of  Ben^l  rerolted  from  the  Patao  Emperor  Balin,  but 
was  defeated,  and  killed;  this  was  the  Great  Bengal  of  which  Gear  was  the  capi- 
tal.   Set!  Dow,  Vol.  I.  p,  201;  and  Hamilton's  Gazetteer,  "  Bengal" 

t  See  in  the  Conrier,  Sept.  33, 1824^  a  letter  from  the  Viceroy  of  Pegu;  in 
which  he  represents  that  Bamoo,  Chittagoog,  and  Bengal,  form  part  of  the  four 
great  cities  of  Aracan. 

t  Porchas,  Vol.  I.  (B.)  pp.  676  and  577.   Barclay's  Unir.  Traveller,  p.  496. 

S  Ogilby's  Asia,  V»H  I.  p.  161. 



"  we  came  to  the  kingdom  of  Bengale  the  chief  town  whereof  bears 
'  that  name  hy  the  Portuguese  and  other  nations*,  and  by  the  natir^ 
Batacouta,  one  of  the  greatest  antiquity  in  the  Indies.  Some  would 
have  it  to  be  old  Ganges,  a  royal  town  on  the  river  Ganges.  This 
kingdom  of  Bengal  was,  three  hundred  years  since,  subd  ued  by  the  Great 
Khan  of  Tartary,  but  subsequently  freed  herself;  and  after  that  was  con- 
quered by  the  Parthians  (Patans) ;  aiid  is  at  last  subject  to  the  Great 
Mogiil.  It  contains  Sirapu,  Chandecan,  Bacal,  Aracan,  and  other 
countries.  The  town  is  situate  upon  one  of  the  mouths  of  the  Gran- 
ges, there  being  tw0  principal  mouths.  Eastward  of  the  kingdom 
is  the  province  of  Edaspa,  which  joins  the  kingdom  of  Aracan.  On 
another  side  is  the  province  of  Mien  and  Tapacura,  under  the  obe- 
dience ^Bengal.  On  one  side  south  is  cape  Sogoraf;  on  the'otiier 
Caiigan,  at  the  third  outlet  of  the  Ganges,  over  against  Verma,  (Bur- 
mah),  where  there  are  mines  of  chrysolites,  topazes,  &c.  Verma 
formerly  belonged  to  Bengal;  the  people  are  civil,  and  all  nations  have 
free  tra£Sc,  Persians,  Greeks,  Abyssinians,  Chinese,  Guzerats,  Jews^ 
Georgians,  &c. 


Thebe  is  great  commerce  by  the  mouth  of  the  Ganges  up  to  Ben- 
gal, which  is  six  miles  by  land,  and  twenty  by  water;  when  the  tide 
is  lowest,  it  is  three  fathoms  deep  round  the  walls  of  the  town,  so 
that  ships  safely  enter  the  haven,  and  are  there  very  numerous.    'Tis 

*  It  is  not  uncommon  for  cities  in  India  to  hare  two  names.  Dacca,  is  known 
also  by  the  nanje  of  Jehanguir-Dagur, 

f  Luekipore,  Chittagong,  Dacca,  and  as  far  as  the  Cossimbazar  Island,  were 
claimed  as  a  part  of  the  former  kingdom  of  Aracan,  by  the  king  of  Ava,  in  1796. 
Journal  of  Captain  Hiriun  Cox,  p.  300, 

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thought  there  are  forty  thonsand  fiunilies  in  the  town,  and  the  king 
dwells  in  a  stately  palace  built  with  brick,  with  fine  gardens  to  it.  « 
He  keeps  a  great  court,  and  his  chief  guard  consists  of  women*, 
as  is  the  custom  in  Java,  Sumatra,  and  Fransiane:  they  are  valiant, 
expert  horse  riders  and  vaulters,  and  use  the  scimitar,  buckler,  and 
battie«xe  dextenmsly:  the  handsomest  are  richly  attired.  The  king 
is  an  idoteter,  a  vfdiant  person,  and  can  draw  into  the  field  a  great 
army  of  horse  and  foot:  his  country  has  wherewithal,  for  he  is  ridi  in 
gold,  silver,  and  jewds.  He  can  draw  forUi  two  thousand  elephants, 
capariswed :  they  have  dag^rs  on  their  tusks,  and  they  carry  as  many 
men  as  those  of  Kaningue.  They  use  hand-guns,  muskets,  swords, 
pikes,  javelins,  and  halberds.  The  king  has  many  Ixibutaries,  as  the 
king  Of  Apoia,  who  pays  him  fifty  elephants  yearly,  and  twelve  pearls 
for  the  ransoms  of  six  towns,  which  the  king  of  Bengal  had  taken  from 
bim.  The  king  of  Dimali  is  also  tributary  for  having  assisted  the 
king  of  Apuraf,  and  pays  Mty  horses  and  fifty  thousand  crowns  an- 
nually. The  king  of  OrixaJ,  and  many  more,  pay  him  tribute  too; 
though  he  himself,  in  some  manner,  acknowledges  the  Mogul  §.    His 

*  In  Chap.  VIII.  of  thia  work,  tbfl  reader  will  meet  with  afverel  imtancea  of  the 
wartike  character  of  the  ladian  ladies. 

■f  There  can  be  little  doubt  but  that  this  means  Tipera,  which  was  oot  subjected 
by  the  Hogals  till  the  eighteenth  centary.    Hamilton's  Gazetteer. 

t  OriHa,  or  Oriza,  was  foimeriy  independent  of  Great  Bengal.  Ayeen  Akhery, 
Vol.  II.  p.1I.  It  was  conquered  by  the  Moguls  in  1S02.  Hamilton's  Gazetteer, 
**  Orissa." 

%  IcaBnotflndthkeityundereither  name  in  the  Ayeen  Akbery.  Bat,  Vol.  II. 
p.  3,  it  is  said  "  Emi  A^ffaan  carried  his  oenqnests  towards  the  east,  into  a  coun> 
try  called  Bhatty,  which  is  reckoned  a  part  of  this  Subah,  and  caused  tbe 
Kootba  to  be  read,  and  the  coin  to  be  struck  in  the  name  of  his  present  majes- 
ty. Bordering  opon  Bhatty  is  an  extensive  country,  subject  to  the  diief  of  Tiprah , 
whom  the;  stile  Yeyab  Uanick,  Their  military  force  conwuts  of  a  thousand  el»« 
phants,  and  two  hundred  tboosaud  in&ntry."  All  this  is  reconcilable  with  tb« 
deacription  of  Le  Blanc's  Bataconta. 

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CHAF.     anny  is  ever  ready  on  the  inatani  to  appear  in  the  firid.    Tbe  Benga- 

«..«7v~«-^  iism  lire  mnch  on  preserves,  ifweebsieatB,  and  apices.  Their  dotjiingt 
are  of  cotton,  silk,  damask,  s^n,  and  velvet:  they  are  tho  g^batest 
persons  of  the  East,  botk  men  and  women,  and  both  sexes  go  ricfaly  ap*  - 
pareled  and  perfbmed.  All  other  nations  flock  thither  to  q»end  their 
noney,  and  chiefly  to  buy  young  eunuchs,  as  slaves  to  manage  their 
business,  and  to  guard  their  women ;  for  which  purpose,  tfaey  banv 
been  instructed  in  all  manner  of  rirtnes;  fhey  are  Mid  tor  sixty  to  a 
hundred  ducale  *.  The  complexions  of  the  BengidiaiH  ore  rsUier  ftir 
than  black.  Their  coats  arc  almost  of  tbe  Italian  mode,  especial^ 
whea  tfaey  visit  ladies,  as  at  Ormus.  Their  principal  drtefc  is-  nsBk 
with  sugar  and  cinnamon. 

We  went  from  Bengala  to  Castigan  f ,  where  were  arrived  some' 
Portuguese  ships;  this  place  belongs  to  thekin^of  Bengala.  We 
sold  our  opium  at  Castigan,  a  drug  of  mucJi  proit,  andl  of  which  a 
great  quantity  is  brought  flrom  Aden,  and  other  parts  of  Arabia.  At 
the  island  of  Sondina,  which  is  inhabited  by  Mahomettms,  we  got 
all  the  victuals  we  wanted,  almost  ftir  nothing.  fVoBk  aA  antiquity, 
the  people  of  Sondina  were  subject  to  the  same  king  as  the  Castiga- 

Mr.  Marsden,  in  his  edition  of  Marco  Polo,  note  881,  observes,  that 
in  Bamusio's  text,  the  true  reading  is,  that  the  Gruid  Kban  did  not 
c(Hiquer  Bengala;  and  that  the  king  of  Mien  and  Beiigata  means  but 
.one  person:  also  that  the  mistake  obviously  arises  from  the  omissioa 
of  the  negative.  Ramusio  died  in  IS&T,  tad  probably  had  heard, 
by  way  of  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  that  the  Great  Bengal  (of  which 

*  Manx)  Pcdo,  page453,  aKerte  thesfime  thing-:  "  The'ftatlgaliana  gelt  to  the 
BierclMuite  whoxMort  tbitfaer,  eunucha,  of  whom  there  are  oambers  iu  the  country, 
M  tlavec;  for  all  prtsonera  taken  io  war  an  presently  emascalated." 

f  Doubtless,  Chittagon^. 

t  Vincent  Le  Blanc,  Part  I.  Ch.  XXII.  aihl.Parchaa,  Vol.  I.  (B)  Book  V. 



Gonr-waB  the  o^fed),  had  never  Itcen  amqacMd  I7  Kublai^the  Grand 
KhaPD.  It  is  hi^ily  pmbabfe  (if  the  omission  of  the  n^jatire  be  an  < 
enwr  of  the  printer)  that,  oa  thb  intefilgeiice,  he,  as  he  imagined,  eor- 
rteted  dte  early  editions  of  Polo.  Gonr  had  been  the  capital,  tecan  tiie 
serentfa  oeotary  b^re  Christ,  ttU  Uie  reign  of  Akbar;  when  it  was 
abmdoned,  in  conseqaence  of  the  unwholesome  tdr;  after  whicl^  Tai^ 
da,  Rajeniahl,  Dacca,  imd  Moorshedabad,  were  soccessirely  the  capi- 
tals of  Great  Be^kL 

Gibbon,  Cht^.  LXTV.  says,  "  the  kntj^oms  of  Tonqnin,  Cochin 
CUna,  Pegu,  JBtmgiU,  and  'Hiibet,  w^e  reduced  to  diffiBrenit  d^ees  of 
tribute  and  obedtene^  by  Um  eflbot  or  ternx  of  Kublai's  arms." 

We  find  that  vesads  arrived  at  Fokeiii,  in  1886,  from  the  iribuUtr*/ 
kmgthm  of  Bvngtd*.  We  may  conclude  tiiat  there  certainly  were 
two  Bengals,  and  tbat,  as  this  was  not  generally  knows,  tiiese  mis- 
takes hare  arisen. 

Kien  is  laid  down  in  Ac  nap  of  the  Ewt  In^Ues  by  Joseph  Enooy, 
piUiahed  by  Bowles  ami  Curer,  in  1790,  as  a  proviace  two  or  three 
d^^rees  east-north-east  of  Umar^ora,  or  Ava.  More,  on  the  conquest 
of  the  regions  between  the  Bnrrampooter  and  China,  may  be  seen  in 
MaaiGO  Polo,  Ch.  XXXTIL  to  Ch.  XLIX.  Ooncenung  Mien,  see  the 
sane  book,  note  M4 ;  where  it  appeaia  that  Ara  is  meant 


The  king  of  I^egu  siAgugated  tiie  kmgdom  of  Vema,  or  Burmahi 
two  yean  after,  he  onqoered  Siam.  He,  by  fals  lieBtaiant,  subdved 
many  other  countries. 

*  Modem  Unirenal  Hiitory,  Vol.  II.  p.  387. 


The  ^ng'a  palace  stands  atthe  htibeBt  end  of  new  Pega.  Hehai 
t  a  walled  park,  where  he  keei»  all  sorts  of  beasts,  never  K^ardii^  tlie 
price;  as  appears  by  the  long  war  with  the  king  of  Siam  for  the  white 
elephant,  to  dignify  hia  calachar,  or  park.  It  was  the  Pegu  fciiy 
Aieager,  who  b^an  this  cruel  war,  with  a  miUicm  of  martial  mm,  tw« 
hundred  thousand  horse,  five  thousand  el^bants,  and  three  thousuid 
camels.  He  sacked  and  ruined  Siam,  or  Lagi,  which  was  reputed 
twice  as  big  as  Paris.  The  siege  lasted  twenty-two  DKmths.  He  todc 
the  king's  treasure,  wife,  and  children;  and  brought  tbem  and  tlie 
white  elephant  to  Pegu,  sixty-five  days'  journey,  by  camels.  The  king 
of  Siam  cast  himself,  in  despair,  from  a  turret  of  his  own  palace.  Some 
of  his  daughters  made  away  with  fhemselrra.  One  lady  was  saved, 
who  was  affianced  to  the  Grand  Mogul's  son,  who,  Sallowing  the  army 
to  recover  her,  was  taken  prisoner.  By  frequent  prayers  he  obtained 
leave  to  visit  her  and  his  fiiture  mother  in  law.  They  were  now  mar- 
ried, and  conducted  to  the  confines  with  great  honour  aad  magnifi- 
cence ;  whence  grew  the  greatness  of  the  Mogul,  tributary  to  Uie  king 
of  Pegu,  but  who  hath  since  broken  his  ^th. 

This  fotal  white  elephant  hath  cost  five  kings  their  Uvea  and  estates. 
The  last  king  of  P^u  had  it  taken  from  him  by  the  king  of  Aracan, 
through  the  treachery  of  the  king  of  Tangut,  lus  1»other-inrlaw.  The 
coach  of  the  king  of  Pegu  was  drawn  by  four  white  elephMits.  I 
believe  that  in  all  the  East  there  were  not  more  to  be  found. 

At  every  comer  of  the  king's  palace,  stands  a  giant  of  polished  mar- 
ble; who,  Athw  like,  upholds  this  goodly  fabric ;  and  they  are  repre- 
sented witii  such  tortions  of  &ce,  you  would  jtiiink  that  they  complain  of 
th«r  load.  You  enter  over  a  draw-bridge,  Uirougb  agate  of  excessive 
height  and  strengthj  where  are  the  figures  «f  a.giaot  and  his  wife,  of 
variegated  marUe. 



One  palace  is  allotted  to  the  queen  and  her  court,  (not  unlike  the    CHAP. 

Escurial),  which  joins  a  paric,  stored  with  musk  animals,  {pra£fes;  \^„^...^J^^ 

and  stags,  caBed  Arsuiga,  which  are  like  those  in  Sweden,  and  are  used 

as  horses;  bitdsof  paradise,andostrichesofprodigiousbigness.  There 

is  an  onicom  called  Drougala,  and  the  head  of  another  with  the  horn 

in  the  middle  of  the  upper  part  of  the  forehead,  firmly  fixed  upon  the 

idde  of  a  fountain.     There  is  a  park  for  lions,  tigers,  and  other  fierce 

beasts,  called  Siparo ;  and  'tis  a  sad  and  daily  sight  to  see  criminals  de- 

Toured  by  them. 

In  1572,  there  was  a  church  founded  in  memory  of  a  miracle.  A 
poor  Christian  pilgrim  from  FrJUce,  who  had  curiosity  to  see  the  court 
of  that  great  monareh,  so  femous  throughout  the  Indies,  having  no 
money,  swam  across  the  rirer,  and  was  detected,  taken,  and  condemn- 
ed. He  was  exposed  to  the  lions,  next  to  the  elephants,  and  thirdly 
to  the  tigers,  but  none  of  the  beasts  would  touch  him:  he  was  then 
presented  to  the  king;  who  inquired  who  he  was,  and  gave  him  a  pen- 
don  for  life. 

The  king  is  called  Quiber  Sencal  Jasel,  that  is,  grand  monarch  of 
dephants.  He  delights  to  see  them  monthly  exercised  in  battalions, 
marching  ten  abreast;  the  riders  in  cloth  of  gold  upon  a  green  ground, 
with  a  lance  and  a  lion's  skin.  With  the  captain  march  twelve  negro 
women,  with  drums ;  their  faces  painted  red  and  violet,  clothed  in 
figured  gowns ;  dancing,  and  making  ridiculous  gesticulations  before 
the  elephants. 

When  they  go  to  war,  the  elephants  have  bars  of  steel  over  their 
trunks.  A  squadron  of  a  thousand  elephants  follows  the  captain; 
next  comes  the  king's  throne,  with  his  children,  high  and  exalted  like 
a  canopy,  drawn  by  those  famous  white  ones;  followed  by  many  no- 
bles, mounted  on  others,  with  silken  bridles;  all  accompanied  with 
tmmpets,  flutes,  qnd other  instruments:  at  whichsounds  the  dephants 



leap  and  dance,  and  shew  great  contrait ;  between  times^  th^  nuuteh 
'  with  a  gravity  becoming  a  ratiobd  CTeitnre. 

Of  the  kingdom  of  Bremah,  or  Bunnah,  tbe  city  royal  is  Pega>  m 
which  place  began  the  greatness  of  the  late  kings;  these  Bnrmans 
inhabited  near  the  lake  Chiamsy ;  among  whom  the  king  of  Pegu  had 
his  viceroys ;  one  whereof,  the  deputy  of  Taagut,  about  seventy  years 
since,  rebeUed  against  him,  and  surprised  the  kingdoms  of  Prom,  Me- 
liatay^  Calam,  Baccam,  Miranda,  and  Ava;  all  peopled  with  Bunnans, 
extending  northwards  a  hundred  and  fifty  leagues. 

He  after  attempted  Siam,  with  an  army  of  three  hundred  thousand 
men;  and  spent  three  months  in  making  way  through  the  hoge  woods 
and  inaccessible  places;  but  achieved  not  his  purpose. 

After  his  return,  he  assailed  Pegu,  and  conquered  U ;  and  then  re- 
turned the  second  time,  in  1667.  He  subjected  to  his  seigniory,  twelve 
kingdoms;  which  Femaudes  thus  rehearseth:  the  kingdom  of  Cao' 
dan,  where  are  the  best  rubies  and  sapphires.  Secondly,  that  of  Am, 
the  bowels  whereof  are  filled  with  mines  of  copper,  lead,  and  sUrer. 
The  third,  Bacan,  enriched  with  mines  of  gold.  Tungran,  the  fourth, 
abounded  with  lac  and  lead.  Such  is  Prcnn,  the  fifth.  The  sixth,  is 
langoma,  stored  with  copper,  musk,  pepper,  silk,  silver,  and  gold. 
Lauran,  the  seventh,  had  Beioim  enough  to  lade  ships.  The  eighth  and 
ninth,  are  the  kingdoms  of  Tniiian,  staples  tX  China  merchandise.  The 
tenth  and  eleventh,  are  the  Diadems  of  Cublan,  betwem  Ava  uid 
China,  powdered  with  precious  stones.  Siam,  whence  we  cazne  last, 
is  the  last  of  the  twelve ;  in  the  invasion  wfaeraof  he  armed  a  milUon 
and  three  score  thousand  men :  which  number  is  diort  of  Frederii^s 
reckoning,  except  we  ascribe' that  surplusage  to  victuallets,  volunta- 
ries, servants,  and  att^idants  on  tix  baggage;  whidi  army,  stuth  Fer- 
nandes,  he  titiied  out  of  his  people. 

He  so  abounded  with  wealth,  that  a  hundred  ships,  freighted  wkb 



noe,  seemed  to  diminish  nothing  of  the  plenty.  The  fields  are  sftid  to  ^^^- 
yield  three  harvests  in  the  year;  and  of  gems,  the  store  is  lieyond  es-  ■^^•-v'-^^ 
timation,  and  also  maketh  them,  there,  ^ort  of  the  estimation  of  gems. 
But  this  wenldi,  then  wuiting  no  store,  had,  when  Femandes  wrote 
^aa,  m  1508,  a  contrary  Ticissitnde — of  no  store;  but  want  even  of 
those  things  which  nature  exacteth  as  necessary  props  of  Hfe.  Scarce- 
ly, of  so  many,  were  left  seven  thousand  persons,  men,  women, 
and  children,  to  participate  the  king's  imprisonment  or  siege  in  his 
tower;  and  those  feeding  on  man's  flesh:  the  parents  requiring  of 
the  children  that  life,  which  before  they  had  given,  to  sustain  their 

own;  and  now  laid  them,  not  in  their  bosoms,  but  in  their  bowels. 

The  children  became  living  sepulchres  of  their  scarce  dead  parents. 
The  strongest  preyed  upon  the  weaker;  and,  if  their  flesh  was  con- 
sumed before  by  their  own  hunger,  leaving  nothing  but  skin  and  bones 
to  the  hungry  assault  of  these  raveners,  they  ripped  the  belly  and  de< 
voured  their  inward  parts ;  and,  breaking  tite  skull,  sucked  out  the 
brains  raw.  Yea,  the  weaker  sex  was,  by  the  strength  of  famine, 
armed  with  no  less  butcherly  despight  against  whomsoever  they  could 
meert  in  the  streets  of  the  city,  with  their  knives,  which  they  carried 
about  them  as  harbingers  to  their  teeth,  in  those  inhospitable  inhuman 
hnrnficn  banqnets. 

l^us  did  the  besieged  suffer;  while  the  king  endured  in  his  tower 
no'small  part  of  like  misery,  besides  the  indignity  so  to  be,  by  his  own 
vassals,  straitened  and  afterwards  slaughtered.  But  such  is  the  just 
hand  of  the  King  of  kings,  who  regardetfa  not  persons;  but,  as  be 
lAeweth  mercy  to  the  mereiful,  so  doth  he  reserve  vengeance  for  cru- 
elty and  tyranny.  Pardon  me,  reader,  if  in  this  spectacle  I  cause 
thee,  with  myself,  to  stay  awhile  and  wonder.  The  Sun,  in  his  daily 
journey  round  about  this  vast  globe,  saw  few  equal  (that  I  say  no 
more)  to  thi^  Peguan  greatness;  and  yet,  in  a  small  space.  He  that 



is  higher  than  the  highest*  hath  abated  and  abased  this  magnificeBce 
lower  than  the  lowest  of  his  princes  *. 

After  the  death  of  the  Barman  conqueror,,  his  son,  finding  the  iring 
of  Ava^his  tributary  and  uncle,  was  plotting  a  conspiracy,  seized 
forty  Aran  noblemen;  had  them  ^conducted  into  a  wood,  which  was 
set  fire  to;  and  those  who  escaped  the  fiames  wiere  killed  by  the 
sword.  The  two  kings  agreed  to  try  their  &te  by  single  combat  upon 
elephants;  and  the  king  of  Pegu  obtained  the  conquest. 

Andreas  Boues,  March  28, 1600,  relates,  that  the  king  of  Pegti  was 
besieged  by  the  kings  of  Aracan  and  Tangut;  that  he  surrendered 
himself,  his  queen,  and  prince,  to  the  latter;  who,  treacherously  be- 
heading them,  hastened  to  the  tower  of  Pegu,  where  he  found  as  much 
gold  and  jewels  as  laded  six  hundred  elephants  and  as  many  horses, 
besides  silver.  The  king  of  Aracan,  incensed  at  this  conduct,  with 
the  assistance  of  the  Portuguese,  among  whom  this  Jesuit  was  one,, 
invaded  Pegu,  seized  three  millions  of  silver,  and  all  the  artillery;  and 
remained  lord  of  Pegu.  The  king  hath  four  white  elephants;  and  if 
any  otber  hath  any,  he  will  seek  them  by  fovor  or  force.  They  axe 
fed  in  vessels  of  silver  gilt  One  of  them,  when  he  goes  to  the  river, 
passes  under  a  canopy  of  cloth  of  gold,  or  silk,  carried  by  six  or  eight 
men;  as  many  going  before,  playing  on  drums  or  other  instrunients. 
On  his  coming  out  of  the  river  a  gentleman  washes  his  feet  in  a  silver 
bason.  There  were  black  elephants  nine  cubits  high.  The  king  is 
said  to  have  about  five  thousand  elephants  of  war.  When  Mr.  Fitch 
was  at  Pegu,  the  king  had  one  wife,  three  hundred  concubines':  and 
he  was  said  to  have  ninety  children.  The  king  sat  in  judgment  almost 
every  day  f . 

*  This  punning  bat  interesting  narratire  is  from  Purchas,  rector  of  St.  Martiu's 
Ludgate,  chaplain  to  Abbot,  ArcbbiBfaop  of  Canterbury,  and  contraipmwy  with 
Shakeapear  and  Hilton,  who  were  both  pansteta. 

t  Purchas,  Vol.  L  p. 468  to  468, and  Viucent  Le Blanc.  Cb.  XXVI,  and  XXVil. 



The  town  of  Pegu  is  square  and  very  large.having  five  gates  at  each 
side  of  the  square ;  and  a  deep  trench  in  which  there  are  many  croco-  « 
diles.  The  walls  are  of  wood:  the  watch  towers  are  richly  gilt. 
When  in  the  heart  of  the  town,  you  discover  all  the  streets ;  which  is  a 
gallant  curiosity.  The  king's  guard  consists  of  thirty  thousand  horse, 
Turks,  Persians,  or  Arabians;  for  there  is  a  law,  that  he  who  brings 
twenty  horses  for  sale,  shall  pay  no  duty  on  his  other  merchandize; 
they  are  therefore  brought  in  abundance. 

The  soldiers  exercise  much  at  a  mark,  and  are  very  expert.  The 
king  has  about  five  thousand  elephants.  Merchants  follow  the  armies 
upon  oxen.  The  country  is  rich  in  gold,  silver,  rubies,  sapphires, 
garnets,  &c.  and  his  magazine  may  pass  for  the  treasury  of  the  East. 
There  is  a  statue  of  a  tall  man  of  beaten  gold,  wearing  a  golden  crown, 
enriched  with  rubies  of  inestimable  value;  and  round  it,  four  statues 
of  youths,  all  of  gold.  In  one  part  they  make  coaches,  litters,  saddles ; 
and  harness  for  elephants,  covered  with  gold  and  silver.  I  saw  a  rich 
saddle  and  furniture  for  an  elephant,  bought  for  the  king.  They  use 
arquebusses  and  other  guns,  which  are  ftir  better  than  ours ;  better  iron, 
better  tempered,  and  better  wrought.  The  king  had  three  thousand 
pieces  of  ordnance;  one  thousand  of  them  were  of  brass*. 

When  the  king  of  Siam  goes  to  court,  he  has  a  trun  of  two  hundred 
elephants,  among  which  one  is  white.  If  any  favorite  elephant  falls 
sick  and  dies,  he  is,  with  funeral  pomp,  burned  to  ashes  with  reeds, 
and  the  weight  of  his  body  of  sweet  wood;  but,  if  he  be  an  offender, 
he  is  not  burnt  but  bnried.  The  monarch  stiles  himself  King  of  Hea- 
ven and  Earthf. 

•  Vincent  Le  Blanc,  P.  I.  Cfa.  XXVI.    t  Taveniier,  P.  II.  B.  III.  Cb.  XVIU. 



The  town  of  Siam  stands  upon  the  large  river  Mecan,  which  springs 
'  from  the  famous  lake  Chiamay ;  Siam  has  a  stately  wall,  and  contains 
thirty  thousand  houses,  with  a  castle  strongly  fortified,  built  upon  the 
water,  like  Penivitan  and  Venice.  The  country  breeds  elephants,  rhi- 
noceroses, giraffes,  tigers,  lions,  leopards;  the  fairest  ermines,  camels, 
dromedaries,  and  some  say  unicorns;  which,  being  very  timorous 
beasts,  seldom  appear  in  sight*. 


"  Our  English  first  had  trade  at  Sumatra  in  the  last  years  of  queen 
Elizabeth,  whose  name  was  then  famous,  for  her  exploits  against  the 
Spaniards.  The  queen's  letter  directed  to  the  king.  Sultan  Aladin, 
was  received  with  great  state.  First,  ho  entertained  the  messenger 
with  a  banquet;  gave  him  a  robe  and  a  piece  of  calico  wrought  with 
gold;  and  offered  pledges  for  the  general's  safety,  for  whom  he  sent 
six  elephants,  with  drums,  trumpets,  streamers,  and  many  people. 
The  greatest  elephant,  being  thirteen  or  fourteen  feet  high,  had  a 
small  castle  like  a  coach,  covered  with  velvet,  on  his  back;  in  which 
was  placed  a  great  golden  bason,  with  a  rich  covering  of  silk,  where- 
in the  letter  was  laid.  The  general  was  mounted  on  another  ele- 
phant; but  staid  at  the  court  gate,  till  the  king's  pleasure  and  li- 
cence was  again  sent. 

The  king  gave  him  a  feast;  the  dishes  were  of  gold  or  tambaycfce, 
which  is  gold  and  brass  mixed.  Their  wine  is  of  rice,  as  strong  as 
aqua  vitffi:  the  king  dnmk  to  the  general  out  of  his  gallery,  a  &thom 

*  Vide  Le  Blanc,  p.  105.  We  are  always  tantalized  with  the  hope  of  lindtnfj; 
one  of  these  animals.  An  Unicom  is  reported  to  have  been  seen  by  a  British 
officer,  in  the  thick  wooda  near  Aracan,  in  July,  1635. 



higher  than   where  they  sat.     After  the  feast,  there  were  music 
and  dancing  by  the  king's  damsels;  which  was  a  great  favor,  as  they  *> 
are  not  commonly  seen. 

The  chief  prelate  was  appointed  one  of  the  commissioners  for  arti- 
cles of  league,  which  were  concluded. 

They  took  a  prize  of  nine  hundred  tons,  and  were  like  to  be  taken 
themselves  by  a  strange  water  spout,  which  fell  not  far  irom  them,  as 
in  one  whole  drop,  enough  to  have  sunk  any  ship. 

The  king  sent  a  letter  and  presents  to  the  queen :  and,  at  their  de- 
parture, asked  if  they  had  the  psalms  of  David,  and  caused  them  to 
sing  one;  which  he  and  his  nobles  seconded  with  a  psalm  (as  be  said) 
ft)r  their  prosperity. 

The  court  hath  three  guards,  between  each  of  which  there  is  a 
great  green.  The  walls  of  the  house  are  hung  sometimes  with  cloth 
oi  gold,  velvet,  or  damask,  lite  Inng  sits  cross-legged,  with  four  cris- 
ses,  two  before,  and  two  behind,  very  rich.  Forty  women  attend  him 
with  fans,  clothes,  singing,  and  otlier  offices.  He  eateth  and  drinketh 
all  day;  or  is  chewing  betel  and  areca,  talking  of  venery  and  cock- 

This  king  had  a  himdred  gallies,  of  which  some  will  carry  four  hun- 
dred men;  Uiey are  witiiout  decks;  th^roars  are  Uke  shovels,  four  feet 
long,  and  are  managed  with  one  hand. 

A  woman  was  admiral,  he  not  daring,  through  sdf-gniltiness,  to  trust 
men.  They  have  a  tradition  tiiat  Acheen  is  Ophir*."  "  The  king  of 
Acheen  places  his  strength  in  nine  hundred  d^hants.  1  have  seen 
ibxee  hundred  at  a  time  in  the  court  of  the  palacef  .** 

*  Sir  James  Lancaster.    Purchas,  Vol.  L  546. 

t  Commodore  Beaulieu.    Harris's  Voy.  Vol.  I.  745. 



Hindostan. Heroism  of  the  Indian  Ladies. Court  Pa- 
rades of  the  Emperors  Akhar^  Jehanghir,  and  Aurungzeb. 

Combats  of  Elephants  with  Horses;  of  English  Mastiff's  with 
Elephants;  of  Crocodiles  with  Horses. 

CHAP.     rdlNDOSTAN  being  the  country  which  has  furnished  the  Greeks, 
\^^.^^^  Romans,  and  Persians,  with  elephants,  from  the  earliest  times,  a  few 

interesting  extracts  have  been  selected,  to  shew  the  numbers  of  those 
animals  with  which  that  country  abounds;  and  also  for  the  purpose, 
in  later  times,  of  exhibiting  the  customs  of  the  Moguls,  who  are  de- 
scendants of  Genghis  Khan  and  Tamerlane. 

In  the  ninth  century  of  the  Christian  era,  two  Arabians  visited  In- 
dia. "  The  king  of  Tafek,"  say  they,  "has  the  finest  white  women 
in  ail  India.  He  is  awed  by  the  kings  about  him,  his  army  being 
small,  and  bordering  on  the  lands  of  a  king  called  Rami,  who  is  at  war 
with  the  king  of  Haraz,  and  with  the  Balhara  also.  They  say,  that 
Rami's  forces  are  very  numerpus;  and  that  he  takes  the  field  with  ten 
or  fifteen  thousand  tents,  and  appears  at  the  head  of  fifty  thousand 

*  The  Balhara  reigned  atKanc^tthe  capital  of  Porus;  aad  wbicb,iii  thesisih 
century,  conlained  thirty  thousand  ahops  for  the  sale  of  Betel-nut.  See  Rennel's 
Memoir,  p.  54.  Abul  Gbazi,  Vol.  II.  p,  764;  and  Harris's  Voyages,  Vol.  I.p.  525. 



Mamood,  Emperor  of  Ohizni.  in  his  eleventh  expedition,  marched 
again  hy  the  way  of  Lahore,  in  the  year  1023^  against  Nnnda,  the 
prince  of  Callinger,  with  a  great  army.  Passing  by  the  fort  of  Gua- 
lior,  he  ordered  it  to  be  besi^^ ;  but  the  prince  of  the  province  pre- 
vaUed  on  him  to  remove  from  before  that  place,  in  a  few  days,  by 
means  of  rich  presents  and  thirty -five  elephimts.  Mamood,  immedi- 
ately directed  his  march  to  Callinger,  invested  that  city,  and  Nunda 
offered  him  three  hundred  elephants  and  other  presents  for  peace  ; 
which  terms  were  agreed  to.  The  Raja,  to  try  the  bravery  of  the  sul- 
tan's troops,  intoxicated  the  elephants  with  certain  drugs,  and  let  them 
loose  without  riders  into  the  camp.  Mamood,  seing  the  animals  ad- 
vancing, perceived  the  trick  by  the  wildness  of  their  motions,  and  im- 
mediately ordered  a  party  of  his  best  horse,  to  seize,  kill,  and  drive 
them  from  the  camp.  Some  of  the  Turks,  emulous  to  display  their 
bravery  in  the  presence  of  their  king,  and  of  both  armies,  mounted 
the  greatest  part  of  the  elephants,  and  drove  the  rest  into  an  adjacent 
wood,  where  tiiey  were  soon  reduced  to  obediencef. 

English  travellers  mention  immense  numbers.  Wm.  Clarke,  who 
served  the  Mogul  many  years,  saith,  that  he  hath  seen  in  one  army 
twenty  thousand  elephants,  whereof  four  thousand  were  for  war,  the 
rest  females  for  burthen,  young,  &c.     (Purchas,  (B)  Vol.  I.  p.  640.) 

"  The  king  keepeth  tiiirty  thousand  elephants  in  his  whole  kingdom ; 

t  Dow'b  BiDdostu),  V<^.  I.  p.  64. 



some  thirteen  feet  and  a  half  high."    (T.  Corjate  from  Asmeer^  Pur- 
t  chas,  n.  592.) 

Jehangfair  hath  twenty  thousand  camels,  four  thousand  ounces  for 
game,  one  hundred  tame  lions,  four  thousand  hawks,  twelve  thousand 
elephants,  £ve  thousand  of  which  with  teeth.  Of  his  and  his  udldes, 
there  are  thou^t  to  he  forty  thousand  elephants  iii  his  empire." 
(Captain  Hawkins.    Furchas,  I.  545.  (B)  Vol.  I.  p.  504.) 

Cuttub  presented  the  king  with  above  three  hundred  elephuits,  tak- 
en from  the  Raja  of  Benares;  the  riders  had  a  signal  given  to  them  to 
make  all  tJie  elephants  at  oiu:e  fall  upiHi  their  knees  to  the  king;  which 
they  did,  except  a  favorite  white  one.  This  animal  was  considered  in- 
estimable; and,  though  extremely  tractable,  he,  on  this  occasion,  had 
nearly  killed  his  rider,  when  he  endeavoured  to  force  him  to  pay  his 
obedience.  The  king,  on  setting  out  for  Ghizni,  sent  the  white  ^e- 
l^iant  in  a  present  to  Cuttub,  who  rode  it  ever  after,  till  his  death; 
when  the  affectionate  animal,  with  visiUe  sorrow,  pined  and  expired 
the  third  day  after  f. 

Sultan  Baber  took  the  route  of  Lahore,  and,  on  the  way,  hunted  rhi- 
noceros^, with  which  that  country  abounded;  many  were  killed, and 
some  taken  in  toils.  This  gave  him  an  opportunity  to  put  the  personal 
luravery  of  the  chiefe  to  trial  X- 

t  Dow'sHindostui,A,D.  120&.  X^iom,k.J>.  16S5. 



Asaph,  haTine  heard  of  the  riches  of  the  kinffdom  of  Gurrah,  at  that    CHAP. 

time  governed  by  a  queen  named  Durgetti,  marched  against  it.    Hie  v.^.^'i^-^ 

qneen>  with  fifteen  hundred  elephants,  &c.  prepared  to  meet  him. 

Like  a  bold  heroine,  she  led  on  her  troops  to  action,  clothed  in  armour, 

with  a  helmet  upon  her  head,  mounted  in  a  castle  upon  an  elephant,  a 

bow  and  quiver  by  her  side.    The  brave  queen  received  an  arrow  in 

her  eye  and  one  in  her  neck,  which  she  pulled  out;  but,  finding 

the  enemy  crowding  &st  aronnd  her,  and  her  son  being  mortally 

wounded,  ^e  plunged  a  dagger  into  her  bosom,  and  expiredf . 

"  There  was,  aa  is  said,  formerly  a  Moor  king,  who,  leading  a  volup- 
tuous and  idle  Ufe,  by  his  oaptains  was  dispossessed  of  his  estate. 
One  of  these  was  called  Idalcan,  whose  royal  seat  is  Visiapore.  In 
the  yealr  1572,  he  encamped  before  Goa,  which  the  Portuguese  had 
taken  from  him,  with  an  army  of  seventy  thousand  foot,  thirty-five 
thousand  horse,  two  thousand  elephants,  and  two  hundred  and  fifty 
pieces  of  artillery  J." 

In  the  year  1582,  the  Kmperor  Akbarled  an  army  to  Cabul^  against 
his  brother  Hakim,  who  had  rdxUed;  be  was  accompanied  by  a  vast 
number  of  armed  elephants.  They  wear  plates  of  iron  upon  their 
fi}Teheads,  carry  four  arclsrs,  or  dse  fiour  gunners  with  great  pieces. 
They  go  not  in  front  of  the  army,  lest,  being  hurt,  they  should  disturb 
the  ranks,  and  therefore  are  set  in  the  rear:  a  sword  is  bound  to  their 
trunk,  and  daggers  are  fostened  to  their  tui^ks.  One  of  the  guns,  in  the 
first  advance,  by  accident,  killed  three  of  the  chiefs  who  stood  by  Ha- 
t  Dow,  A.  D.  1 664.  ;  Purcba.  Vol.  I.  p.  48&. 



kim,  who  immediately  left  the  field,  and  was  pursued  with  great  slaugh- 
f  ier.     The  Emperor  entered  Cabul,  and  Hakim  fled  to  Ghorehund:  he 
from  thence  sent  an  embassy  to  the  Emperor,  beg^ng  forgiveness, 
which  was  granted  himf. 

"  The  town  of  Bisnegur,  or  Chandegy,  is  eight  leagues  in  circuit,  and 
so  powerful,  that  it  supplies  the  prince  with  a  hundred  thousand  horse. 
Narsingue,  the  capital  of  the  country,  is  built  in  a  stately  stile,  and  is 
about  the  compass  of  Florence.  The  laws  are  so  well  observed,  that 
none  breaks  them,  for  fear  of  punishment  The  citizens  are  obliged  to 
serve  their  king  on  pain  of  death,  or  amputation  of  hands  and  feet. 

To  keep  his  army  more  full,  he  entertains  the  finest  women  in  the 
world,  most  gallantly  dressed.  Many  lords  and  princes,  from  other 
parts,  flock  hither  to  fight  under  Mars  and  Venus :  but  are  not  admitted 
to  the  ladies  till  they  have  shewn  some  trophy  of  their  valour. 

They  load  their  elephants  and  horses  with  iron  and  steel  hoops,  three 
fingers  broad,  keen  as  razors,  tmd  dart  them  dexterously,  uid  swift  a 
arrows:  they  poison  them;  and  the  large  wounds  they  make  are  mor- 
tal, lliey  have  swords,  bucklers,  javelins,  bows,  cross-bows,  and  some 
fire-pikes.  The  king  of  Temassery^  is*  continually  at  war  with  the 
king  of  Narsingue :  he  is  a  gentile,  and  hath  above  a  thousand  elephants 
trained  to  war,  and  of  the  largest  size  of  the  East,  covered  to  the 
ground  vrith  beeves'  hides;  and.  over  them,  with  divers  trappings, 
'lliose  hides  are  fastened  underneath  the  belly  with  iron  chains,  and 
are  difficult  to  be  got  off.  Four  men  may  easily  fight  upon  each  ele- 
phant, with  broad  bucklers  made  of  tortoise-shell.    He  who  gnides 

t  Scw.VoLlL  puSTa   Pnchas,  V»l.  I.<B)  p.6U.  t  See  Le  Blanc,  p.m. 



die  beast  is  tiie  best  armed  of  the  five,  being  most  exposed  to  tiie  ene- 
my, llieir  darts  hare  three  sharp  points  or  heads,  with  a  ball  of  iron 
in  the  middle,  which  serves  for  counterpoise.  They  are  a  warlike, 
coarteous,  voluptnous  nation,  and  have  fair  women,  whom  they  treat 
in  gardens  ftdl  of  rare  fruits.  They  delight  in  perfumes,  chiefly  musk ; 
I  quartered  at  a  Jew's,  who  had  a  great  quantity  f. 

"  The  muster  of  elephants  precedes  all  others.  Every  day  a  kh^eh 
elephant,  with  his  honi^gs  and  trappings,  is  brought  to  the  front  of 
tiie  palace:  askd  on  the  first  day  of  every  Persian  month,  ten  elephants 
are  brought;  and  on  every  succeeding  day,  ten  faulkahs  of  ten  each. 
On  Mondays,  ten  hidkahs  of  twen^  each,  are  brought  to  be  muster- 
ed f. 

There  are  always  set  apart  for  his  Majesty's  (Akbar)  riding,  one 
hundred  and  one  elephants.  The  daily  allowanee  of  food  is  in  weight 
two  hundred  pounds,  the  same  as  for  the  others,  but  difi'ers  in  quality. 
Host  of  these  have,  moreover,  five  seers  (ten  pounds)  of  sugar,  four 
seers  of  ghee,  and  half  a  maund  (about  forty  pounds)  of  rice,  with 
round  and  long  peppra,  &c.  and  some  have  a  maund  and  half  of  milk 
mixed  up  with  their  rice.  In  the  sugar<»me  season,  each  elephant 
has  daily  three  hundred  canes,  more  or  less,  for  the  space  of  two 
months.  His  Majesty  rides  every  kind  of  khaseh  elephant,  making 
them  obedient  to  his  commuid;  and  frequently  in  the  rutting  season 
he  puts  his  feet  upon  the  tusks  of  the  elephant  and  mounts  him;  to 
the  astonishment  of  those  who  are  used  to  these  animals.    Magnifl- 

t  Travels  of  Vincent  Le  Blanc,  p.  81 .    The  Visi'apore  ladies  were  celebrated  for 
Ibeir  extraordinary  beanty.    See  Montesquieu,  Persian  Letter,  XCVI. 
t  Ayeen  Akbery,  Vol.  I.  p.  Iff7. 



cent  amarees  are  pnt  upon  the  backs  of  swift  paced  el^hants,  and 
wbicK  serve  £i>r  places  of  repose  on  journies.  An  elephant  sa  capar 
risoned  is  always  ready  at  tha  palace  *. 

When  his  Al^eaty  goes  on  a  journey,  be  takes  wiUt  him  a  carriage 
of  his  own  contrivance,  of  such  a  magnitude  as  to  contain  several 
apartments,  with  a  hot  bath:  and  it  is  drawn  by  a  single  ^phant. 
This  moveable  bath  is  extremely  useful,  and  very  refreshing  on  a  jour- 
ney.   Other  carriages  are  drawn  by  camels,  horses  and  oxen  -f. 

The  Emperor  Akbar  built  an  amphitheatre  at  Agra,  for  elephant 
fights  %. 

On  the  return  from  Cashmere,  in  (697,  Many  el^iants  died  of 
&tigtte  and  f^nUne;  they  sometimes  leaned  on  their  trunk  as  a  staff  to 
enable  them  to  suppwt  their  loads.  The  prtnoe  was  assaulted  by  a 
lioness,  which  he  wounded  with  a  dart,  then  with  a  shot;  a  sddier 
came  on  and  slew  her,  but  with  the  loss  of  his  own  life.  The  prmce 
was  upon  a  female  elephant. 

The  next  year  Akbar  went  to  Agra;  he  had  eight  hundred  el^thanta, 
and  sev&a.  thousand  camels,  to  carry  bis  tents  and  proyisions;  yea,  his 
secretary  was  at  the  same  time  iwovided  witii  seven  hundred  camels,  and 
seventy  elephants,  for  his  own  use.  The  king  conducted  in  this  expe- 
dition above  one  thousand  dephants  instructed  for  filling.  Brampore 
ftiU  into  his  hands.  Miram«  the  king,  had  fled  to  Syra,  where  he 
had  three  thousand  pieces  of  ordnance;  the  gorernor,  and  seven  other 
comnunders,  were  all  reni^;ado  Mahomedans.  Akbar  had  two  hun< 
died  thousand  ijoen,  but  prevailed  more  with  bribes ;  and  Syra  fell  § . 

On  Tuesday,  the  'E^tpent  aits  in  judgment;  and  hears  both  ^rtiea 
with  patience.  He-  sometimes  sees,  witii  too  mnch  delist  in  Uood, 
the  executions  done  by  his  elephants. 

•  AyeenAkbwy,VoI.I.pp.l27,128.     f  Ibid.  p.^JS,      t  Ibid.  Vol.  Jl.p.87. 
§  PurduH,(B)Vol.I.  p,568. 



"  The  EmperoT  Jebang^ir  was  so  rich  in  jewels^  that  I  never  saw  snch 
mestidnUe  wealth.  His  greatest  dephants  were  brou^t  before  him,  \ 
some  of  which  being  lord  elephants,  had  their  chains,  bells,  and  furni- 
ture of  gold  and  silver,  attoaded  with  gilt  innners  and  flags;  and  eight 
or  ten  dephants  waiting  on  him,  dotiied  in  gold,  silk,  and  silver.  Thus 
passed  alioat  twelve  cimipaniea,  most  richly  famished ;  the  first  having 
all  the  plates  on  his  head  and  inreast  set  with  rabies  and  emeralds,  1)6- 
mg  a  beast  of  a  wonderftil  stature  and  Iwaaty.  They  all  Iwwed  down 
Iwfore  the  king;  who,  with  some  gracious  compliment  to  me,  rose  and 
went  in."    •    •    • 

The  king  at  noon  sat  out  at  the  Durbttf,  where  the  prince  Inronght 
his  dephants,  about  six  hundred,  rich  in  trap^ngs  and  fiimitnre;  and 
likewise  tm  thousand  tiorse,  with  heron  top  feathers  in  their  tnrbaas, 
all  in  gallantry;  liiuself  in  cloUk  tut  silver  emtroidered  with  great 
pearls,  and  ririning  wlft  diamonds  like  a  firmament.  The  king  em- 
braced liim  with  mnch  afbction,  and  gave  him  a  sword  and  dagger  of 
gold  set  with  precious  stones,  valued  at  one  hundred  and  forty  tkon- 
saiidru]na8;  an  ctephant  and  two  honeB,witbantheibmitaTeofg^ 
and  precious  stones;  and  one  of  the  new  coadies  made  in  Imitation  of 
that  sent  by  my  master.  He  commanded  the  finglish  coachman  to 
drive  him  to  his  tents ;  he  sat  in  tlie  middle,  the  sides  open ;  his  eliief- 
est  nobles  on  foot  walking  by  him,  about  four  m^es.  All  the  way  be 
"Uirew  quarter  mpias,  being  followed  by  a  multitude;  and,  readring 
his  liand  to  the  coachman,  he  put  into  his  hat  a  mnsber  of  mpias  f . 

"  Ne?^  followed  the  English  coach,  now  covered  and  richly  trim- 
med; which  the  Emperor  had  given  to  the  queen  Normahall,  who 

t  Sir  Thomaa  Rowe.    Purcbas,  Vol.  II.  pp.  64S,  6G0, 668. 



rode  in  it.  After,  followed  twenty  royal  elephants  for  bis  own  ascend- 
ing, so  rich,  that,  in  precious  stones  andiiumitare,  they  braved  the  Sun. 
His  wives,  on  their  elephants,  were  carried  like  parakitoes,  half  a  mile 
behind  him.  When  the  king  came  to  the  door  where  his  eldest  son  was 
a  prisoner,  he  called  for  him;  he  came  and  made  reverence;  his  sword 
and  buckler  in  his  hand,  and  his  beard  grown  to  his  middle ;  a  sign  of 
disfavor.  The  king  commanded  him  to  ascend  one  of  the  spare  ele- 
phants, and  so  rode  next  him,  to  the  extreme  applause  and  joy  of 
all  men.  The  king  gave  him  a  thousand  rupias  to  cast  to  the  peo- 

The  great  general  Khan  Cannawe  liveth  at  Brampore.  On  the  I2th 
October,  1609,  he  returned  from  the  wars,  with  one  thonsuid  five 
hundred  dephante,  ten  thousand  camels,  three  tliousand  dromedaries, 
&c.  This  city  is  &r  bigger  than  London.  Hence  we  travelled  to- 
wards Agra,  and  met  with  store  of  wild  elephants,  lions,  and  tigers. 
•  •  •  The  elephants  that  fight  before  the  Mogul,  are  parted  with 
rockets  of  wild-fire,  made  round  like  hoops,  which  are  pushed  in  their 
faces.  Seme  fight  with  wild  horses,  six  horses  to  an  elephant ;  which 
he  kills  by  clasping  his  trunk  about  their  necks;  and,  pulling  them 
to  him,  breaks  their  necks  with  his  tusks.  Condemned  persons  may 
crave  the  combat  with  the  lion.  One  was  seen,  who  at  the  first  encoun- 
ter felled  the  lion  with  his.  fist ;  but  was  soon  torn  in  pieces  before  the 
king.  Master  Fitch  and  Captain  Hawkins  saw  also  crocodiles  kept 
in  ponds  for  like  purpose,  one  of  which  killed  two  horses  at  a  time  t- 

An  English  mastiff§  seized  an  elephant  by  the  trunk,,  and  kept  bis 

t  Sir  T.  Rowe,  A.D.  1615.     Purchas,  Vol .  II.  659. 

X  Purchae,  (B)  Vol.  I.  p.  601.  §  These  were  probably  balMogs. 



hold  so  fast,  that  the  elephant,  havinir  tossed  him  in  the  air  for  some     CHAP. 

time,  at  last  swung  him  off;  but  did  not  care  to  come  near  him  a  \.^— v-<w> 

second  time.     This  being  told  to  the  Mogul,  enhanced  the  reputation 

of  the  English  dogs:  they  were  carried  about  in  palankines  along  with 

his  Majesty,  and  he  fed  them  himself  with  a  pur  ef  silver  tongs  made 

for  that  purposef . 

The  daily  diversions  of  the  Mogul,  except  on  Fridays,  were,  to  see 
the  lions,  leopards,  tigers,  and  elephants  6ght  with  one  another.  •  *  * 

The  city  of  Amedabat  is  obliged  to  maintain  fifty  elephants.  The 
governor's  daughter  was  married  to  the  Mogul's  second  son.  Her  fa- 
ther sent  her,  with  an  equipage  of  twenty  elephants,  and  six  thousand 
waggons  laden  with  riches.  The  governor  kept  fifty  elephants  for  his 
own  use.  The  Mogul  never  stirs  abroad  without  a  guard  of  one  hun- 
dred thousand  men;  at  the  head  of  which  march  one  hundred  ele- 
phants, covered  with  scarlet  velvet  and  brocades.  I  arrived  in  Eng- 
land in  1639.  Lord  Strafford  did  me  the  honor  to  introduce  me  to  his 
Majesty  to  kiss  his  hand,  and  afterwards  to  the  Queen ;  both  their 
Majesties  being  pleased  to  bestow  some  time  to  hear  the  relation  of 
my  travels,  especially  in  Muscovy  and  Persia  J. 

Aurungzeb  was  twenty  days  before  Daman,  and  resolved  on  storm- 
ing it  on  a,Sunday,  believing  that  Christians  would  not  defend  it  on 
that  day.    The  place  was  commanded  by  an  old  soldier,  who  had 

•     t  Barclay,  Uoirem]  Traveller,  p.  498.  ^  Albert  de  Mandelsloe's  THreU. 



served  in  France,  and  had  tbree  sons  with  him;  and  there  were  eight 
hundred  gentlemen,  and  other  atout  soldiers. 

Aurungzeb  had  forty  thousand  men.  The  governor  made  a  sally 
after  midnight  with  all  his  (^vahy,  and  part  of  his  infantry.  He  at- 
tacked the  quarter  that  was  guarded  by  two  hundred  elephants,  among 
which,  in  the  dark,  they  flung  a  great  number  of  fire-works^  which  so 
aflrighted  them,  that  they  turned  upon  the  besiegers  with  such  fury, 
that,  in  two  or  three  hours,  half  of  Aurungzeb's  army  was  cut  in 
pieces;  on  which  he  raised  the  siege;  nor  would  he  after  that  have 
any  thing  more  to  do  with  the  Christiansf . 

After  the  court  elephants  were  paraded,  combats  were  given  of  rhi- 
noceroses, buffaloes,  lions,  tigers,  nilgaus,  gazelles,  leopards  to  hunt 
the  gazelles.  &c. 

Four  hundred  camels  and  one  hundred  and  twenty  elephants  carry 
the  tents;  there  are  also  tents  for  the  best  elephants,  and  other  ani- 
mals that  are  (dways  cartHedJor  tports  and  magn^enee,  and  alaojbr 
Uons,  rkinocerose*,  and  other  amnud*,  led  for  parade.  We  had  above 
one  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  animals,  horses,  cameb.  and  elephants, 
on  this  expedition  to  Cashmere. 

Roshinara  Begum  was  mounted  on  a  lusty  Pegu  elephant,  in  a  mik- 
dember,  all  shining  with  gold  and  azure,  attended  by  five  others  equally 
splendid,  with  the  ladies  of  her  household.  A  long  file  of  sixty  or  more 
elephants,  thus  marching  gravely,  had  a  grand  and  royal  appearance  %. 

t  TaTemier.  P.  11.  B.  I.  Cfa.  Xlt.  X  Bernier'i  Joraiwy  toCRdmore. 



The  Nabob  of  Oude,  in  1794,  went  on  a  huntiDg  expedition  to- 
wards the  mountains  which  separate  India  from  'Iliibet.  He  keeps  a 
groat  inunber  of  elephants  for  his  pleasure,  and  had  with  him  of  his  own 
on  this  occasirai,  above  a  thooBand.  A  troop  of  one  hundred  and  se- 
venty wild  ones  was  met  with,  and,  being  surrounded,  the  tumult, 
none,  and  confusion,  where  fourteen  hundred  elephants  were  engaged, 
it  ii  not  possible  to  describe.  Five  wild  ones  were  killed,  and  twenty- 
one  were  captured  f . 


"Aftbk  this,  the  Emperor  Pheodor  Ivanovich  was  taken  out  of  his 
chair  of  mtgeaty,  having  upon  him  a  robe,  adorned  with  precious 
stones  and  orient  peark  in  great  quantity,  in  weight  two  hundred 
pounds;  the  train  borne  up  by  six  dukes,  his  chief  imperial  crown 
upon  his  head,  and  his  staff  imperial  in  his  iright  hand,  of  an  wiieom^s 
horn,  three  feet  and  a  half  in  length,  and  beset  with  rich  stones ;  it  was 
bought  at  Augsburg  for  seven  thousand  marks  sterling."  Seen  by 
Jerom  Horsley,  Gent,  servant  to  her  Majestie,  A.  D.  X584.  Pur- 
chas,  I II.  T43.  — ^The  staff  was,  it  is  to  be  presumed,  the  horn  of  a  rhi- 
noceroB^  of  extraordinary  length,  (it  is  poM^le  that  it  was  that  of  a 
narwal),  and  valued,  horn  the  fu^erty  it  is  supposed  to  possess,  of 
being  a  charm  and  an  antidote  against  poisons.    This  notion  is  univer- 

^  t  Note  ID  Sonioi's  Buffon,  Vol.  XXVIII.    A  full  deacriptioD  appeared,  sood 
after  the  banting  took  place,  in  an  £nglwh  Uagazine. 



CHAP.    3al,  and  rhinoceroses  have  been  esteemed  as  highly  valuable  in  all  coun- 
s.i«-v-"«^  tries. 

The  writer  was  going  in  his  budgerow  through  the  SunderbundS^an 
extensive  uninhabited  district  of  Bengal,  full  of  rivers,  and  near  the 
sea,  when  he  came  to  an  open  place,  where  a  Portuguese  and  his  &- 
mily  resided:  his  pursuit  was  that  of  a  lime  burner;  he  enq>lo7ed 
some  Indians  to  pick  up  shells,  a  species  of  the  Bmccintmt,  which  were 
in  plenty,  scattered  in  the  swamps  and  woods.  The  lime  made  from 
the  shells,  was  for  chewing,  when  properly  prepared,  with  the  betel 
leaf  and  areca  nut.  In  this  dangerous  pursuit,  he  had  lost  many  men 
by  the  tigers;  but  still  he  found  successors.  This  man  possessed  a 
small  horn  of  a  rhinoceros  that  had  been  killed-  in  the  woods;  and  had 
the  same  universal  opinion  of  its  virtues.  On  being  asked  how  it 
ought  to  be  used,  he  said,  that  he  put  a  small  quantity  of  water  in  the 
concave  part  of  the  root,  when  held  with  the  point  downwards;  and 
stirred  the  water  with  the  point  of  an  iron  nail,  till  it  was  discoloured, 
when  the  patient  was  to  drink  it:  that  it  had  a  pungent  taste,  and 
that  he  had  given  it  with  success  to  a  person  who  had  been  bitten  by  a 
dog.  supposed  to  be  mad. 

The  reputation  of  the  horn,  in  this  and  other  instances,  is  probably 
derived  from  the  patients  not  having  been  poisoned,  and  the  dogs  not 

The  Czar,  Ivan  Tassilivitch  takes  great  pleasure  in  hunting  jbllow- 
deer:  he  also  loves  fowling,  he  has  three  hundred  fklconers,  and  the 
best  ger-falcons  in  the  world,  which  are  brought  from  Siberia.  Har- 
ris's Voyages.  VoL  II,  477. 



The  king  of  Persia  sent  the  Czar  an  elephant,  but  it  died,  on  its 
way  to  Moscow,  at  Zaritza. — Le  Bruyn,  Vol.  I.  p.  95. 

The  ambassadors  and  some  of  their  friends  took  a  wdk,  about  a 
league  from  Astraoan,  to  see  the  habitations  of  the  Tartars.  Every 
hat  had  its  hawk  or  falcon.  We  met  one  of  their  princes  retum- 
ing  from  his  sport  with  his  hawk  on  his  fist — CMearins,  p.  132. 


Once  every  year  the  Grand  Seignior  recreates  himself  with  hawking, 
and  ^o  appoints  a  general  hunting  match.  A  space  of  ground  is  en- 
closed, of  five  or  six  days'  riding.  All  the  neighbouring  inhabitants  are 
ordered  to  appear.  When  the  game  is  driven  into  a  narrow  com- 
pass, the  sultan,  from  an  eminence,  has  the  pleasure  of  seeing  the 
wild  boars,  wolves,  foxes,  and  hares,  killed  with  clubs;  and  the  phea- 
sants and  partridges  by  his  &lcons*. 


The  woods  in  Poluid  are  well  stored  with  deer,  bears,  wolves, 
boars,  &c.  The  Masovian  forests  have  plenty  of  elks  as  large  as 
horses,  with  bodies  like  the  stag ;  wild  asses ;  bufifdoes ;  bisonets,  in  shape 
and  horns  like  an  ox,  with  manes  like  hors^',  beards  on  their  lower  jaws, 

*  Comelins  Le  BrnyD,  106. 

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hard  rough  tongues,  a  bund  oi  their  ba^,  aad  a  smell  of  musk: 
they  are  incredibly  strong.  The  Polish  nobility  hunt  them,  and  es- 
teem their  flesh,  when  powdered,  a  great  dainty.  The  urns,  called  by 
the  PoIaDders  Thur,  is  a  kind  of  wild  ox,  bigger,  stronger,  and  swifter 
than  the  tame:  he  has  a  short  black  beard,  a  bush  of  hair  upon  his 
fordiead,  and  horns  very  wide  and  large:  Pliny  says  the  Romans 
made  lanterns  of  them.  In  the  tkaerts  near  the  Dmeper,  they  have 
a  sheep  Ifte  a  goat,  with  short  le^  and  horns  straight  up.  There 
are  wild  horses  in  the  Ukraine  exo^ent  as  food:  and  in  Lithuania 
and  Muscovy,  a  beast  called  Rossomoko,  with  the  body  and  tail  of  a 
wolf,  and  the  &ce  of  a  cat,  which  feeds  on  dead  carcasses  *. 

*  Doctor  Bernard  Conner,  Physician  to  John  Sobietki.    Harrit's  Voy.  U,  COS. 
As  dw  Mongols  were  in  Poland,  that  coantry  may  have  fumitbed  them  with  aome 

oF  &e  animals,  of  which  bones  have  been  found. 

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Of  Roman  (u^Greek  Wars  in  which  Elephants  were  employed. 

Marches  of  Hannibal  and  Asdrubal  over  the  A^,  witha  great 

number  <f  Elephants. Arduous  march  of  the  Constti  Mar' 

duSf  tPtth  Elephants,  over  the  Olyv^ic  chmn  of  Mountains  in 

Greece. Of  AdUus^  with  Elephants,  over  rnount  Corax. 

Elephants  killed,  and  some  captured  by  CatOy  in  the  defile  of 

Alexander  the  Great,  in  the  battle  with  Poms,  captured  all  the  CHAP, 
elephants  that  were  not  slain;  besides  which  Bargantei  and  Omphis  v^^-v'^^-' 
presented  him  with  one  bondred  and  twentj. — Q.  Cnitius.  Arrian. 

The  kings,  on  the  opposite  shore  of  the  Ganges,  were  waiting  with 
an  immense  army,  chariots  of  war,  and  Bevetal  thousands  of  elephants, 
trained  for  war.  Androcottus,  who  reigned  not  long  after,  made  Se- 
lencus  a  present  of  five  hundred  at  one  time.^  Plutarch,  "  Alexander." 

All  the  other  kings  having  united  their  forces  against  Antigonns,  b.C.  300. 
DemetrioB  left  Greece  in  order  to  join  him.  Had  Antigonus  (sup- 
posed to  be  the  illegitimate  brother  of  Alexander  the  Great)  restraiiiad 
his  ambition  to  govern  di«  world,  he  mi^liave  kept  the  preeminence 
among  the  succeBSors  of  Alexander :  but,  by  his  arrogance,  he  exasper- 
ated many  young  and  powerful  princes.    He  met  the  enemy  at  Ipsus 



in  Phrygia.  He  had  seventy  thousand  fiwt,  ten  thousand  hone,  and 
seventy-five  elephants.  The  confederate  forces  were  sixty-foar  thou- 
sand foot,  ten  thousand  five  hundred  cavalry,  one  hundred  and  twenty 
armed  chariots,  and  four  hundred  elephants.  Lysimachus,  Seleucus, 
Ptolemy,  Cassander,  Antigonus,  and  Demetrius,  were  all  present 
Pyrrhus  accompanied  Demetrius,  and,  though  but  young,  bore  down 
all  before  him.  Demetrius,  pursuing  the  enemy  imprudently,  was  in- 
tercepted by  their  numerous  elephants.  His  father,  Antigonus,  was 
kitted;  and  Demetrius  fled  to  Ephesus  with  only  five  thousand  foot, 
and  four  thousand  horse.  The  kings  dismemlwred  the  Conquered 
dominions;  and  each  took  a  limb. — Plutarch,  Dem.  and  Pyrrhus. 

Pyrrhus  was  the  first  who  brought  elei^ants  into  Italy.  They  were 
a  part  of  those  brought  by  the  Greeks  from  India.  He  had  twenty  in 
the  battle  of  Heraclea,  in  Lucania:  they  had  towers  upon  their  backs, 
full  of  bow-men;  and  the  sight  was  truly  terrifying  *.  A  Roman  sol- 
dier cutofi'the  trunk  of  one  of  the  elephants  with  his  sword.  Pyrrhus 
owed  the  victory  to  his  elephants. — Catrou  and  RouiUe,  Vol.  II. 
p.  441. 

Curius  Dentatus  was  near  Beneventum.  Pyrrhus  attacked  him  in 
the  Xaurasian  fields.    On  tlte  first  onset,  a  great  number  of  the  Epi- 

*  When  FabriciuB  went  to  £pini8  to  treat  about  tbe  ranom  and  exchange  of 
prisonerB,  Pyrrhus  received  him  with  particular  distinction,  b&riag  been  informed 
that  he  was  highly  valned  by  the  Romana  for  his  probity  and  martial  ubilities,  but 
ibat  he  was  extremely  poor.  Pyrrhus  privately  offered  him  gold  as  a  pledge  of  his 
friendship,  which  Fabricius  refused.  The  next  day  the  king,  knowing' that  he 
bad  never  seen  an  elepliant,  ordered  the  largest  he  Iwd  to  be  armed  and  concealed 
behind  a  curtain  in  the  room  where  they  were  to  be  in  conference.  On  a  sign  beings 
given,  the  curtain  was  drawn,  and  tbe  elephant,  raising  bia  trunk  over  the  head  of 
Fabricius,  made  a  horrid  and  tenifying  I'oar.  Tbe  Roman  turned  abont  without 
being  iu  the  least  discomposed,  and  said  to  Pyrrhus,  smjUng,  "  Neither  your  gold 

yesterday,  nor  your  beast  to-day,  has  made  any  impression  upon  me," Plutarch, 

"  PyirhuB." 



rota  w6re  killed,  and  some  of  their  elephants  taken.    Curius  now,  with     CHAP. 

new  ardour,  drew  up  in  a  ^n.    The  king,  asiusted  by  his  elephants,  v.«i-vU^ 

repulsed  the  Romans.    A  corps  de  reserre  now  attacked  the  elephants, 

with  bumii^  torches  in  one  hand,  and  their  swords  in  the    The 

fire,  pushed  against  these  huge  andfarious  animals,  put  them  to  flight, 

and  creabed  con&sion.  . 

A  young  elephant,  whidi  had  been  wouti^ed  in  the  battle,  made  a 
terrible .  roaring.  The  mother  immediately  ran  to  her  young  one, 
which  drew  after  her  all  the  other  elephants,  and  caused  such  disorder, 
that  the  Romtms  gained  a  complete  victory.  The  consnl,  it  is  said, 
had  but  twenty  thousand  troops  in  all.  Fyrrhus  had  eighty  thousand 
foot,  and  six  thousand  horse;  of  which  thirty-three  thousand  (some 
say  only  twenty  thousand)  were  slain:  eight  elephants  were  captured, 
four  died  of  their  wounds,  and  four  were  led  in  triumph  at  Rome.-^ 
Catmu,  II.  483, 486.    Orosius,  B.  IV .  C3i.  2.    Eutropius,  B.  3. 

Pyrxhus  had  many  ^phants  at  the  siege  of  Argos.  '  The  nmse  made  B.C.  373. 
by  tibe  elephants,  and  the  gatm  not  proving' snfficieiitly  large  to  admit 
them  through  with  the  castles  upon  their  backs,  disconcerted  all  his 
measures,  and  produced  terrible  confusion.  Pyrrhus  was  slightly 
wounded  with  a  javelin  through  the  breast-plate  while  he  was  fight- ' 
iug  with  the  soldier;  the  mother  of  the  latter,  from  the  top  of  a  house, 
beheld  her  son  thus  engaged,  and  threw  a  large  'tile  with  both 
hands  at  Pyrrhus,  which  struck  his  head.  The  king  of  Macedoa  fell 
from  his  horse  senseless.  One  Zopyrus  killed  the  king;  and  his  head 
was  sent  to  Antigonus. — Plutarch,  "  Life  of  Pyrrhus." 

ReguluB,  in  the  battle  of  Adis,  not  far  f^om  Carthage,  captured   B.C.  265. 
eighteen  elephants. — Catrou,  II.  576. 

At  Panormus  (Palermo)  the  Carthaginian  officer,  named  Asdrubal,  b.C.  360. 
drew  up  his  elephants,  one  hundred  and  f»ty  in  number,  in  one  line. 
The  Roman  archers  ponred  down  a  shower  of  darts  upon  them  and 



iheir  guides,  firom  tiie  top  of  the  ramparts  >of  the  ctty,  by  which  these 
'  DKMistroas  beastB  weri»  rendei^  fiurious:  some  threw  their  guides,  and 
trod  ibem  under  foot;  otherB  fe^  into  tiie  dUch,  whei«di^  were  kill- 
ed; many,  having  no  guides,  rushed  through  the  Car&af^nian  ^«- 
lacxes,  beat  down  the  men  with  thar  trunks,  and  trampled  upon  what- 
ever stood  in  their  way.  This  was  Uie  happy  nmntfe  Heteilos  wilted 
for.  He  atta(^ed  the  battalions  in  flank,  and  cirt  many  of  the  troops 
in  pieces.  Some  fled  to  the  fleet  which  lay  along  the  coast  of  Paaoi<- 
mus,  but  were  either  killed  by  t^e  elephants  or  drowned,  Twentyniix 
elephants  were  taken  or  slain  at  the  first  onset;  the  rest  wore  running 
about  the  plain,  or  wandering  in  the  fidds  without  their  guides ;  but 
they  obeyed  the  voices  <^  their  former  mast^s,  and  were  gaftered  to- 
gether. Metellus  ^ent  one  hundred  and  four,  or  more,  to  Ibe  coast; 
where  he  ordered  a  large  raft  to  be  constructed,  and  covered  itith 
earth;  it  was  planked  at  the  sides,  high  enough  for  the  security  <tf' the 
elephants.  The  raft  wajs  placed  upon  empty  banels,  and  the  whole 
number  crossed  thte  straits  to  Rh^om,  witii  &b  utmost  qutetnen 
during  tine  passage.  Livy  and  Seneca  make  the  number  one  hundred 
end  twenty.  Dion  one  hundred  and  thiri^-ei^^  Pliny  «ne  hondred 
*  and  forty-two. — Catroti.  H.  p.  5W. 

Hannibal,  on  the  deaths  of  his  &tiier  Hamilcar  and  his  brother-tM- 
Imv  Asdrubal,  succeeded  to  the  command  of  the  army  in  Spain:  he 
was  tw«ity-six  years  »f  age.  Althea  was  taken  by  assanlt  (near  To- 
ledo).—Catrou,  III.  40. 

Hannibal  gained  a  rictoiy  on  the  banks  of  the  Tagiis,  over  the  Car- 
petani.  (Toledo  was  tiieir  capital,  according  to  Pliny.)  He  had 
forty  elephants  in  the  battle,  and  numbers  of  the  Spaniards  were  trod- 
den to  death  by  thenL— Catiou,  III.  47. 

Saguntum,  after  a  siege  of  six  months,  was  taken:  and  Hannibal 
passed  the  winter  at  New  Carthage.  He  received  a  reinfercemrat  of 
fourteen  elephants  from  Africa. 


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JEhusu  1^ Skphantr  hmrr  ieen. 
fytmd  at  ikoia  filaet*  mariai  X 

AiAti.  lip  if  t*c  Head. 

3,  ^w  . 

i.)>.  — 

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'  liearing  the  command  in  Spain  to  Ms  brother  Asdrubal,  he  set  out 
oa.  iis  ezpe£tion  to  Italy  with  fifty  thonsand  foot,  nine  thousand 
hor^  andthirty-sevm  elephants. — Rendezvous  at  lUiberis  (Collioure 
in  BiousiUon).  Tba  army  encamped  at  Niemes.  The  Rhone  was  cross- 
ed at  Mont&ucon.  nearly  opposite  Orange*,  and  the  army  marched 
upon  the  east  bank  of  the  Rhone  through  Montelimart  and  Valence  to 
Vielinet:  eastward  to  St  Genis,  and  north  to  Yem;^,  where  the  Alps 
oosdnence,  both  tipon  the  Rhone:  from  Yenne  \o  Chambery,  and 
thence  to  Montmefian,  Conflans,  Monstier,  >Atme,  and  Scex,  all  five 
upon  the  right  bank  of  the  Isere.  Hannibal  lost  many  men  and  cattle 
by  the  assaults  of  the  mountameers,  who  rolled  down  frt^finents  of 
T0cl4  and  aMac^ed  his  advanced  guard ;  but  the  el^htuds  stopped 
their  fmy- 

Tlie  army  reached  the  little  S^t  Bernard.  It  was  now  the  26th  of 
October,  and  upon  the  suivh^  of  tbsir  passage  ovo'  the  mountain, 
ther^  bad  recently  been  a  fall  of  now,  wider  which  the  old  snow  was 
hard^  compact  attd  8Ui4>ery .  The  sorface  being  cleared,  the  toits  were 
pitched,  by.  brcakinghcdes  in  the  ioerandtheumy  reposed  two  days. 

The  d^ent  appeared  more  difflcuU  and  dangerous  than  ascending. 
The  Nnmldians,  by  the  use  of  fire,  (some  historians  say,  that  vtnegar 
was  .used  on  this,  occasion),  and  iron  Insttuairaits,  made  a  faoB*w  way. 
so  as  to  lessen  t^  declivity;  throt^h  w^eh  men,  horses,  «nd  ele- 
pbai^  passed  with  a  little  more  ease.  1^  fumy  Was  Ax  days  in  de- 
Bomding ;  raaldng  fifteen  d^ys  for  the  whnie  jonra^  over  t&e  Alps. 

*  Seeihe  Abp.  Hie  very  eexiom  MlwjnftdU,  with  the  head  af.llanoubal,jud 
the  other,  tappMed  to  be  tliat  of  Dido,  u  from  Htym,  Del  TWiro  Brittanoico, 
Vol.  |.  p.  148.  Humibars  name  h  in  Punic  characters,  ^o  the  po§Bession  of  ihe 
Earl  If  Pembroke). 

t  BrapeiiaMKl  bb  yonngcr  brother  haTtitgr  qaarMleJ,  appealed  ta  Hannibal, 
who  look  part  widi  foftoctn,  and  left  him  etttfMiBhed  in  Ae  kingdom  (of  the  Allo- 
broges).    Thia,  and  the iuntUUy  efihe  Gauk, retwdedhil  Aiareh. 



It  was  now,  on  its  arrival  in  Insubria,  reduced  to  twenty  thousand 
/  foot,  and  six  thousand  horse :  the  number  of  elephants  lost  is  not  men- 
tioned. The  men  were  so  pale  and  ghastly,  that  they  appeared  like 
skeletons  newly  raised  from  the  dead :  or  hairy  sarages  born  in  a  de> 
sert.  The  march  was  by  St.  Didier,  Aoste,  Bard,  Irree,  and  Ghiras, 
to  Turin.  (This  account  of  the  march  is  taken  from  the  "  Histoire 
du  Postage  des  Alpeg  par  Annibal:"  d'apr^s  la  narration  de  Polybe, 
compar^e  aux  recherches  faites  but  les  lieux.  Par  J.  A.  De  Luc, 
Geneve,  1818.)  See,  also,  Catrou,  Vol.111,  and  Rees's  Cyc.  "  Cartha- 

Hannibal  joined  the  Insubrians  and  took  Turin.  He  gained  a  vic- 
tory over  Scipio  on  the  banks  of  t^e  Temin,  about  five  miles  north  of 

A  lai^e  body  of  Gauls  deserted  from  Scipio,  and  went  over  to  Han- 
nibal, who  gained  a  victory  over  Sempronius  on  the  banks  of  the  Tre- 
bia ;  in  which  the  elephants  killed  a  great  number  of  the  Romans. 

In  crossing  the  Appennines,  the  Carthaginian  army  was  overtaken 
among  the  rocks  by  a  terrible  tempest:  many  m6n,  horses,  and  seven 
of  the  small  number  of  elephants  they  had  left,  after  the  battle  of  TVe- 
bia,  were  starved  to  death  *.  By  this  distress  Haonibal  was  driven 
back,  and  encamped  about  ten  miles  from  Placentia,  where  he  again 
fought  a  battle  wtth  Sempronius,  with  loss  to  both  armies.  AAet 
this  the  Carthaginians  mardbed  for  Etruria.  "  The  Amo  was  swelled 
to  a  greit  height,  and  Hannibal  lost  many  men  and  beasts,  pariiciUar- 
Iff  of  the  elephants,  of  which  the  only  one  remaining  was  that  Getulian 
beast  on  which  he  was  mounted." — Madan's  Juvenal,  Sat.  X^  note 

*  Twelre  or  fifteen  vould  be  a  bcuU  number  out  of  tbirty-seren ;  wbich  vould 
leareafew  to  Jcne  jq  theVnl.  d'Amo  afterwards.  The  context  by  no  meaas  re- 
quires that  only  one  waa  left,  on  the  retovat  from  the  A{^ennines^  noristha« 
mention  of  any  bein^  lost  in  the  hut  battle  with  Semproniiu. 



Hamubal  gained  the  battle  of  Thrasymene,  and  the  next  year  the     ^5^**- 
Romans  were  defeated  by  him  at  Camue.  ^.^-v'^^ 

Hannibal  attacked  Casilinum,  near  Capua,  but  foiled :  a  party  sal- 
lied out  to  attack  him ;  and  was  nearly  cut  off  by  his  line  of  forty  ele- 
phants, with  which  he  had  been  supplied  from  Carthage. — Livy,  B. 
XXIII.  Ch.  XYIII.  Catrou,  III.  p.  148.  Capua  surrenders  to  Han- 
nibal, a  city  with  which  he  becomes  enchanted. 

Hannibal  was  defeated  by  Marcellus,  at  Nola;  four  elephants  were    B.C.  315. 
dain  and  two  captured. — Livy,  XXUI.  Ch.  XLVI. 

Asdrubal  (the  bald)  in  a  battle  in  Sardinia,  in  which  he  had  twenty 
elephants,  was  utterly  defeated,  by  the  Prstor  Manlius. — Catrou,  HI. 

Bomilcar  landed  from  Carthage  a  reinforcement  of  troops  and 
elephants,  in  the  country  of  the  Locri,  for  Hannibal.— Catrou,  III, 
p.  309. 

Hannibal,  while  besiegingthe  citadel  of  Tarentum,  was  necessitated  B.C.  311. 
to  march  in  haste  to  relieve  Capua,  his  beloved  city,  reduced  to  hun- 
ger and  great  distress.  Leaving  his  heavy  troops  and  baggage  in  the 
country  of  the  Bmtii,  he  took  with  him  his  invincible  cavalry  and 
light  armed  in&ntry,  and  marched  (br  Campania.  Sis  elephant*, 
tMrty-tkree  in  number,  also  accompamed  him,  and  were  aa  9u^t  ae  hi* 
men  and  horses:  their  heavy  carcasses  did  not  sini  under  the  fatigues  of 
a  hasty  march;  he  encamped  near  C^pua.  In  an  attack  by  the  Ro- 
mans, three  elephants  were  killed.— Catrou,  III.  p.  209.  Livy,  B. 
XXIV.  Ch  VI. 

Hannibal  was  defeated  by  Caius  Decimus  Flavins  at  Canusium ;    6.C.  809. 
eight  thousand  men  and  five  elephants  were  left  dead. — ^Livy,  B. 
XXVII.  Ch.  XH. 

Nine  yeani  had  Asdmbal.  Hannibal's  brother,  comnutnded  in  Spain; 




CHAP,    during  which  period  he  destroyed  the  country  of  the  Carpetani  with 
v.^-v-^-i'  fire,  sword,  and  eiepkanis. 

He  fought  the  two  Scipios  at  Ibera  (Tortosa)  and  was  Seated,  but 
saved  his  elephants. — Livy,  B.  XXXIII. 

The  Scipios  gained  a  bloody  victory  over  Asdrubal,  near  Cordova; 
in  which  five  elephants  were  akin. — Livy,  B.  XXIII.  Ch.  XLIX. 

At  Indibilis,  in  Arragon,  Asdrubal  was  again  de£eaftd  by  the  Sci- 
pios, and  nine  elephants  were  killed. — Catrou,  III.  p.  20S. 

He  was  defeated,  by  the  same  generals,  at  Munda,  in  Granada: 
twelve  thousand  men  and  thirty^mne  elephants  were  left  ^ain  upon 
the  field  of  baftle. 

At  Aurinx,  in  Bcetica,  Asdrubal  lost  another  battle  in  which  e^ht 
elephants  were  killed,  and  three  were  captured.— Livy,  B.  XXIV. 
Ch.  XLIL 

Thus  were  the  nine  years  employed,  when  he  collected  his  troops,  and 
fled  to  the  Pyrenees,  in  order  to  join  his  brother  in  Italy.  He  gain- 
ed the  affection  of  the  Avemi  in  Graul,  and  was  accompanied  by  a 
good  number  of  them  over  the  Alps,  and  also  by  the  Afountaine^s. 
He  found  the  mountains  more  passable  tium  when  his  brother  had 
'  crossed  them;  the  roads  being  worn  by  tiie  numb^s  who  had  gone 

over  them  for  the  kst  twelve  years. 
B.C.  307.  Hannibal,  bdng  at  Gramentum  in  Lueaaia,  was  i^taf^ced  by  the 
consul  Nero,  who  kOled  eight  thousand  troops  and  four  d^dumts: 
and  captured  seven  ihoosand  j^oners  aad  two  el^hants.  By  astrar 
tagem  Hannibal  reached  Metapontus,  in  the  gulf  of  Tarcaitum,  and 
recndted  his  army  with  the  troops  under  Hanno. 

In  the  mean  while  Asdrubal  had  unexpectedly  passed  the  Alps  in 
the  short  space  of  two  months.  Of  his  large  force  he  had  remainmg 
fcrrty  thotnand  foot,  eight  tiiousand  horae,  and  fifteen  elei^iants:  his 
army  increased  on  his  arrival  in  Italy, 



He  laid  aege  to  PlacentU,  bat  f^ed  in  his  attempt,  and  proceeded 
to  Umbria.  His  letters  to  Hannibal  were  intercepted.  On  this  dis-  « 
covery.  Kero  hastened  to  meet  Asdrubal.  After  encamping  near 
Sena>  the  two  armies  fonght  on  the  banks  of  the  Metaurus.  The  ele- 
phants being  attacked  at  once  by  h<HBe  and  foot,  turned  their  rage 
agdnst  their  own  army:  some  grew  fiirious  and  ran  about,  having 
thrown  thdr  guides,  treading  down  the  battalions.  Asdrabal  had 
ordered  thdr  managers  to  carry  a  kind  of  knife  and  mallet ;  and  to 
destroy  such  as  were  ungoremable,  by  driving  the  knife  with  all  their 
strength,  into  the  joint  which  connects  the  head  with  the  neck.  Six 
were  thus  dispatched.  Asdmbal,  covered  with  blood,  and  distracted 
with  the  slaughter  of  his  troops,  rushed  into  the  midst  of  a  Roman 
battalion,  and  died  fighting.  Fifty-five  thousand  Carthaginians  were 
slain,  and  four  elephants  were  captured. — Livy,  B.  XXVII.  Catron, 
410  to  41«. 

When  Hannibal's  brother  marched,  by  the  Alps,  to  Italy,  he  left  B.C.  906. 
the  command  in  Spain  to  Asdrubal,  the  aoa  of  Gisco,  whose  army  con- 
sisted of  seventy  thousand  foot,  forty-five  thousand  horse,  and  thirty- 
two  elephants.  Scipio,  with  an  inferior  force,  defeated  him  at  Bieco- 
la:  and  in  the  retreat,  (during  which  there  was  a  violent  tempest),  de- 
stroyed all  his  troops  except  six  thousand:  this  general  and  Afago,  a 
brother  of  Hannibal,  escaped  to  Cadiz.-^CatnHi,  III.  p.  435  to  43ft 
Polybius,  B.  XL 

Scipio  invaded  Africa,  and  at  Utica  again  def»ted  the  son  t^  Gisco  B.C.  203 
and'Syphax,  who  had  me  hundred  and  forty  elephsjuts,  six  of  which 
Scipio  captured.— Catrou,  III.  pp.  511,  580. 

Mago,  HannibaTs  brother,  invaded  Italy  by  sea.  The  Pmtor,  Var 
ras,  and  the  Proconsul  C.  Cethc^s,  gained  a  great  victory  over  faim 
in  Inmbria,  notwithstanding  the  tcnror  iaspind  by  his  Iwge  ftont  <^ 
elephants,  which  was  drawn  up  before  the  Bonan  Cttvalry.    Mago  vat 




CHAP,     wounded,  and  retreated  towards  Liguria. — Catroa»  III.  537.     JAvy, 

-^^■yW  XXX.  Ch.  XVIII. 

B.C.  @02,  Hannibal  followed  Scipio  to  Africa.  At  the  battle  of  Zama  he 
placed  eighty  elephants  in  the  front.  These  animak  causing  much 
slaughter  among  Scipio's  light-armed  troops,  he  ordered  his  Italian 
cavalry  to  dismount;  and,  having  himself  done  the  same,  they  show- 
ered their  darts  upon  the  elephants,  one  of  which  was  killed  by  Scipio. 
Some  of  the  elephants  threw  Hannibal's  right  wing  into  confusion. 
After  a  tremendous  conflict,  Hannibal  fled  for  refuge  to  Adnunetum. 
By  the  third  article  of  the  treaty  which  followed,  the  Carthaginians 
engaged  to  deliver  up  aUthe  e2?p)&an/«  which  were  trained  for  war,  and 

B.C.  201.  not  to  tame  any  more  of  these  animals.  Part  of  them  were  sent  to 
Rome,  and  part  given  to  Masinissa.  At  the  triumph  granted  to  Sci- 
pio, after  the  white  bulls  and  other  victims  to  be  o£Ebred  in  sacri- 
fice, the  elephants,  taken  from  the  enemy,  followed  in  the  procession- 
— Catrou,  HI.  558  to  671. 

B.C.  900.  The  Romans,  for  the  first  time,  employ  elephants  in  their  wars. 
A  battle  is  fought  with  Philip,  King  of  Macedon,  at  Lycus. — Livy, 
B.  XXXI. 

B.C.  197.  At  Cynocephalffi,  near  Thebes,  in  Boeotia,Q.  Flaminius  defeated  I^- 
lip.  King  of  Macedon,  by  his  elephants  producing  disorder  and  confu- 
sion in  the  tang's  army. — Catrou,  IV.  73. 

B,C.  193.  Greece  being  now  the  seat  of  war,  Antiochus  the  Grreat  sent  ten 
thousand  foot  and  six  elephants  to  Demetrias.  Polizenidas  was  dis- 
patched to  conduct  the  rest  of  the  troops  into  Europe.  The  King  of 
Syria  threatened  Larissain  vfun.  His  first  line  consisted  of  elephants. 
—Catrou,  IV.  162. 

B.C.  191.  The  Consul  Acilius  set  out  for  Greece  in  the  month  of  May,  at- 
tended by  L.Q.  Flaminius,  and  the  Cunous  Cato  as  a  legionary  tribune. 
The  consul  landed  with  twenty  thousand  foot,  two  thousand  horse,  and 



fifteen  elephants.  He  rested  his  ariny  at  Lariasa,  and  then  ravaged 
the  country  at  Hypata,  between  Mount  Pindua  and  Mount  Othrys.  < 
All  Thessaly  fell  off  from  Antiochus,  and  joined  with  the  strongest 
side.  Hannibal  was  with  the  king,  and  gave  him  excellent  counsel; 
biit  it  was  neglected.  Cleoptolemus,  a  considerable  citizen  at  Chalcis, 
had  lent  his  house  to  Antiochus,  with  the  daughter  of  whom  the  king 
became  enamoured,  married  her,  and  was  intoxicated  with  the  charms 
of  his  new  queen.  The  Asiatic  reinforcements  had  not  yet  arrived. 
The  king  seized  the  celebrated  defile  of  Thermopylse,  fortified  it,  and 
guarded  the  summits  of  Mount  (Eta  which  were  nearest  his  camp, 
with  his  two  thousand  (Etolians. 

The  consul  was  in  great  perplexity,  and  listened  to  the  advice  of 
Cato.  Taking  a  detachment  of  troops,  Cato  ascended  the  difficult 
heights;  and  at  the  same  time  Acilins  attacked  the  Syrians  in  front, 
and  forced  their  first  line.  While  he  was  endeavouring  to  force  the 
second  line,  and  suffering  great  loss  of  men  by  the  pikes  of  the  Asia- 
tics, Cato  was  seen  in  the  rear  by  the  troops  of  Antiochus,  driving  in 
the  (Etolians.  Some  resistance  was  still  making,  when  the  king  re- 
ceived  a  blow  with  a  stone,  which  broke  his  teeth,  and  he  withdrew. 
The  Syrians  flung  down  their  arms  and  fled:  fortunately,  their  ele- 
phants in  the  rear  covered  their  flight,  and  saved  a  considerable 
part  of  the  army.  The  Romans  fell  to  plundering  the  camp,  and 
killed  many  men,  horses,  and  elephants.  The  remaining  elephants 
were  captured. 

Acilius,  embracing  Cato,  said — "  The  service  you  have  done  the  re- 
public is  greater  than  the  favours  she  has  ever  done  you."  This  was 
saying  a  great  deal  of  a  new  man.  After  this,  the  last  exploit  by  which 
C^to  signdized  himself  in  war,  he  became  a  great  reformer.— Plu- 
tarch, «  Cato."    Livy,  B.  XXXVI.    Catrou,  B.  XXXIX. 

Acilius  marched  towards  Chalcis.    Antiochus,  with  his  queen,  retired 



to  Ephesus.  After  taking  Chalcis,  Heradea,  imd  Lamis,  tiie  e(HUul 
Ksolred  to  attack  Naupactus,  (Lepaato),  for  which  purpoie  he,  m& 
his  army  and  baggage,  marched  across  Corax,  the  MgheH  momUmn  m 
Greece.  Great-numbers  of  soldiers  and  beasts  of  borthen  were  killed 
by  tomblii^  down  the  precipices. — Catron,  IV.  185.  (It  is  not  said 
how  many  elephants  were  in  the  army  of  the  consul ;  but,  in  adcBfioa 
to  his  own,  there  were  those  ct^tured  at  Thermopyle.) 

A  Truce  was  made. 

In  the  battle  at  Magnesia,  in  Asia  Minor,  between  Antiochus  and 
L.  C.  Scipio,  the  Romans  had  thirty  thousand  foot,  three  thousand 
horse,  and  fourteen  elephants.  The  Syrian  forces  were  sev^ty  thoup 
sand  foot,  twelve  thousand  horse,  and  fifty-four  elephants,  with  towers 
oi  seteral  fioora  full  of  sUngers  and  archers,  mm  mounted  on  camel^ 
and  Arabianft  upon  dromedaries.  Scipio's  elephants  were  &om  Afn- 
ca,  those  of  Antiochus  firom  India-  The  latter  vastly  excdled  the  im- 
mer  in  strength,  height,  and  courage ;  therefore  young  Bcipio  placed  his 
elephants  only  as  a  corps  de  r^erve,  in  the  rear  of  his  army.  In  this 
bloody  action,  Antiochus  lost  fifty  thousand  killed  and  prisoners.  On- 
ly fifteen  elephants  were  taken  ^ve,  almost  the  whole  of  the  remaindw 
the  Romans  had  killed  iu  the  battle,  by  cutting  off  thfflr  trunks  with 
their  swords.  Antiochus  fled  to  Sardis.— Livy,  ,B.  XXXVII.— 
Catrou,  IV.  B.  XLI. 

By  the  ninth  artide  of  the  peace,  the  king  tngaged  to  deliver  up  aU 
his  elephants,  and  not  to  train  up  any  more  for  war. 

In  the  war  between  the  Romans,  and  Perses,  king  of  Macedon,  the 
Consul  Licinius  received,  while  be  was  (m  the  banks  of  the  Peneos,  a 
reinffH-oement  of  twenty-two  elephants  and  two  tiionsand  troopfr 
Tb^.  vr«r%  brought  by  Misagenes,  a  bastard  son  of  Masinissa.— 4]^ 
trou,  IV.  393. 

Penes,  the  king,  was  bow  in  Macedon.     The  Consul  Maroius,  being 



wiA  his  amy  at  PhaiBalia,  resolred  tm  inTading  Macedon;  and,  not- 
withstandiiig  hii  age  and  coipnlence,  he  bore  the  fatignes  of  the  most 
laborioDf  march  recorded  in  history.  He  sent  forward  Attains  and  Mi- 
aagenes,  with  their  auxiliaries,  to  levd  the  roads  as  mnch  as  posaiHle: 
they  were  followed  by  the  beasts  of  burthen,  waggons,  and  elephants. 
The  consulj,  with  his  legions,  brought  up  the  rear.  The  great  danger 
was  in  descending  the  mountMns:  some  elephants  and  horses  had 
tumbled  down  the  precipices.  In  order  to  get  down  with  more  secu- 
rity, the  Romans  buitt  bridges  of  boards,  one  below  another,  upon 
posts  like  piles,  and  covered  them  with  earth.  When  an  elephant 
had  come  near  to  the  first  bridge,  the  piles  of  it  were  cut,  and  the 
beast  was  suifered  to  slide  down  to  the  second  bridge;  and  so  on,  till 
at  length  they  reached  tiie  valley.  The  army  could  not  march  above 
seven  miles  each  day.  Marciiu  himself  confessed  that  Perses  might 
have  cut  all  his  army  in  pieces,  with  a  handful  of  men. 

The  army,  aiter  great  suffering,  arrived  in  Macedon;  and,  from  ne- 
cessity, encamped  in  a  deep  valley,  where  the  enemy  might  with 
stoaes  have  destroyed  it.  Parses  became  the  jest  of  his  soldiers,  for 
losing  these  opportunities.  When  he  received  the  intdJigence,  he  was 
amazed  and  perplexed.  He  ordered  all  the  gold  and  sUver  in  the 
treasury  at  Pella,  to  be  thrown  into  the  sea:  his  ships  at  Thessalonica 
to  be  burnt,  and  sll  his  valuable  statues  to  be  sent  on  board  his  ves- 
sels at  Dinm.     He  fled  to  Pydna. 

The  consul,  being  distressed  for  provisions,  returned  to  the  fron- 
tiers of  Thessaly:  he  i^ain  adnmced,  and  the  Soman  fleet  arrived. 
Mdiboea,  npon  monnt  Ossa,  and  other  places,  were  kept  in  awe  by  Ro- 
man detachments.  The  campugn  ended  without  much  weakening 

Polybius  (die  historian)  arrived  firom  the  republic  of  Achaia,  to  of- 
fer the  conBul  some  troops  to  join  Appios  Claudius:  -bnt  the  ofibr  was 
declined.~Catrou,  B.  XLIV. 



Faulus  -^Imilius,  now  sixty  years  old,  was  {^pointed  cmunl ;  and 
'  was  sent  to  Greece.  He  encamped  on  the  banks  of  the  Enipeus  in 
Tfaessaly.  Perses,  who  was  encamped  on  the  opposite  bank,  removed 
to  Pydna.  On  this,  Paulas  ^milius  crossed,  and  marched  towards 
Pythium,  in  order  to  join  his  detachment.  This  pUce  stood  on  ike 
highest  summit  of  mount  Olympus.  The  consul  encamped  in  a  val- 
ley on  the  sea  shore.  He  mounted  Olt/mpu»  mtk  hit  army.  Joined  hia 
detachment  at  PgtMum,  aod  descended  with  caution,  not  knowing  what 
ambushes  Perses  might  have  prepared.  Having  reached  the  plain, 
the  consul  marched  along  the  sea  shore,  in  communication  with  his 
fleet;  his  troops  being  much  distressed  with  thirst  and  iatigue>  from 
the  great  heat.  Having  arrived  near  Pydna,  the  army  was  drawn  up 
in  battaUa,  in  sight  of  the  enemy,  who  was  prepared  and  in  good  or- 
der. But  the  consul  resolved  to  rest  his  army,  and  the  pioneers  form* 
ed  a  camp  for  the  night. 

Perses  had  a  fine  army,  of  forty-five  thousand  troops.  A  battle  was 
fought  in  the  morning.  The  Romans  were  inferior  in  number,  but 
killed  twenty-five  thousand,  and  lost  incredibly  few.  No  use  was 
made  of  the  elephants,  the  Romans  being  undeceived  as  to  any  advan- 
tage arising  from  them  in  battle:  they  were  therefore  employed  in 
pursuing  the  Aglaspides  when  the  first  legion  had  routed  them.  In 
this  action  Cato,  son  of  the  censor,  who  had  married  the  daughter  of 
Paulus  ^milius,  performed  acts  of  valour,  worthy  his  descent  Ne- 
vertheless, an  inundation  of  Phalangites  fell  on  the  company  he  com- 
manded, and  forced  it  to  retire.  In  this  retreat  Cato  perceived  that 
he  had  dropped  his  sword,  he  therefore  assembled  some  of  his  friends, 
and  returned  to  the  charge.  This  company  of  brave  men  fell  witit 
fury  on  the  enemy,  and  made  such  a  void  round  Cato,  that  he  had 
time  and  room  to  look,  for  his  sword,  and  found  it — an  action  which 
was  very  pleasing  to  Paulus  .^Imilius.     As  to  Perses,  his  whole  mind 



and  time  were  occupied  in  thinking  of  and  attending  to  his  rases 
and  other  utensils  of  gold  and  silTer:  and  in  sparing  his  wealth,  instead  « 
of  making  a  liberal  use  of  it  among  those  of  his  defenders  who  had  a 
just  right  to  expect  rewards.  This  contemptible  conduct  led  to  the 
loss  of  his  wealth,  his  liberty,  and  his  life ;  and  transferred  the  mightj 
kingdom  of  Alexander  to  the  Romans;  under  whom  it  became  a 
province.  See  Plutarch,  "  P.  ^milius."  Livy,  XLIV.  XLV.  Catrou, 
Book  XLVI. 

Antiochus,  being  humbled  by  the  inflexible  and  haughty  Roman  am- 
bassadors, resolved  to  vent  his  rage  on  Jerusalem. — Catron,  IV.  409. 
"  The  number  of  the  king's  army  was  one  hundred  Uiousand  footmen, 
twenty  tiiousand  horse-men,  and  thirty-two  elephauts,  exercised  in  bat- 
tle. The  king,  rising  very  early,  marched  fiercely  to  battle,  and  sounded 
the  trumpets.  And  to  the  end  they  might  provoke  the  elephants  to 
fight,  they  shewed  them  the  blood  of  grapes  and  of  mulberries.  More- 
over, they  divided  the  beasts  among  the  armies,  and  for  every  ele- 
phant they  appointed  a  thousand  men,  armed  with  coats  of  mail,  and 
with  helmets  of  brass  on  their  heads :  and  besides  this,  for  every  beast 
were  ordained  five  hundred  horsemen  of  the  best.  And  upon  the 
beasts,  were  there  strong  towers  of  wood,  which  covered  every  one  of 
them,  and  were  girt  fost  unto  them  with  devices:  there  were  also  up- 
on every  one,  two-and-thirty  strong  men,  that  fought  upon  them,  be- 
side the  Indian  that  ruled  him.  Now,  when  the  sun  shone  upon  the 
shields  of  gold  and  brass,  the  mountains  glistered  therewith  and  shined 
like  lamps  of  fire.  Then  Judas  and  his  host  drew  near,  and  entered 
into  the  battle;  and  the  king  lost  six  hundred  men.  Eleazar,  also 
sumamed  Savaran,  perceiving  that  one  of  the  beasts,  armed  with  royal 
harness,  was  higher  than  all  the  rest,  and  supposing  that  the  king  was 
upon  him,  ran  forward  courageously,  slaying  on  the  right  hand'  and  on 
the  left,  so  that  they  were  divided  from  him  on  both  sides.    Which 




doue,  he  crept  under  the  elephant  and  thrust  him  under  and  alew  him  : 
'  whereupon  the  elephant  fell  down  upon  him,  and  there  he  died.  How- 
beit,  the  rest  of  the  Jews,  seeing  the  strength  of  the  king,  and  the  vio- 
lence of  his  forces,  turned  away  from  them.  Then  the  king's  army 
went  up  to  Jerusalem  to  meet  them,  and  the  king  pitched  his  tents 
agaiiMt  Judea,  and  against  mount  Sion." — 1  Maccabees,  Ch  VI. 

Scipio,  having  the  command  in  Spain,  Aficipsa  sent  him  a  reinforce- 
ment of  elephants  and  cavalry  by  young  Prince  Jugurtha,  who  after- 
wards becameso  famous.— Catron,  V.  87. 

Jugurtha,  now  King  of  Numidia,  delivered  to  the  Romans  thirty  ele- 
phants, money,  &c. — Catron,  Vol.  V.  p.  207. 

Q.  Cfficitius  Numidicus,  at  the  battle  of  Muthullus,  in  Africa,  killed 
forty  of  Jugurtha's  elephants,  and  captured  four. — Catrou,  Vol.  V. 
p.  220. 

Jugurtha  deUvered  up  to  Metellus  two  hundred  Uioueand  ponitds 
weight  of  silver,  and  all  his  elephants. — Catrou,  Vol.  V.  p.  226. 

Csesar  had  a  vastly  large  armed  elephant  when  he  crossed  the 
Thames  at  Oatlands,  at  the  sight  of  which  the  Britons  fled.— Polye- 
nus,  B.  VIII. 

Julius  Ctesar  drew  out  before  Thapsas,  causing  sixty-four  elephants, 
which  he  had  taken,  with  all  their  castles,  armour,  and  ornaments,  to 
pass  by  the  town,  to  reduce  Virgilius  to  reason. 

A  veteran  of  the  fifth  legion,  observing  an  elephant  that  was  enraged 
with  a  wound  which  he  had  received,  attack  an  unarmed  sutler,  crush- 
ing him  under  his  knee  till  the  weight  had  forced  his  soul  to  forsake 
his  body,  roaring  all  the  while,  and  brandishing  his  proboscis,  could  no 
longer  restrain  himself  from  engaging  the  beast.  The  elephant,  perceiv- 
ing him  approach,  forsook  the  dead  body,  caught  his  enemy  up  in  bis 
trunk,  in  armour  as  he  was,  and  whirled  him  about  in  the  air.  The 
veteran,  notwithstanding  the  peril  he  was  in,  maintained  his  presence 



of  mind,  and  cut  the  elephant's  proboscis  till  he  obliged  him  to  forego  CHAP, 
his  prey.  He  retired,  with  a  hideous  roaring,  to  the  rest  of  his  com-  '■-^-y^^,^ 
panions. — Cssar's  Com.  "  Africa,"  XVIII. 

Claudius  invaded  Britain,  like  a  great  Eastern  monarch,  with  armed    A.D.  43. 
elephants,  and  fifty  thousand  troops.-— Milton's  History  of  Britain.    Ra- 
pin.    Camden. 

When  Didius  Julianus  was  informed  that  Septimius  Severus  had   A.D.  193. 
commenced  his  march,  nothing  waa  to  be  seen  at  Rome  but  horses, 
troops,  and  elephants,  training  for  service*.  —Bernard. 

In  the  battle  between  Alexander  Sererus  and  Artaxerxes,  the  Per-   a.D.  230. 
sians  had  seven  hundred  elephants,  of  which  two  hundred  were  killed, 
and  three  hundred  taken;  the  Emperor  took  with  him  eighteen  to 
Rome. — Speech  of  Alexander  Severus  to  the  senate.     Bernard,  from 
Lampridius,  Vol.  I.  p.  450. 

The  Emperor  Jovian,  near  the  castle  of  Suma,  was  attacked  by  the  A.D.  364. 
Persian  c&rsiry,  accompanied  by  a  great  number  of  elephants.  The 
shock  was  great,  hut  the  Romans,  taking  advant^  of  arising^ound, 
threw  darts,  and  wounded  the  elephants,  which  fled,  and  broke  the 
line  of  cavalry,  when  the  soldiers  killed  many  of  them,  and  of  the  Per- 
sians. The  Romans  mtirdied  forward  four  days,  continually  ha- 
rassed by  the  enemy.  At  length  they  crossed  the  Tigris,  upon  floats 
of  skins  fastened  together. — Zosimus,  p.  88. 

'•  All  the  elephaDts  of  course  fell  into  (he  handa  of  Serenu,  od  the  overthrow  of 

y  Google 


Of  Roman  Amphitheatres^  remains  of  which  exist  in  Britain 

Italj/ France Spain Sicily Greece -Syria 

—  —and  other  Countries. 

CHAP.  MeTELLUS  brought  to  Borne,  from  the  SicUian  war,  one  hundred 
\^>-v--^»/  and  twenty  elephants,  which  he  had  taken  from  Jugurtfaa.  These 
were  the  first  that  were  introduced  into  the  Circus,  in  the  jear  251 
before  Christ*.  From  this  period,  the  passion Jor  pubUc  exhibitions, 
and-eombais  qf  wild  beasts,  ^read  not  onfy  in  Italy,  but  throughout 
the  Momatt  eti^nre,  in  all  the  provinces.  Such  was  the  general  rage, 
.  that  scarcely  a  fixed  miUtary  station  teas  without  its  circus  or  an^hithe' 
atreqftuifor  timber. 

The  size  and  form  of  the  Circus,  with  the  lists  and  goab,  being  found 
inconvenient,  Caesar  introduced  the  elliptic  shape ;  and  henceforth  these 
buildings  were  named  "  theatrum  Tenatorium,"  or  theatre  for  hunting; 

*  The  firat  permsnent  Circus  (called  MasimuB)  w«b  built  by  Tarqui&iua  Pr»- 
ctubetweentbe  Arentiae  and  tbePalatiiie  hills:  it  was  eotarged  by  Julius  Caesar, 
Claudios,  and  Nero,  when  it  contained  two  hundred  and  sixty  thousand  spectators : 
it  was  furUier  increased  by  Hadrian,  Constantine,  and  his  son  Constans.  Many 
others  were  built  of  different  size*.  The  most  perfect  reuiaiDS  are  those  of  the 
small  circus,  built  by  Caracalla,  capable  of  holding  e^hteen  thousand  people. — ' 
See  Rees's  Cyc.  "  Circus." 

y  Google 


t»  ut,  from  their  superior  accommodations,  they  were  likewiseuaed  for  the 
combats  of  gladiators.  They  howerer,  continued  to  be  called  Circus 
as  often  as  Amphitheatre,  and  the  other  names. 

Some  were  little  more  than  natural  vaUeps,  with  benches  cut  in  the 
declivity  of  surrounding  hills:  others  were  elliptical  excavations,  with 
benches  of  turf,  like  that  near  Sandwich,  in  Kent;  some  were  partJy 
excavated,  and  partly  constructed  with  masonry,  tike  the  amphitheatre 
at  Caerleon  in  Britain.  There  were  also  amphitheatres  constructed  to 
bold  water,  for  the  combats  of  aquatic  and  amphibious  animals. 

Those  built  witii  timber  were  raised  and  taken  down  as  occasion  re- 
quired. Vespasian's  amphitheatre  is  said,  byCassiodorus,  to  have  cost 
as  much  to  build  as  a  capital  city :  and  Martial  relates,  that,  from  every 
part  of  the  empire,  the  Roman  world  crowded  to  the  capital  to  be  pre- 
sent at  these  grand  games.  Many  vestiges  of  amphitheatres  still  re- 
main, and  have  been  discovered  in  the  following  countries: — 

In  Italy.— At  Rome,  Capua,  Fidene*,  Placentia,  Verona,  Aousiaf , 
Alba,  Otriculi,  GarigUo,  Puzsnoli,  Paestum,  Cassino,  Mola,  Canusium, 

France. — At  Aries,  Orange§,  Autun,  Treves||,  Paris**,  Nismes, 

Spain. — At  Italica,  (Seville). 

*  A  few  milea  north  of  Bome;  thit  theatre  fell  in  the  reign  of  Tiberiua.  Fifty 
iboiuand  perwHw  vere  killed  or  maimed. — Tacitiu,  Anna].  IV. 

t  Rees's  Cyclop. 

t  See  Bernard.  Vol.  I.  p.  I8&. 

S  Ciritat  Aurensis,  called  Colmiia  Secandanomm.  Tlw  seoond  l^'on  were 
settled  here.  An  amphitheatre  is  still  to  be  ■een.—fEeea'a  Cyc  **  Arauaio." 

j]  After  the  rictory  of  Constantine the  GfeatOTertheFVaolu  and  the  Allemanoi, 
several  o(  their  prt&ces  were,  by  bis  order,  exposed  to  the  inld  beasti  in  the  Amphi- 
theatre at  Treves  (then  the  capital  of  Gaul).— Gibbon,  Ch.  XIV. 

••  Gibbon,  Ch.  XIX.  p.  177. 



Britain— At  Richboroagh,  Caerleon,  SilobeBtar,  Dorchft^r,  and 
other  places. 

Sicily.^ At  Catanea,  Agrigentum,  Syriaciiae. 

Greece. — At  Argos,  Corintfa. 

Candia. — At  Cirortina  and  Gerapitna. 

At  Pola  in  Istria.  At  Delos,  Ephesus,  Chisico,  Heraclea,  JeruAileni , 
Csesarea.    The  two  last  were  buflt  by  Herod  *. 

"  Maiden  CasUe  is  the  most  entire  and  prodigious  work  in  England, 
and,  passing  for  a  Roman  stationary  camp,  it  is  surrounded  by  two  pro- 
digious ditches,  to  which  all  I  ever  saw  are  trifles;  and  at  the  entrance 
their  number  is  increased  by  several  others,  and  the  way  cunningly 
blinded  by  divisions.  About  the  like  distande  to  Uie  north  of  the  way 
is  a  |»eee  of  ground,  called  Pomeroy,  (Pomcerium,  as  I  suppose),  which 
has  in  it  also  a  large  square,  inclosed  with  a  high  bank,  but  without 
any  ditch :  on  the  outside  there  is  a  raised  area,  about  t«n  yards  broad, 
which  shews  its  design  could  not  be  military.  On  the  south  side, 
about  a  furlMig  from  Dorchester,  is  a  jdace  called  Maumbury,  being 
about  an  acre,  inclosed  with  a  high  bank,  which  is  a  very  pretty  and 
entire  amphitheatre  f." 

The  Roman  Amphitheatre,  close  by  the  Roman  road,  and  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  irom  Dorchester,  is  the  most  perfect  structure  of  Hs  kind 
remaining  in  England.  It  was  first  publicly  noticed  by  Sir  Christo- 
pher Wren,  and  is  described  by  Dr.  Stukdey,  in  hia  Itinerarium  Cu- 
riosum.  It  is  raised  upon,  and  was  probably  &amed  of,  solid  chalk, 
cemented  by  mortar  of  burnt  chalk;    and  covered  with  turf.     Its 

*  SeeRe^'s  Encyo,  "  Ampbitheatn;"    Le  Bruyo's  Travels;    Dr.  Stukeley's 
JtinerariQniCwrioaim;  and  Ewyc.  Brit. 

t  HotchiuB.    Antiquities  of  Dorset,  Vol.  U.  p.  172. 



gjceatest  height  above  the  level  of  the  aren»  was  thirtj  feet;  the  ex-  CHAP, 
temal  greatest  diameter  three  hundred  and  forty-three  feet  six  inches:  s.^-..^^.^^ 
the  external  shortest  diameter,  three  hundred  and  thirty-nine  feet  six 
inches:  the  internal  longest  diameter  two  hundred  and  eighteen  feet: 
the  internal  shortest  diameter  one  hundred  uid  sixty-three  feet  six 
inches.  The  number  of  spectators  which  it  was  capable  of  accommo- 
dating is  computed  to  be  twelve  thousand  nine  hundred  and  sixty  *. 

"  IVith  respect  to  the  games  here  practised,  we  may  suppose  them 
much  the  same  as  those  used  at  Rome  and  other  places,  with  relation 
to  hunting  and  fighting  with  wild  beasts  f.  Among  other  shows  and 
diversions  of  beasts,  we  may  safely  imagine  that  our  British  bull-dogs 
bore  a  part,  since  the  Romans  trained  them  for  the  Italian  amphi- 

In  these  parts  of  Britain,  V^pasiau  fought  thirty  battles  with  the 
Britons  j;."  In  the  quarto  volume,  describing  the  theatre,  Dr.  Stuko- 
ley  conjectures  that  Vespasian  had  this  theatre  built  in  order  to  flat- 
ter and  amuse  the  vanquished. 

"  At  Silchester,  in  Hampshire,  there  is  an  amphitheatre,  in  bulk  and 
shape  and  all  points  the  same  as  that  at  Dorchester;  but  not  built  of 
such  solid  materials,  for  it  is  chiefly  clay  and  gravel.  Eastward,  to- 
wards the  road,  there  is  a  pit ;  there,  it  is  sixty  feet  high  on  the  out- 

The  whole  arena  within  is  now  covered  with  water  about  three 
feet  deep :  the  bottom  must  be  very  solid  to  contain  the  water  so  many 
years:  it  is  a  most  noble  and  beautiful  concave,  and  has,  for  time  im- 

*  Rces'a  Encyc.  "  Dorchester." 

t  At  FramptoB  in  Dorselshhe,  extenaiTC  and  very  el^j^ant  Mosaic  paremeots 
(published  by  S.  Lysons,  1807),  were  diseoverad,  which  reproseDt  hones,  deer, 
leopards,  and  other  animals. 

Z  Dr.  Stuheley,  Vol.  I.  p.  165  to  175.    See  Ch.  XIII. 


memorial,  been  a  yard  for  cattle,  and  a  watering-pond*.    There  is  an 

'  ascent  to  it  on  the  entrance  side,  that  being  upon  the  lowest  ground: 
at  the  upper  end,  the  level  of  the  ground  is  not  much  below  the  top 
of  the  terrace,  and  vastly  above  that  of  the  arena;  so  that  I  conceive 
the  better  sort  of  people  went  that  way  directly  from  the  city  into 

*  their  seats:  there  is  such  a  gap,  too,  in  that  part  (from  the  ruin  of  the 
cave)  where  the  wild  beasts  were  kept  Surveying  the  whole,  could 
not  but  put  me  in  mind  of  that  piece  of  Roman  magnificence,  when  the 
emperors  caused  great  trees  to  be  taken  up  by  the  roots  and  plant- 
ed in  the  amphitheatres  and  circuses,  pro  ien^ore,  to  imitate  forests 
wherein  they  hunted  beasts,  which  is  here  presented  in  pure  nature  f ." 
This  amphitheatre  appears  to  have  contained  five  rows  or  terraces  for 
spectators  {. 

At  Caerleon  is  an  oval  concavity,  fievraity-four  by  sixty-four  yards, 
and  six  yards  in  depth,  without  doubt  the  site  of  a  Roman  amphithea- 
tre. Within  the  memory  of  persons  now  living,  stone  seats  were  dis- 
covered on  opening  the  sides  of  the  concavity:  and  in  1706  a  figure  of 
Diana,  with  her  tresses  and  crescent  moulded  in  alabaster,  was  found 
in  this  place.  Caerleon  (Isca  Silurum)  as  described  by  Gyraldus 
Cambrensis,  contained  remains  of  splendid  palaces,  a  gigantic  tower, 
numerous  baths,  ruins  of  a  temple,  and  a  theatre,  the  walls  of  which 
are  partly  standing,  aqueducts,  vaulted  caverns,  stoves,  tessellated 
pavements^  bricks  inscribed  "  Leg.  II.  Aug."  an  altar  to  the  Emperor 
Aurehus  Antonius,  another  to  Jupiter  Dolichenius  as  the  patron  of 
iron  mines,  statues,  coins,  inscriptions,  &c.  §. 

*  When  the  hnnting  was  concludeil  in  VespasJBn'a  amphitheatre,  the  arena  was 
suddenly  filled  vith  water,  in  which  aquatic  animals  were  made  to  contend, 
Rees'a  Cyc.  "  Ampb."  This  refers  to  Rome;  but  it  strengthens  the  conjecture, 
that  the  amphitheatre  at  SilHievter  was  built  by  Vespasian. 

t  Dr.  Stukeley,  Vol.  I.  p.  17&  J  Rees'a  Encyc.    "  Silchester." 

i    g  Rees's  Encyc.  "  Caerleon."     Cox's  Tour  iu  HoDmouthsbire. 



"  Upon  an  eminence  at  Richborough  castle,  is  the  (brick)  carcass    CHAP, 
of  a  castiennan  amphitheatre  made  of  turf,  I  suppose  for  the  exercise  s^^v-*^ 
and  diversion  of  the  garrison;  tbe  soil  of  it  is  gravel  and  sand,  and  has 
been  long  so  ploughed  over  that  we  need  not  wonder  it  is  so  level  *." 

The  reader  wiU  form  his  own  conclusion,  whether  the  following  was 
an  amphitheatre :  "  I  saw,"  sa^  Pennant,  "  for  the  first  time,  the ' 
path  of  Helen,  (Merioneth),  a  road  supposed  to  have  been  made  by 
Helena,  wife  of  the  British  Emperor  Maximus.  There  are  tumuli 
here,  and  five  urns  were  found.  Not  for  from  Llyn  Rathlin,  is  a  verj 
fine  Roman  camp  and  vestiges  of  a  wall  and  ditch.  Coins  and  urns 
are  firequent  here:  the  path  of  Helen  runs  into  it.  At  a  small  distance 
from  the  camp  is  an  oval  indosure,  thirty-six  yards  long,  and  twenty- 
seven  wide,  surrounded  by  a  high  mound  of  earth,  and  an  entrance  at 
each  end:  near  one  end  a  part  seemed  to  have  been  divided  off  by  a 
wall,  the  foundations  of  which  still  remain  f." 

lliere  must  have  been  either  a  circus,  or  an  amphitheatre  at  or  near 
York.  One  of  the  forerunning  signs  of  Sevenis's  death,  Spartian  re- 
lates thus:  "  Whilst  the  gfimeg  of  the  cirque  were  celebrating,  as  there 
were  three  figures  placed,  according  to  custom,  upon  the  platform 
where  the  emperor's  throne  is,  aw;."    See  Ch.  Xill. 

lliree  miles  from  Redruth,  in  ComwaU,  there  were  the  remains  of 
an  amphitheatre,  as  Dr.  Stukeley  had  been  told,  with  six  tire  of  seats. 

"  At  Wolvedon,  in  the  parish  of  Probus  near  Lanceston,  where  Ro- 
man coins  have  been  found,  there  is  an  angular  fort  which  has  a  wide 
deep  ditch,  the  outer  edge  of  which  was  faced  upwards,  with  thin 
stones  in  cement;  and  which  had  round  turrets  or  buttresses,  such  as 
Saxons,  Danes,  and  Britons  built  not,  as  far  as  I  can  find.  This  is  very 
singular  in  our  country,  where  most  of  our  ancient  fortifications  are 

•  Dr.  Stukeley,  Vol.  I.  p.  12&.  f  Tour  io  Wal«a.  Vol.  II.  p.  103. 



circular,  without  any  projections.  From  the  artfiul  fence  of  tins  ditch, 
as  well  as  from  the  polygon  which  the  whole  forms*  I  guess  it  ta  be 

Where  these  stone  inclosures  are  circular,  uid  distii^piished  b  j  aests 
and  benches  of  like  materials,  they  were,  no  doiAt,  constructed  thus 
for  the  convenimce  of  spectators  at  plays,  games,  and  festivals.  Bvt, 
as  to  delight  the  eye  more  than  the  ear,  was  most  required,  the  amphi- 
theatrical  form  had  the  preference.  Id  these  amphitheatres  of  ston^ 
the  Britons  did  usually  assemble  to  hear  plays,  and  see  sports  and  games, 
to  quiet  and  delight  the  people;  an  institution  very  necessary  in  all 
eiril  societies:  these  are  called  witii  us  in  Cornwall,  where  we  hare 
gretU  numbers  of  them,  ji^n  anguare,  viz,  the  ^ain  of  ^lort  and  pas- 
ting. The  bendi^  round,  were  generally  of  turf,  as  Ovid,  talking  <rf 
these  places  of  sport,  observes. 

>Ve  have  one  whose  benches  are  of  stone,  and  the  most  remarkable 
one  I  have  seen:  it  is  near  the  church  of  St.  Just  Penw^:  an  exact 
circle  of  one  hundred  and  twoity-six  feet  in  diameter ;  the  height  ft«m 
the  area  within,  now  seven  feet;  but  fnna  the  bottom  of  the  ditiA 
without,  ten  feet  now,  but  formedy  mare.  The  seats  consist  of  six 
steps,  fourteen  inches  wide,  a  foot  hi|^,  with  one  on  the  top  of  all, 
where  the  rampart  is,  seven  feet  wide.  The  plags  were  in  the  Cornish 
hoi^aage,  the  subjects  from  scripture  J." 

About  a  mile  from  Cheselbury,  on  the  east  side  of  the  Avon,  is  a  cu- 
rious earth  work  supposed  to  be  a  Roman  amphitheatre.  It  is  an 
oval:  the  bank  is  thirty  feet  wide,  the  southeni  s^ment  five  hundred 
and  fifty  feet  in  diameter,  and  seven  hundred  and  twenty  in  compass^. 

t  Borlace.    Antiquities  of  Cornwall,  p.  313. 
E  Borlace,  D.  IV.  Ch.  VII.  §  Canden,  Vol.  I.  p.  109. 



The  most  considerable  antiquity  in  Jebilee  is  the  remains  of  a  noble 
Ibettee.     The  remaining  semicircle  is  a  luindred  yards  in  compass,  and   > 
there  are  seventeen  windows,  between  which  are  lai^  massy  pillars, 
deTOn  feet  thick,  of  firm  stone,  standing  against  the  wall*. 

We  found  the  ruins  of  an  amphitheatre  at  Puzzeoli;  another  near 
to  Hola,  me  at  Delos  and  a  statue  of  Diana ; — at  Ephesus  the  ruins  of 
a  circus,  an  amphitheatre,  and  also  rains  of  the  temple  of  Diana ; — a 
fine  amphitheatre  at  Chisico,  and  the  remains  of  a  noble  one  at  Hera- 

M.  JEmilius  Scauras,  to  make  a  strong  impression  on  the  minds  of 
the  people,  chose  (B.  C.  58)  to  build  a  theatre  in  Rome,  which  was 
not  to  be  a  lasting  numumwt,  like  that  of  Pompey,  but  to  continue 
only  during  the  time  of  his  being  in  office.  The  scenes  and  decora- 
tions were  a  solid  work  ^f  the  most  valuable  materials.  There  were 
three  orders  of  very  fine  pillars,  raised  one  above  another  to  a  great 
height  The  first  rank  of  columns,  was  of  rich  marble,  brought  from 
Numidia,  and  thtrty-dgfat  feet  hi^  The  second  rank  was  of  crystal, 
an  unusual  thing,  and  never  since  imitated.  The  third  was  of  light 
wood,  vo^  richly  gilt:  the  hdgfats  were  lessened  in  proper  proportion. 
In  the  places  between  this  forest  of  cidumns,  stood  three  thousuid  sta- 
tues of  brass  upon  suitable  pedestals.  The  seats  held  eighty  thou- 
sand persons, 

The  number  and  magnificence  of  the  habits  of  the  actors,  ell  in  the 
eastern  fashion,  were  so  prodigious,  that  this  mad  extravagance  ruined 
Scaurus,  though  very  rich.  The  remain*  of  this  building  were  valued 
at  a  hundred  millions  of  little  sesterces  (by  Arbutfanot's  calculation, 
sterling  .£807,291: 13: 4). 

*  Haandrell's  TniTela  to  Jerusalem,  A.D.  1696. 
t  CorneliuB  Le  Bniyn'a  Traveli. 




Five  hundred  panthers  were  let  loose  in  the  arena.  Five  crocodiles 
and  a  hippopotamns,  for  the  first  time,  were  shewn  alive.  Scaurus  had 
brought  the  ribs  of  a  whale  from  Joppa,  forty  feet  long*. 

The  amphitheatre  at  Flacentia  is  said  to  have  been  the  lai^^t  in 

Vespasian  began,  and  his  son  Titus  finished,  the  Flavian  amphithe- 
atre, called  also  the  Coliseum.  It  is  deservedly  celebrated  as  a  prodigy 
of  building  among  the  antients.  At  the  solemn  games  exhibited  when 
this  theatre  was  dedicated,  five  thousand  wild  beasts,  according  to  Eu- 
tropius;  nine  thousand,  according  to  Dio,  were  destroyed  on  its 

We  learn  from  a  ptusage  in  St.  Chrysostom  that  the  beasts  intended 
for  the  pubUc  games,  were  kept  in  the  eTtvirons  itf  cities;  and  Procopi- 
us  makes  particular  mention  of  a  spacious  place  in  Rome  called  the 
Vivarium,  appropriated  to  that  usef. 

Maffei,  in  his  elaborate  treatise,  shews,  that  amphitheatres  of  stone 
were  not  numerous,  few  cities  in  Italy  could  boast  of  them.  Wooden 
ones  were  built  in  several  parts  of  the  empire  X. 

Thig  will  account/or  hone»  of  wild  bea»t»  being /owtd  in  mimy  places 
where  there  are  no  vestiges  of  ai^hitheatres. 

•  Catrou,  Vol.  VI.  p.  96.    Pliny,  Lib.  XXXVI. 
t  Rees'i  Encyc.    "  Amphitheatre."  %  See  Keysler's  Travels. 

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Temple  for  Sacn£.ces 

ATaptitke  of  Claudius 



S^rts  and  Combats  in  the  Circus  and  Amphitheatre;  in  which 

xpere  slairty  Elephants Rhinoceroses Hippopotami 

Bears Lions Tigers  — —  Hyanas Camelopards 

Crocodiles Ostriches,  ^c.  in  surprisifig  numbers. Grand 

Triumphal  Processions  at  Home. Chariots  drawn  by  tamed 

Lions,  Leopards,  Tigers,  Orixes  *  with  one  horn.  Stags,  tj-c. 

^O  general  was  the  passion  for  these  diTersions,  that  scarcely  any 
camp  or  military  station  was  without  them.    The  people  chose  rather        xi. 
to  live  on  hread  and  water  in  Rome,  than  lose  these  sights.  ^.^v*- 

Every  savage  animal  that  could  be  procured  in  the  forests  of  Asia 
or  Africa,  was  brought  to  be  hmited:  no  cost  was  spared  to'  fetch 
them.    The  shows  were  designed  for  the  honour  of  DiMiaf. 

"  All  ibat  with  pot«nt  teeth  command  the  plain. 
An  that  run  horrid  with  erected  mane; 
Or  proud  of  stately  horns  or  bristling  hair. 
At  once  the  forest^s  ornament  and  fear; 

*  Spell  alw  oryx,  orjgea. 

t  Reea**  **  Amph."  8«e  K«Bnett,  Part  II.  B.  y.  Cb.  II,  fnna  vbidb  Mftntvt 
Ikne  extiBcls  am  taken. 

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Tom  from  their  deserts  by  the  Roman  power. 
Nor  strength  can  save,  nor  craggy  dens  secote." 

'  Part  in  laden  vessels  came, 

Borne  on  the  rougher  waves,  or  gentier  stream; 
The  fainting  slave  let  fall  his  trembling  oar; 
And  the  pale  master  feared  the  freight  he  boref ." 

Sometimes  animals  Trere  presented  merely  as  strange  sights  and  rari- 
ties; such  as  crocodiles  and  outlandish  beasts  imd  birds.  Others  for 
combats  or  slaughter.  For  these  purposes  were  introduced  elephants, 
rhinoceroses,  hippopotami,  camelopards,  zebras,  lions,  tigers,  leo- 
pards, panthers,  bears,  hysnas,  ostriches,  stags  and  deer  of  every  kind, 
hares,  and  such  like.    There  were  three  kinds  of  diversions. 

I.  When  the  people  were  allowed  to  seize  and  secure  what  they 
could,  for  their  own  use,  as  deer,  hwes,  sheep,  boars,  oxen,  and  all 
kinds  of  birds.  A  natural  forest  being  represented  by  trees  trans- 
plante4  into  the  circus  or  amphitheatre,  the  beasts  were  let  in  from 
their  dens;  and,  at  a  sign  given  by  the  Emperor,  the  people  fell  to 
hunting  the  animals;  and  each  carried  away  what  he  killed.  Tablets, 
or  tickets,  (te*sera),  were  previously  scattered  among  the  multitude, 
entitling  those  who  caught  them  to  the  animals  inscribed  upon  them: 
they  were  termed  Missilia. 

II.  The  combats  of  beasts  admitted  of  great  sport  and  variety. 
Sometimes  an  elephant  was  matched  with  a  bull,  a  rhinoceros  with 
a  bear,  a  lion  with  a  tiger,  a  bull  with  a  lion.    And  deer  were  hunted 

t  Clandian. 

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lound  the  arena  hy  a  pwk  of  dogsf.    But  the  most  wonderful  sight     CHAP. 
was  when,  hy  ocwrorting  the  arena  mto  a  lake,  huge  aquatic  animals,  >^»^y^<i^ 
crococUles,  &c.  were  introdnced  to  combat  with  wild  beasts.    At  the 
Games  of  Carinas  1>  aaysCalphumius,  Ed.  VII. 

Not  only  did  I  see  wood-monsters  there. 
But  sea-calves  also  tugging  with  the  bear. 
And  that  misshapen  ugly  beast  withal. 
Which  we,  not  without  cause,  the  sea-korte  call§. 

III.  Men  ei^piged  with  wild  beasts,  and  had  the  eommoD  name  of 
Bestiarit  The  vflest  male&ctors  were  doomed  to  sndi  combat 
Others  hired  thoaselTes  at  a  set  pay,  like  the  gUdiators,  and  had  theiz 
schools,  where  they  were  inatiucted  in  such  omflicts.  ScnM  of  the 
nobility  and  gentry  voluntarily  niulertook  a  part  in  these  encoonters. 
Even  the  softer  sex  was  infected  with  this/oney. 

Sometimes,  with  naked  breast,  the  sturdy  w**** 
Shakes  the  broad  q>ear  against  the  Tuscan  boar||. 

The  safety  of  the  combatants  consisted  in  nimbly  turning  and  leap- 
ing, to  elude  their  adTeraanes>  while  they  assailed  them  with  darts  and 
spears:  one  man  has  been  known  Xjo  kill  twenty  animab  let  in  upm 

t  British  bnll-dogt,  lOBstiA,  and  beaglet,  wete  exported  to  Borne.".— Dr.  Hen- 
ry, **Higt.  of  Eag." 

t  Carinot  was-  governor  of  Britun  and  other  pioviitceB  daring  the  abeeace  of  \m 
father  in  the  £a«t. Aogualm  Hiit.  "Carimi*." 

«  Hippopotamw.    See  Gibhen,'  Cb.  XU.  b.  86.    Hakewill,4M. 

[|  Jurenal,  Sat,  L 



CHAP,    him  at  once.    The  beasts,  however,  were  in  treneral  saccesBfuI:  and 
\,^^,^^^^^  were  therefore  commonly  despatched  by  missile  weapons  thrown  from 

the  higher  parts  of  the  amphitheatre,  out  of  the  reach  of  the  animals ; 

uid  usually  in  one  show  three  or  four  hundred  were  thus  slua. 

The  Greeks  and  Romans  tamed  wild  beasts.  In  the  procession  of 
Ptolemy  Philadelphus  at  Alexandria,  twenty-four  chariots  were 
drawn  by  elephants,  twelve  by  lions,  seven  by  orixes,  five  by  buffaloes, 
eight  by  ostriches,  four  by  wild  asses,  &c.  Upon  the  neck  of  one  of 
the  elephants,  was  mounted  a  satyr  with  a  crown  of  gold :  the  ele- 
phant had  a  harness  of  gold,  and  wore  about  his  neck  a  garland,  in 
shape  resembling  ivy  leaves,  but  made  of  gold. 

There  were  bidian  women,  camels  laden  with  cinnamon,  and  tusks 
of  six  hundred  elephants.  There  were  twenty-six  white  oxen  from 
India,  twenty-four  tiiousand  Indian  dogsf,  curious  birds,  a  hundred 
and  thirty  Ethiopian,  and  three  hundred  Arabian  sheep ;  four  lynxes, 
fourteen  leopards,  sixteen  panthers,  three  brown  bears,  a  white  bear, 
one  camelopardalis,  and  one  Ethiopian  rhinoceros. 

Gordian  possessed,  as  Capitolinus  informs  us,  sixty  lions  and  thirty 
leopards,  tamed  {. 

t  ThesDVflrei^  bad  so  immenfle  a  number  of  Indian  doge,  that  four  great  towns 
in  the  vicinity  ofBabylon  were  exempted  from  all  other  tax.butthatofmaintatDtng; 
them,  Herodotus,  Clio,  CXCI.  This  alludes  to  the  period  of  Cyrus.  A  note 
says*  the  anliealB  believed  these  dog*,  which  were  very  celebrated,  to  be  produced 
from  a  bitch  and  a  ti^r.    Ba^azet  bad  twelve  thousand  dog-keepers.  See  Ch.  IV. 

t  Mon&ncon.Vol.lll.  p.  179;  and  Bruce's  Travels.  Vol.1,  p,  46S.     The  above 



The  chariots  of  the  Romans  were  drawn  by  elephants^  they  had 
sometimes  two,  and  sometimes  four;  and  frequently,  when  they  had 
towers  upon  their  backs,  they  at  the  same  time  drew  one  of  those  lit- 
tle chariots  which  were  used  for  racing  in  the  circus.  These  towers 
they  genendly  put  upon  the  backs  of  sing^  elephants,  both  for  war- 
bxe  and  traTeDing,  as  tiiey  do  at  this  day  in  Persia  and  India. 

The  Romans  were  drawn  by  camels ;  and  Pliny  tells  us  that  Mark  An- 
tony made  use  of  lions.  Heliogabalus  did  the  same ;  and  also  of  boars, 
stags,  wild  asses,  bisontes,  and  oryges,  a  sort  of  animal  with  one  horn, 
which  Ptolemy,  according  to  Athensus,  drew  his  carriage  with  f . 

Hdiogabalus  ran  a  race  with  four  chariots,  each  drawn  by  four  ele- 
phants, being  himself  the  driver:  and  another  race,  with  as  many 
camels.  He  appeared  at  other  times  drawn  by  four  great  dogs,  or 
four  large  stags;  sometimes  by  lions,  sometimes  by  tigers.    He  had 

Ptolemy  possessed  two  hundred  millioos  sterling  (see  Lempriere).  When  £gypt 
was  coDqaered  by  Angiuttu,  all  the  treasares  of  that  country  were  tnuuferred  to 
Rome.  (Monteaquieu,  Grandeur  des  Romains,  Cb.  XVII).  Nothing  could  be 
eaai'er  than  for  the  Romans  to  procure  the  same  kinds  of  animals,  and  in  any.nutiw 
bers,  with  the  riches  of  I^pt. 
t  Uonlfeucon,  VoLIV.;p.I3&. 



CHAP,    hippopotami,  a  crocodile,  a  riiinoceros,  Uttle  drttgofu,  and  all  the  strange 
v.«-v^«i^  beasts  of  Egypt,  which  oonld  be  truisported  +. 

Hippopotami  were  oftat  exhibited.  Soaurus.  B.C.  58»  introduced 
one  with  some  crocodiles,  for  the  first  time;  Augustus  one;  Commodus 
produced  five;  Carious  many;  besides  HeHogabalas,  GogcdiaU}  and 
othera.  Teeth  of  the  hippopotamus  attun  the  wdght  of  thirtem 
pounds.  "  Pausanius  parle  d'une  statue  de  d^se  dont  la  fiice  etoit 
&ite  de  ces  dents %" 

Elephants  were  first  introduced  into  the  circtu  by  Metdlns,  (b^ore 
Christ,  251)  who  captured  above  a  hundred  and  twenty  frona  the  Car- 
thaginians, at  the  battle  of  Paleroio.  The  Boouxw.  about  fifty  yean 
afterwards,  first  employed  elephants  in  their  war  with  Philip  king  of 
Macedon,  at  the  battle  of  Lycus  §.  In  order  to  show  the  Romans 
the  nature  of  elephants,  when  they  first  began  to  use  them  in  warfare, 
a  consideraUe  number  were  driven  through  die  drcue,  by  a  few  slaves 
armad  only  with  Uunt  javeiUna  %. 

t  Lampridins,  vide  Bernard,  Vol.  I.  p,  383.  The  little  dragc»i,  whatever  it 
WUt  If  ftrand,  raif^l  be  tbosglit  to  be  of  an  extihct  speei«g. 

t  9m  Cwvier,  Theorie  Je  la  Tferre,  et  Owemens  FbssHea.  ReeiV  Encyc.  "  HJp- 

I  Iiv7.B.XXXI. 

n  Gibbon,  Cb.  XII.  The  RomRus  appear  at  lengftb  to  faare  tamed  elephants 
with  at  much  skill  as  the  Aiiatics.  In  the  reign  of  Neroa  djiitingaished  RomaD 
koigbt  rode  along  a  rope  upon  an  elephant.    Suetonius,  "  Nero."  Ch.  XL 



ComeUus  Scipio  Nuica  and  C.  Lentulus,  were  the  first  who  intro-     *^S^^' 
dnced  combats  between  beasts  and  armed  men.    There  were  sixty-  i^n^v-'*^ 
three  lions,  forty  bears,  and  a  great  number  of  elephants  let  loose  in 
the  drcus.    These  were  bloody  battles,  but  the  Rom&ns  delighted  in 
bloodshed.    They  thereby  kept  up  that  martial  spirit,  which  nude 
them  superior  to  all  other  nations  f . 

In  the  year  B.C.  168,  there  were  shdwn  to  the  people  above  sixty 
osttiches,  uid  a  great  number  of  elephants  and  bears  X- 

In  the  ptocession  of  Antiochus  Epiphanes,  a  chariot  was  drawn  by 
two  elephants;  and  thirty-six  foHowed  promiscuously:  and  there  were 
eight  hundred  elephants'  tusks. 

Besides  that,  Sylla  bought  the  sufihtges  of  the  Romans  at  a  dear 
rate;  he  gratiiled  them  with  a  new  and  splendid  show.  Bocchus, 
king  of  Mauritania,  sent  him  a  hundred  lions,  and  some  Maurita- 
nians,  who  were  accnstomed  to  fight  them.  It  was  a  double  pleasure 
to  see  them  let  loose  upon  men  armed  with  spears,  who  knew  how 
to  avoid  their  attacks,  and  were  very  expert  in  striking  them.  This 
entertainment  was  thought  afterwards  to  contribute  as  much  tdfrards 
SyDa's  promotion,  as  either  Us  reputation  or  his  e^qtloits  $. 

t  tiry„B.  XUV.    Catroo,  IV.  p.  416.  t  Catroa,  IV.  p.  439. 

$  Catron,  Vol.  V.  p.  316. 



Pompey  brought  a  number  of  elephants  from  Africa,  which  he  had 
captured  in  that  country.  He  gave  directions  that  his  chariot  should 
be  drawn  by  four  elephants:  but  the  arch  not  being  wide  enough  for 
them  to  pass  abreast,  he  was  forced  to  be  content  with  horses  as 

At  the  opening  of  his  theatre,  Pompey  exhibited  a  variety  of  games, 
and  battles  with  wild  beasts :  in  which  fire  hundred  lions  were  slain  in 
five  days.  Eighteen  elephants  fought  with  one  another,  then  with 
gladiators;  and,  lastly,  with  Getulian  archers,  who  were  hunters  of 
wild  elephants.  Some  were  killed,  when  the  survivors  grew  mad, 
and  made  terrible  and  furious  efforts  to  break  the  iron  grating  which 
separated  them  from  the  spectators.  Fear  seized  the  assembly.  It 
was  soon  turned  into  compassion  for  the  poor  animals.  The  elephants 
lifted  up  their  trunks  to  heaven,  as  if  to  call  on  the  Gods  to  wttness 
the  perfidiousness  of  men:  and  the  people  concluded  that  they  had 
been  forced  on  board  ship,  after  a  promise  that  their  lives  shoidd  be 
saved:  for  the  Romans  fancied  that  elephants  had  reason,  and  under- 
stood the  language  of  men,  though  they  could  not  answer  them.  This 
accident  was  the  cause  of  Caesar's  invention  of  the  amphitheatre; 
which  was  more  convenient  than  the  circus,  and  not  exposed  to  such 
dangers  f. 

Julius  C»sar,  in  his  third  consulship,  exhibited  forty  elephants. 
Twenty  were  opposed  to  five  hundred  combatants  on  foot.    And 

t  Plutarch, "Pompey."   LiTy,B.Yni.   Catrou.Vol.V.p-^Sj  VoI.VI.  p.l27. 



twenty,  witii  turrets  upon  their  backs,  sixty  men  being  allowed  to  CHAP, 

defend  each  turret*  were  engaged  with  five  hundred  horse  and  as  .,^^~^.^m^ 
many  foot  t- 

Augustus  indulged  the  people  with  the  killing  of  thirty-six  croco- 
diles, which  were  chased  in  the  Flaminian  circus  J;. 

Augustus,  when  at  Samos,  received  an  embassy  from  Pandion  and 
Porus,  kings  of  the  Indies,  to  conclude  the  treaty  of  alliance  already 
b^[un  by  other  Indian  ambassadors,  who  had  met  the  Emperor  at 
Tarragon  in  Spain.  These  ambassadors  had  been  four  years  oa  their 
journey.  They  had  a  letter  from  Porus,  written  in  Greek,  in  which 
he  boasted  of  his  having  commanded  over  six  hundred  kings.  They 
presented  to  Augustus  pearls,  jewels,  elephants,  tigers,  (which  last 
had  never  yet  been  seen  by  the  Romans)  §  ;  a  serpent,  twelve  cubits 
long;  a  river  turtle,  three  cubits  long;  vipers  of  a  prodigious  size, 
(cobra  de  capello?};  and  a  partridge  larger  than  a  vulture,  (probably  a 
florikin,  or  bustard).  An  Indian  philosopher,  who  came  with  the  am- 
bassadors, accompanied  Augustus  to  Athens,  where  he  was  initiated 

t  Kennet.  p.  30S.    Pliny,  B.  VIII.  Ch.  VII. 

X  BioD  CaBsius,  B.  LV.  No  one  in  modern  timet  would  incur  the  expense  of 
bringing  large  crocodiles  and  other  animals  from  Egypt,  aucb  sports  not  being  a 
mode  of  courting  popularity.  Augustus  brought  such  immense  treasures  from 
Alexandriafthat  the  interest  of  money  fell,  and  die  price  of  land  rose  considerably; 
the  expenditure  was  therefore  not  worth  considering.  See  Suetonius,  Ang. 
Cb.  XLI. 

}  This  is  a  strong  confirmation  of  there  not  being  tigers  in  Africa ;  and  that  the 
anioial  named  by  Adamson  "Tiger"  in  Senegal  is  aleopard:  thehUterb^ngcalU 
ed  TigerB,  in  Mwocco,  according  to  Cbeuier,  Vol.  L  p.  171.  ' 



CHAP,     in  the  mysteries  of  Ceres :  immediately  after  which,  he  caosed  a  fUne- 
v.,«i-.y.ii^^  ral  pile  to  be  erected;  and^  after  rubbing  himself  with  oil,  he,  with  a 
smiling  coantenance,  leaped  naked  into  the  midst  of  the  flames.    His 
name  was  Zarmaaoch^as,  he  was  a  native  of  Bargosaf. 

There  was  a  combat  in  which  Nero's  guards  on  horseback,  shot 
with  arrows  four  hnndred  bears,  and  tiiree  hundred  lions  |. 

Many  persons  hare  seen  Domilian  kill  a  hundred  wild  beasts  at  his 
seat  at  Alba ;  and  strike  his  arrows  into  their  heads,  with  such  dexteri- 
ty, that  he  would,  at  two  discharges  of  his  bow,  plant  as  it  were,  a  pair 
of  horns  upon  them. 

He  also  entertained  the  people  with  the  chase  of  wild  beasts  and 
combats  of  Radiators,  even  in  the  night  time,  by  the  light  of  lamps  §. 

"  Domitian  transported  into  Italy  numbers  of  elephants;  and  a  herd 
of  them  might  be  seen  in  the  Rntnlian  forest,  near  Lavininm,  where 
Tumns,  king  of  the  Rutuli,  reigned :  the  country  was  called  Etni- 

Ottly  on  the  hirth-dayg  of  Hadrian  a  thousand  wild  beasts  were  al- 
ways slain  in  the  shows,  which  is  mentitmed  as  a  mai^  of  his  prudence 
and  moderation  ff . 

t  Crevier,  "  Auguttiw."  %  Dion,  Nero.         %  SuetODioi,  Domitiaii. 

a'fl  Juvenal.  Sal.  XIL  Notes,  10&,  106.        ft  Benuud.  VoLI.  p.  49. 



The  Roman  people  were  exceedingly  ddighted  wiUi  Claudius  and 
with  Nero,  who  gave  them  combats  between  single  elephants  and  ex- 
perienced fencers. 

Etttropins,  SnetiHiias,  andCasBiodoros,  say  fire  thousand  (Dion  Cas- 
sins  asserts  that  nine  thousand)  wild  beasts,  of  all  kinds,  were  slaagh- 
t«red  in  the  amphitheatre  of  Titus,  at  the  dedicatiott  of  i  t  f . 

The  Emperor  Severns  commanded  a  golden  statue  of  Pertinax  to 
be  brought  into  the  drcus  upon  a  chariot  drawn  by  elephants: 
and  three  golden  thrones  to  be  erected  to  his  honour  in  the  other 

Serems  sent  some  offices  into  the  islands  of  the  red  sea  to  fetch 
horses  consecrated  to  the  sun,  and  resembling  tigers  X- 

On  the  return  of  Severus  from  Arabia  and  Egypt,  in  the  tenth  year 
of  his  reign,  at  the  games,  sixty  wild-boars  fought  with  each  other. 
An  elephant,  a  crocota,  bears,  lions,  ostriches,  wild  asses,  and 
J^eign  ivil*:  in  all,  seven  hundred  beasts  were  killed  with  darts. 

Three  hundred  were  domestic  animals.  Hie  other  four  hundred 
were  enclosed  in  a  large  ship,  built  in  the  amphitheatre,  from  which 
they  weze  let  out  all  at  once.  This  show  was  in  the  name  of  Cara- 
calla.  Severus's  triumph  was  celebrated  at  Tork.  See  Ch.  XIII.  and 
the  medal,  PUte  I.  A 12. 

t  Eeyiler^  IVaveb,  Letter  LV. 

t  Tbey  were  probably  the  Eqaas  Zebra  m-  Qnagga,  wbicb  is  e 
aemblance  of  the  ti^r. 



On  another  occasion,  tigers  were  shot  witih  dartsf. 

Heliogabalas  gave  the  people  a  combat  of  forty  bean  against  as 
many  other  beasts  of  Africa.  During  the  excessive  heat,  they  made 
use  of  the  diribitorium  for  sports  and  combats,  instead  of  the  theatre. 
In  one  day  five  hmidred  hear*  were  killed  in  a  combat  with  as  many 
other  beasts  from  Africa  %. 

Heliogabalus  is  said  to  have  had  six  hundred  ostriches  slaugh- 
tered in  one  day,  in  order  that  he  might  have  the  brains  served  up 
as  a  dish,  to  pamper  his  appetite  §.  This  immense  number  would 
appear  quite  incredible,  did  we^  not  suppose  that  ostriches  were 
formerly,  as  they  are  said  to  be  at  present,  kept  and  bred  in  Africa. 

t  DioD. There  is  a  part  of  tbe  akull  with  the  faoroB  of  a  foreign  bull  Ja  the  mu- 
seum of  the  Royal  College.  It  was  found  in  Britain.  I  am  tempted  to  conjecture 
that  SeveruB  introduced  tbe  wild  bull  of  the  Highlands.  Bulls  were  amoug  the 
military  rewardsof  the  Romans.  Vide  Encyc.  Brit,  "ftos."  Rees'a  Cyc.  "Bull,"  and 
Ch.  XIII.  of  this  Vol.  It  has  been  said,thatthe  Dorking  fowls  were  introduced  by 
the  Romans.    Canicalla  and  Geta  were  great  cock-fighters. 

i  Dion  Cassius,  Heliog ^The  diribitorium  was  a  building  in  which  the  soldiers 

were  mustered,  received  their  pay,  &c.  It  waa  an  immense  place,  and  bad  the 
largest  roof  that  had  ever  been  known. 

§  This  capricious  monster  is  said,  by  Lampridius,  to  have  fed  bislionaand  other 
wild  beasts  with  pheasants  and  parrots,  and  his  dogs  with  the  lirers  of  geese.  Al- 
so, that  when  his  company  was  well  in  drink,  he  would  lock  them  up,  and  in  the 
night  let  in  tamed  lions,  bears,  and  panthers,  the  claws  and  teeth  of  wbich  had 
been  extracted ;  so  that,  when  the  guests  awoke,  they  were  sometimes  struck  dead 
with  fright._6emard,  Vol.  I.  p.  379. 



We  know  that  bears  were  bred  by  the  Romans.    The  inhabitants  of    CHAP. 

Dara,  Lybia,  Numidia,  and  Bomou,  breed  ostriches,  for  their  flesh,  as  ^....^yl..^ 

foodj  end  for  their  feathers,  as  merchandise.    It  is  asserted  by  Adan- 

soUj  that,  at  the  fectory  at  Podore,  he  had  himself  two  ostriches  that 

ran  f^ter  than  a  race-horse,  each  with  a  n^;ro  upon  his  backf . 

Commodus,  in  the  arena,  intercepted  the  rapid  career,  and  cat  off 
the  long  bony  neck  of  Uie  ostrich  with  arrows,  whose  points  were 
formed  like  a  crescent.  The  dens  of  the  amphitheatres  disgorged  at 
once  a  hundred  lions,  which  he  laid  dead  by  his  unerring  shafts.  The 
elephant,  the  scaly  rhinoceros,  the  camelopard  of  Ethiopia  and  In- 
dia's most  extraordinary  animals  were  slain  t- 

Commodus,  who  debased  himself  in  every  manner  imaginable,  ap- 
peared in  the  amphitheatre  to  please  his  concubine  Martia,  in  the  ha^ 
bit  of  an  Amazon,  a  dress  in  which  he  most  admired  that  &Tourite. 
He  kiUed  great  numbers  of  gladiators,  who  were  afraid  to  exercise  all 
their  dexterity  or  strength  against  the  Emperor.  The  senate,  even 
when  he  killed  a  lion  or  other  animal,  added  their  appUuses  to  those 
of  the  people,  servilely  crying  out,  "Thou  overcomest  the  world: 
thou  art  the  conqueror, O brave  Amazonian!" — De  Serviez,  "Martia." 
Dion,  Book  72. 

t  Ree»'§  Encyc.  "  Stmthio." 
t  Gibbon,  Cb.  IV.  and  note  84;  nd  Bernard,  Vol.  L  p.  188. 



The  pomp  of  Aurelian's  triumph  was  opened  by  twenty  elephante, 
'  four  royal  tigers,  and  above  two  hundred  of  the  most  curious  animalB 
from  every  climate  of  the  North,  the  East,  and  the  South.  They 
were  followed  by  sixteen  hundred  gladiators  devoted  to  the  cruel 
amusement  of  the  amphiUieatre.  The  wetdth  of  Asia,  the  arms  and 
ensigns  of  so  many  conquered  nations,  and  the  magnificent  plate  and 
wardrobe  of  Zenobia,  (the  captive  Syrian  Queen),  were  disposed  in  ex- 
act symmetry,  or  artful  disorder*  The  ambassadors  of  Ethiopia,  Ara- 
bia, Persia,  Bactriana,  India,  and  China,  remarkable  by  tiieir  rich  and 
singular  dresses,  displayed  the  fame  and  power  of  the  Roman  Em- 
peror, who  exposed  his  numerous  presents,  and  a  great  number  of 
crowns  of  gold.  Captive  Gotiis,  Samutiaos,  Syrians,  Egyptians,  and 
others,  rductantly  attended  his  triumph.  Ilie  title  of  Amazons  was 
bestowed  on  ten  martial  heroines  of  the  Gothic  nation,  who  had  been 
taken  in  arms.  The  beauteous  figure  of  Zenobia  was  confined  by  fet- 
ters of  gold:  a  slave  supported  the  gold  chain  which  encircled  her 
neck;  and  she  almost  fointed  under  the  intolerable  weight  of  jewels. 
She  preceded,  on  foot,  the  magnificent  chariot  in  which  she  once 
hoped  to  enter  the  gat^  of  Rome.  It  was  followed  by  two  other  cha- 
riots still  more  sumptuous,  of  Odenathus  and  the  Persian  monarch. 
The  triumphal  car  of  Aurelian  was  drawn  by  four  stags  or  four  ele- 
phants. The  festival  was  protracted  by  theatrical  representations, 
the  games  of  the  circus,  the  hunting  of  wild  beasts,  combats  of  £^ia- 
torB,and  naval  engagements  f. 

The  only  merit  of  Carinus  that  history  could  record^  was  the  un- 



common  Bp!endoiiT  with  which,  in  his  own  and  his  hrother*8  name,  he 
e^iibited  the  Roman  games  of  the  theatre,  the  circus,  and  the  amphi- 
theatre. If  we  confine  ouraelTes  solely  to  the  hunting  of  wild  heasts, 
however  we  may  censure  the  variety  of  the  design,  or  the  cruelty  of  the 
execution,  we  are  obliged  to  confess  that  neither  before  nor  since  the 
time  of  the  Romans,  so  much  art  and  expense  have  ever  been  laviBhed 
for  the  amusement  of  the  peoplef . 

By  the  order  of  Pn^us,  a  great  number  of  large  trees,  torn  up  by 
the  roots,  were  transplanted  into  the  midst  of  the  circus.  The  spa- 
cious and  shady  forest  was  immediatdy  filled  with  a  thonsand  ostriches, 
a  thousand  stags,  a  thousand  fallow-deer,  and  a  thonsand  wild-boars; 
and  all  this  variety  of  game  was  abandoned  to  the  riotous  impetuodty 
of  the  multitude.  The  toagedy  of  the  succeeding  day  consisted  in 
the  massacre  of  a  hundred  lions,  and  an  equal  number  of  lionesses,  (the 
whole  of  which,  entering  the  amphitheatre  at  once,  made  a  roaring 
like  thunder),  two  hundred  let^pards,  and  three  hundred  bears  t. 

The  year  that  Gordian  the  First  was  sedile,  he  entertained  the  people 
of  Rome,  at  his  own  expense,  each  month,  or  twelve  times,  with  public 

t  Gibbon,  Ch.  XII.  BriUiD  wm  one  of  the  gov«niments  under  Cariniu,  with 
the  fall  power  of  Emperor,  dnrtog  his  Other's  absence  in  the  East.  Angiwtan  H»- 
(orjr,  Cariniu. 

t  ITwse  games  were  to  celebrate  the  conqoests  of  Probns  in  Oermaoy,  and 
over  the  Africans,  between  Upper  Egypt  and  the  Bed  Sea.  Aneutan  Hiitorr, 
Vol.  U.  p.  296. 



CHAP,     shows.  Hehad  ahundred  wildbeasteof  AfHcahuntedinonedsT.    On 
v^,^_Y.I„^  another  day  a  *AotManrf&fiar*f;  his  sixth  day  18  very  memorable.  There 

were  two  hundred  stout  stags,  hunted  by  Britons;  thirty  wild  horses, 
one  hundred  wild  sheep,  ten  elks,  a  hundred  Cyprian  bulls,  three  hun- 
dred red  Barbary  ostriches,  thirty  wild  asses,  one  hundred  and  fifty 
boars,  two  hundred  wild  goats,  and  two  hundred  deer.  All  these  he 
gave  in  one  day  to  be  hunted,  taken,  and  divided  among  the  people  {. 

At  the  decennial  games,  instituted  by  GalHenus  the  First,  he  went 
to  the  capital  in  a  procession  of  the  senators  in  their  robes,  the  sol- 
diers  clad  in  white,  the  people,  many  slaves,  and  the  women  holding 
wax  tapers  and  lamps.  They  were  preceded  by  a  hundred  white  oxen, 
yoked  two  and  two,  with  their  horns  gilt,  and  covered  with  silken 
clothes  of  divers  colours;  a  hundred  pnre  white  lambs,  two  and  two ; 
ten  elephants,  twelve  hundred  gladiators  dressed  in  cloUi  embroidered 
with  gold,  such  as  ladies  wear;  two  hundred  tamed  wild  beasts,  of  se- 
veral kinds,  finely  adorned;  with  players,  mimics,  and  pugiHsts.  Gal- 
lienus,  in  a  triumphal  gown  and  tuuick,  was  accompanied  by  all  the 
priests  in  their  robes.  There  were  five  hundred  spears  of  gold  borne 
on  each  side:  standards,  arois  and  ensigns  of  the  temples,  and  all  the 
legions  §. 

f  Collections  of  bones  of  beers  have  beeo  foiiDd  in  Germany,  at  Gulenieutb,  &«. 
Beart  were  bred  in  former  times,  both,  for  food  and  sport.  A  very  few  shows,  such 
as  this  of  Gordian's,  would  produce  an  immense  collection  of  bonca:  and  as  the.  Bo* 
mans  had  bears  from  Numidia,  (see  Beloe's  Herodotus,  Melpomene,  CXCI.  and 
note  188),  they  might  be  of  a  species  unknown  to  modem  naturalisto.  See  also 
Dion  Cassias,  "  Heliogabalus." 

t  Augustan  Hist.  Vol.  II.  p.  38.  §  Augustan  Hist.  Vol.  II.  p.  117. 



The  collection  prepared  for  the  youDger  Crordian  and  his  triumph, 
and  which  his  successors  exhibited  in  the  secular  games,  was  no  less 
remarkahle  hy  the  number  than  by  the  singularity  of  the  animals. 
Twenty  zebras  displayed  their  elegant  forms  and  variegated  beauty  to 
the  eyes  of  the  Roman  people.  Ten  elks,  and  as  many  camelopards, 
the  most  harmless  creatures  that  wander  over  the  plains  of  Sarmatia 
and  Ethiopia;  were  contrasted  with  thirty  AMcan  hyenas  and  ten 
Indian  tigers,  the  most  implacable  savages  of  the  torrid  zonef.  The 
unoffending  strength  with  which  nature  has  endowed  the  greater 
quadrupeds,  was  admired  in  the  rhinoceros,  the  hippopotamus  of  the 
Nile,  and  a  majestic  troop  of  thirty-two  depbants  |. 

Gratian  enclosed  large  parks  in  Gaul,  one  was  at  Paris;  all  of  them 
plentifuUy  stocked  with  wild  beasts,  where  he  bunted  and  slew  them§. 

Since  the  first  introduction  of  wild  beasts  into  the  circus,  to  the 
reign  of  Gratian,  is  six  hundred  and  thirty-four  years.  After  this  pe- 
riod these  ezpensire  amusements  were  probably  discontinued,  the 
Goths  having  invaded  the  empire.  A  more  diligent  search  might,  not- 
withstanding the  poverty  of  history  on  such  subjects,  produce  an  ac- 

t  Tigers  were  at  this  time  procured  from  India,  by  sbips  from  the  Red  Sea,  or 
the  Persian  Galf.  Firmiu,  who  assumed  the  purple,  and  kept  possession  of  part  of 
Zenobia's  country,  sent  oAentimes  sbips  of  merchandise  into  India.  Bernard, 
Vol.  II.  p.  304. 

J  Gibbon,  Ch.  XII.  and  Bernard,  Vol.  II.  pp.  71, 296.  (About  A.D.  280.) 

§  Gibbon,  Cb.  XXVII.— A.D.  389. 



count  of  much  greater  numbers  of  quadrupeds  and  oth^  animals,  but 
'  the  reader  will  probably  think  that  the  number  here  presented  is  much 
more  than  sufficient  for  the  object  of  these  researches.  The  following 
is  a  list  of  such  animals  shun  in  the  games  and  sacrifices,  by  the  Romans, 
as  can  be  ascertained ;  though  there  may  have  been  many  others,  as  no 
country  was  neglected,  and  no  expense  spared  to  procure  the  most 
rare  and  curious  animals,  for  many  centuries. 

*  Ataea,  wild — Bears — Bisontes — Boars — BufiUoes — Bidk,  and  fo- 
reign ones — Camels— Camelopards — Crocodiles— droeo//a,  an  ani- 
mal between  a  dog  and  a  wolf.  Pliny,  B.  Vm.  Ch.  XLI. — CroaUa^ 
an  animal  between  a  hyaena  and  a  lioness.  PUny,  B.  VIII.  Ch.  XXX. 
DragoTu,  (tittle  ones)  frtmi  Egypt  by  Heliogabalus.  It  is  not  easy  to 
conjecture  what  this  may  have  been.  The  long  necked  creature 
named  Plesiosaurus,  is  perhaps  the  nearest  resemblance  to  bo  uncer- 
tain B  name. — I>eer  of  sU  kinds — Domestic  animals  of  all  kinds,  Oxen, 
Sheep,  Birds,  &c. — Elephants — Elks— JJorev — Hippopotamuses — 
Morses — Hysenas — Leopards — Lions — Lynxes — Orixet,  or  Oryges, 
with  one  horn — Ostriches — /fulfon  Oxen — Panthers — Rhinoceroses 
— Stags — Tigers — Ttertlea.  (Augustus  had  a  river  turtle,  from  India, 
three  cubits  long.)    Zebras;  and  probably  Quaggas,by  Sevems. 

Besides  this  list  of  animals,  named  by  the  Romans  as  having  been 
exhibited,  remains  of  others  not  noticed,  as  far  as  these  researches  go, 
have  been  found — ^the  beaver,  tapir,  and  mastodon,  (probably  by  the  Ro- 
mans called  elephant):  and  they  are  known  to  have  exhibited  some  ani- 
mals, the  bones  of  which  have  not  been  detected,  as  fiu  as  the  writer's 

knowledge  extends the  camelopard,  zebra,  ostrich — nor  has  tiiere 

ever  occurred  in  this  research,  a  single  instance  of  the  mention 

*  Those  in  Italics  are  not  represented  in  the  engnriDg  of  the  circus;  nor  is 
the  Irish  elk. 

y  Google 


of  camelg'  bones  being  found,  of  which  there  must  be  vast  numbers  in    CHAP. 

^  XI. 

Siberia,  and  some  in  Europe:  this  is  a  very  remarkable  tatct,  and  may  v-m-v***^ 

account  for  many  b(mes,  which  have  puzzled  those  who  found  them, 

or  have  been  supposed  to  belong  to  other  large  quadrnpeda. 


The  oryx  of  Pliny  is  siud  to  be  an  antelope  with  two  horns,  slender, 
straight,  and  three  feet  long.    See  Bnfibn  and  Rees's  Cyc.  "  Pasan." 

In  all  ages,  and  all  countries,  the  wticom  is  mentioned.  Timur 
killed  rhinoceroses  and  unicorns,  on  the  frontiers  of  Cashmere.  Vide 
Chap.  rV.  of  this  volume.  Can  these  assertions  arise  from  antelopes, 
or  oUier  animate,  sometimes  shedding  one  horn  before  the  other?  If 
they  ever  do  so,  they  may  have  often  been  seen  without  having  been 
killed;  and  die  sportsman  not  having  an  opportunity  to  examine 
diem,  Uius  some  of  the  reports  might  arise. 

Ptolemy's  carriages,  according  to  Atheneeos,  were  drawn  by  orizes, 
with  one  horn.  There  have  lately  been  reports  of  a  kind  of  deer  with 
one  horn  having  been  seen  in  Napaul,  but  there  is  no  confirmation  of  the 
truth  of  these  rumours.  Mr.  Bell,  Journey  to  Pekin,  Chapter  II.  says 
tiiat  a  hunter  in  Siberia,  near  the  Irtish,  (wMeh  it  due  north  <^  Napmd) 
told  him,  and  that  his  story  was  confirmed  by  several  of  his  neigh- 
bours, that  in  March,  1713,  being  out  huntii^  he  discovered  the  track 
of  a  stag,  which  he  pursued  and  overtook,  when  he  was  startled  by 
perceiving  that  it  had  only  one  horn,  stuck  in  the  middle  of  its  fore- 
head. He  killed  it,  and  shewed  it,  being  near  his  village,  to  the  great 
admiration  of  the  spectators.  He  ate  the  flesh,  and  sold  the  horn  to  a 
comb  maker,  in  the  town  of  Tara,  for  ten  alteens,  about  fifteen  pence 
sterling.  I  made  cwefiil  enquiries,  says  Mr.  B.  about  this  nnicom — he 

y  Google 


told  me  that  it  exactly  resembled  a  stag,  and  that  the  horn  was  of  a 
'  brownish  colour,  about  one  arsheen  (or  twenty-eight  inches)  long,  and 
twisted  from  the  root,  till  witiiin  a  finger's  length  of  the  top,  where  it 
was  divided  like  a  fork  into  two  points,  veiy  sharp. 

Heliogabalus  (Montfaucon,  TV.  125),  as  well  as  Ptolemy,  was  drawn 
by  oryges  with  one  horn.  The  pasan  is  too  small  for  the  purpose  of 
drawing  a  carriage. 

As  the  Romans  and  Egyptians,  for  their  processions  and  spectacles, 
left  no  part  of  A&ica  and  Asia  unexplored,  and  gave  extravagant 
prices  for  curious  animals,  it  is  not  impo^ible,  but  the  unicorn  may 
yet  be  found.  It  is  not  confounded  with  the  rhinoceros  in  the  above 
accounts,  that  animal  being  also  mentioned  in  them. 

Aristotle  also  classes  the  oryx  as  having  one  horn.  Oppian  de- 
scribes it  as  a  fierce  animal. — See  notes  to  Herodotus,  Melpomene, 
CXCII.  A  Mahomedan  prince  is  said  to  have  sent  two  unicorns  to 
Mecca,  in  the  year  1799,  from  Africa.     Rees's  Cyc.  "Monoceros." 

A  very  interesting  dissertation,  with  a  drawing  on  this  subject,  in 
Barrow's  Travels  in  Africa,  Vol.1.  p.311to320,  leaves  scarcely  a 
doubt  of  the  existence  of  animals  with  one  horn,  and  in  sixe  tmd  shape 
like  a  horse.  The  countries  reported  to  contain  the  unicorn  are  those 
which  are  least  known.  In  Africa  from  South  Lat.  30"  to  North  Lat. 
10°  or  two  thousand  seven  hundred  end  eighty  British  {miles  in  length, 
and  two  thousand  miles  in  breadth  at  the  equator,  a  space  more  con- 
siderable than  all  Europe,  is  to  modems  utterly  unknown.  See  also 
the  vast  countries  between  Hindustan  and  Siberia,  which  are  equally 
unvisited  by  any  intelligent  European.  With  respect  to  Africa,  the 
Romans  were  acquainted  with  the  interior  as  far  as  latitude  14°  stwih, 
"  Comme  aujourdTiui  on  connoit  assez  bien  les  c6tes  de  I'Afrique,  et 
tr^s-mal  I'interieur,  les  anciens  connoissoient  assez  bien  I'interieur 
et  tr6s-mal  les  c6tes " — (Esprit  des  Lois,  Liv.  XXI.  Ch.  X.)     See 



also  Ptolemy,  Lib.  I.  Ch.  VII.  VIII.  &  IX.  Tab.  IV.  See  the  an- 
cient coin  found  in  Herefordshire,  in  Chap.  XIII.  Plate  1,  of  this  v 
Vol.  Does  not  this  assist  in  proving  that  such  an  animal  was  known? 
The  wings  on  the  man's  shoulders  rather  weaken  that  conjec- 
ture, but  are  not  decisive  against  it.  llie  shap^  of  the  tail  and  breast 
of  the  unicorn,  are  a  presumption  that  it  is  a  portrait.  The  legend 
on  this  coin  VLATOS  ATEVLA,  are  words  not  in  the  Latin  dic- 
tionary; and  Camden  could  not  explain  them.  The  coin  appears  to 
be  like  the  British  money  of  the  first  century,  and  the  same  legend  is 
found  on  other  coins,  with  a  horse  and  some  other  animals.  Banduri 
conjectures  that  Atevla  means  Attila;  but  this  is  not  probable.  Per- 
haps some  one  well  acquainted  with  the  Greek,  may  be  able  to  afford 
an  elucidation,  if  the  legend,  although  the  characters  are  Boman,  be 
derived  from  that  language. 

A  British  officer  reported,  in  July,  1825,  that  he  saw  an  unicorn  in 
the  thick  woods  of  Aracan.  Vincent  Le  Blanc  relates  (see  Ch.  VII. 
of  this  Vol.)  that  there  are  unicorns  and  rhinoceroses  in  Siam,  and  that 
in  the  queen's  park  at  Pegu  there  is  an  unicorn  called  Drougala,  and 
the  head  of  another,  with  the  horn  in  the  middle  of  the  upper  part  of 
the  forehead,  set  fast  upon  a  fountain.  Le  Blanc  mentions  their  be- 
ing remarkably  timid.  In  addition  to  all  these  probabilities,  there 
were  among  the  remains  of  the  animals  found  at  Cadstadt  near  Stut- 
gard,  "  beaucoup  d'os  de  rhinoceros,  d'hysnas  et  d'animaux  du  genre 
du  cheval."  As  Ptolemy  Philadelphus  possessed  so  many  of  these 
aninuls,  the  probability  is  that  they  exist  in  Africa,  in  those  vast  re- 
^ons  undiscovered  by  modem  Europeans.  This  conjecture  is  much 
strengthened,  by  the  resemblance  of  this  animal  on  the  coin  to  that 
in  Mr.  Barrow's  Travels. 



Remain)  of  Elephants  and  Wild  Beasts  foitnd  in  Italy France 

I^dly Spain         Germany;  and  other  Countries. 

CHAP.     3l0ST  of  the  following  extracts  of  tfae  places,  where  bones  have 
Vrf«Pv--'«^  ^^^^  found,  in  Europe,  are  irom  the  Baion  Curier's  great  work. 


X-r  Rome,  in  the  valley  of  the  Tiber,  great  numbers  of  fossil  bones 
of  elephants  and  various  wild  beasts  were  found. 

Note. — At  Rome  there  were  amphitheatres;  and  one  at  Fidene, 
on  the  banks  of  the  Tiber,  a  few  miles  distant  from  Rome.  By 
the  sudden  fall  of  this  amphitheatre,  fifty  thousand  persons  were  killed 
or  hurt. 

At  Verona,  three  leagues  distant,  many  bones  of  elephants  and 
other  animals. 

Note. — ^At  Verona  there  was  an  amphitheatre;  and  it  is  shewn, 
in  Ch.  X.  that  animals  were  generally  kept  at  some  distance  from 

At  PuxxuoU,  remains  of  elephants. 

^Tote.— There  was  an  amphitheatre  at  Puzzuoli. 



At  IHtOr  remains  of  dephanto. 

]!fote. — Pisa  was  an  important  municipiam,  and,  we  may  suppose, 
had  its  amphitfaeatre. 

At  Orvieto,  remains  of  elephants. 

Note. — The  amphitheatre  at  Otriculi  is  near  Orvieto. 

At  AneOHa,  remains  of  elephants, 

Note,-^Aaoot»  is  about  twelve  miles  from  Sena  (now  Sengaglia.) 
"  Both  the  Roman  army  ^mmanded  by  Nero,  and  the  Carthagin- 
ian army  under  the  command  of  Asdnibal,  who  had  elephants,  encamp- 
ed near  Sena." — Catrou,  III.  p.  415. 

At  Metauro,  remains  of  elephants. 

Note. — ^The  Consul,  Claudius  Nero,  at  the  battle  of  the  Metaurus, 
defeated  Asdrubal.  He  captured  four  elephants;  and  six  were  killed 
by  the  Ctfthaginians,  being  quite  ungovernable,  and  creating  much 
confusion.— Livy,  B.  XXVII.  Ch.  XLVIII.    Catrou,  III.  416. 

Near  Turin,  elephants*  bones. 

Note. — Hannibal  besieged  and  took  Turin,  on  his  descent  ttom 
the  Alps.— Catrou,  Vol.  III.  p.«8. 

Piedmont:  in  the  province  of  Asti,  two  skeletons  of  elephants. 

Note. — Hannibal  marched  ftom  Turin  by  Chivas,  north  of  the  Po. 
It  is  not  said  whereabouts  the  bones  were  found,  but  the  province  of 
Asti  commences  close  to  Turin..  See  the  map  in  Ch.  IX. 

At  PlaUance,  distant  nine  miles,  and  two  from  the  Trebia,  a  fossil 

"  If  ever  there  was  a  fossil  elephant,  which  might  be  consider- 
ed as  one  of  Hannibal's,  it  is  that  found  two  miles  from  the  Tre- 
bia, and  nine  above  Plaisance ;  but,  as  if  to  contradict  these  conjec- 
tures, the  heed  of  a  rhinoceros  was  found  near  H."— Cnvier,  p.  94. 

Note. — Asdrubal  besieged  Haoenda,  twelve  years  aftn  Hannibal  had 
been  there. — Cal3rou,in.  p.  411.     There  was  an  amphi&eatre  (the 



CHAP.  largest  Id  Italy,  Bees's  Eocyc.)  at  Placeotie,  which  may  account  for 
'^^^-^^^^m,^  the  rhinoceros. 

Little  Mount  St.  Bernard;  at  the  foot  of  the  mountaia,  all  the  bohes 
of  an  elephant  were  dug  up. 

Note. — Hannibal  crossed  the  Alps  over  the  little  St.  Bernard;  and, 
twelve  years  afterwards,  Asdrubal  passed  over  the  same  route.  His- 
toire  du  passage  d'Annibal,  d'apr^s  Polybe  par  A.  J.  De  Luc :  also, 
Catrou,  Vol.  III.  p.  65,  and  the  notes,  by  Father  Rouill^. — See  the 
map  of  Hannibal's  march,  in  Chap.  IX. 

Near  Florence  parts  of  the  skeletons  of  at  least  a  hundred  hippopo- 
tami, mixed  in  great  abundance  with  the  remains  of  elephant  and 
rhinoceros,  with  those  of  horses,  oxen,  deer,  hysBna,  bear,  tiger,  wolf, 
mastodon,  bog,  tapir,  and  beaver. — Quarterly  Beview,  LVII.  p.  153. 

Note.-^To  what  possible  origin  can  these  be  attributed  but  an  am- 
phitheatre, which  there  undoubtedly  must  have  been  at  Florence,  and 
probably  at  Fsesula?  Two  or  three  hundred  years  would  produce  all 
these  hippopotami,  which  were  to  be  had  from  the  Roman  province  of 
Egypt,  without  much  difficulty.  Many  of  their  bones  are  found  near 
a  hollow  or  valley,  similar  to  that  at  Kirkdale,  and  which  might  easily 
be  converted  into  a  take  for  the  hippopotami. 

In  the  Upper  Vol  d'Amo,  great  numbers  of  elephants'  bones. 

At  Figlene,  upon  the  Arao,  great  numbers,  mixed  with  bones  of  the 

Note. — "  To  the  classical  tourist,  the  road  from  Incisa  (not  far  from 
Figlene)  to  Levane,  presents  the  site  where  Hannibal  halted  his  army, 
previous  to  an  engagement  at  Thrasymenus,  with  the  Roman  legions 
under  the  Consul  Flaminlus.  The  fossil  bones  <^  elephants  have  been 
found  there,  and  are  considered  to  be  the  remains  of  t^ose  animals 
slain  in  the  engagement:  but  it  is  probable  thbt  they  are  the  lemquit 
of  some  conflict  of  the  dements."MUdy.  Morgan's  Italy,  Vc^  XI. 



p.  144.  See  the  description  of  Hannibal's  inarch  in  Ch.  IX.  and  the 

At  Cortolm  and  at  Pervgia  some  elephants'  bones. 

Note. — Cortona  is  about  five  miles  on  the  north,  and  Perugia  about 
six  on  the  east  side  of  the  lake  Thrasymenus.  Tlie  last  elephant  may 
have  died  of  fatigue,  or  have  been  killed  in  the  battle,  at  one  of  those 
places.    See  Ch.  IX. 

The  Vol  de  CMano,  bonea  of  the  elephant. 

Note.—Tb»  Val  de  Chiano  b  about  forty  miles  north  of  Rome. 
There  is  an  amphitheatre  at  Otriculi,  which  is  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  Yal  de  Chiana 

At  Lake  Lamporeeei,  some  bones  of  the  elephant. 

N'oie. — Not  found  on  the  map,  nor  jn  gazetteers. 

At  Valde  Nievole,  numbers  of  elephants'  bones. 

Note. — ^Not  found. 

Near  Benevento  and  at  AvelHno,  elephants'  remains. 

Note. — AveUino  is  twelve  miles  from  Benevento.  There  were 
eight  elephants  captured,  at  the  terrible  battle  of  the  Taurasian  fields, 
near  Beneventum,  by  Curius,  who  defeated  Pyrrhus.  Four  died,  and 
four  were  led  in  triumph  at  Rome. — Catrou,  II.  483. 

At  Bologna,  elephants*  remains. 

Note. — Bologna  was  a  colony  and  a  municipium,  and  therefore  had, 
probably,  an  amphitheatre.  It  is  on  the  road  from  Placentia,  from 
which  place  Asdnibal.  with  his  elephants,  marched  to  Sena. — Catron. 
III.  415. 

In  Tuacaiu/,  hippopotamus'  and  rhinoceros'  bones  mixed. 

Note. — ^Florence  was  built  by  Sylla,  and  must  have  had  an  amphi- 
theatre, and  also  Pisa.  No  one  can  doubt  this  after  reading  the  chap- 
ter on  amphitheatres. 

At  Conenwt  in  Calabria,  elephants'  bones. 



CHAP.        Note. — Hannibal   was  enctunped  at  Croton  in  further  Calabria, 
^_g~'-^>  where  he  beat  Sempronius  in  a  second  battle:  the  consul  killed  four 

thousand  Carthaginians.     CoserUia  trembled  at  the  consul's  approach, 

aud  surrendered  at  discretion.    Livy,  B.  XXIX.  Ch.  XXXVI.    Ca- 

trou.  III.  501.    Hannibal  was  about  twelve  years  in  Italy,  and  was 

kept  constantly  supplied  with  great  numbers  of  elephants,  by  way  of 

the  gulph  of  Taranto.     The  fossil  bones  are  few  indeed  compared  with 

the  vast  number  of  elephants  killed  in  the  wars  aud  amphitheatres ; 

especially  when  it  is  considered,  that  one  animal  produces  a  cart  load 

of  bones,  and  eight  grinders.    Hannibal  lived  generally  at  Capua ;  and, 

south  of  that  city,  many  fossil  bones  of  elephants  must  have  been 

buried  by  the  frequent  earthquakes  in  Italy. 


At  i^zTM,  remains  of  the  elephant,  os,  rein-i^er,  and  other  fossil 
bones  have  been  found,  and,  near  them,  trunks  of  trees. 

^ofe.—Gratian,  Emperor  of  the  West,  brother  of  Theodosius  thfe 
Great,  made  large  parks  in  several  places  in  Gaul,  and  one  at  Paris; 
all  of  which  were  plentifully  stocked  with  wild  beasts.  He  was  amus- 
ing himself  in  slaughtering  lions  and  bears  in  his  park  at  Paris,  with 
his  ScytMim  hunting  friends  from  the  Volga,  when  tJie  British  Em- 
peror, Maximns,  invaded  Gaol;  and  Gratian  was  driven  away. — See 
the  chapter  on  Britain  in  this  volume.  The  trees  and  the  rein-deer 
prove,  apparently,  that  this  was  the  very  park  alluded  to.  Have  the  re- 
mains of  u>Ute  bears  been  found?  The  mnp6ithetUre  at  Panv  was  on 
the  aoutJi  of  the  present  university.— See  Gibbon,  Qi.  XIX. 

At  Serre  St.  An^ne,  St.  Valier,  Lavottie,  (J>ep.  6£  Ardeche) ;  At 
Tain,  diocese  of  Vienne,  remains  of  elephants. 



Note. — These  five  places  are  aU  near  the  banks  of  the  Rhone,  on  the 
inarch  where  Hannibal  passed  with  thirty-seven  elephants,  and  Asdrubal  v 
with  a  number  not  known:  he  amred  in  Italy  with  fifteen — See  the 
map  of  Hannibal's  march. 

At  MontrecaxU,  elephants*  remains. 

Note. — I  cannot  find  any  name  thus  spelt;  MontregatU  is  a  few 
leagues  north-east  of  Tain :  if  t^  be  the  right  place,  it  is  also  on  the 
route  of  the  Carthaginians. 

At  Mon^lier,  elephants'  remains. 

Note. — Hannibal  and  Asdrubal  passed  through  Montpelier:  and 
the  amphitheatres  at  Nismes  and  Aries  are  not  far  from  it. 

At  Flatve  de  GrcTielle,  remains  of  the  elephant. 

Note. — This  is  not  in  the  Gazetteer,  except  it  be  the  place  on  the 
coast  of  Provence,  called  Grenelle.  "  A  victory  was  gained  by  Caesar, 
in  a  battle  with  the  Gauls,  by  a  sio^e  elephant.— Polysenus,  B.  VIII. 


Remains  of  elephants  have  been  found  at  Palermo,  and  at  Messina. 

Note. — At  the  great  victory  obtained  by  Metellus,  over  the  Cartha- 
ginians, commanded  by  an  officer  named  AsdrttbaU  at  Panormus,  (Pa- 
lermo), many  elephants  were  killed ;  and  more  than  a  hundred  were  cap- 
tured. They  were  sent  across  the  straits  oi  Messma  to  Rhegium. — 
Catrou,  Vol  II.  p.  591. 

At  Syracuse,  elephants'  bones  have  been  found. 

Note. — At  Syracuse  there  was  an  amphitheatre,  another  at  Cata- 
nia, and  one  at  Agrigentum.  The  Carthaginians  possessed  great 
part  of  Sicily. 




At  the  bridge  of  Toledo,  and  at  the  bridge  of  Manxmutree,  remains 
of  elephants  have  been  found. 

Note. — Althea,  near  Toledo,  was  taken  by  assault  by  Hannibal  He 
also  gained  a  great  victory  on  the  banks  of  the  Tagus,  the  waters  of 
which  were  red  with  blood,  over  the  Carpetani,  whose  capital  was  To- 
ledo. A  number  of  Spaniards  were  trodden  to  death  by  his  elephants, 
ofwhichhehad  forty.— Pliny.  Polybius,  B.  III.  Ch.  XIV.  Livy, 
B.  XXI.  Ch.  V.     Catron,  Vol.  IV.  pp.  40, 47. 

Asdrubal,  who  had  numerous  elephants,  destroyed  the  country  of 
the  Carpetani  with  lire  and  swcnrd.  Madrid  is  on  the  Manzanares,  and 
is  said  to  be  the  antient  Mantua  Carpetanorum. — Livy,  B.  XXIV.  Ch. 
XLII.  Rees  Cyc.  "  Madrid."  Two  years  or  less  afterwards,  when 
'  Asdrubal  was  defeated  by  the  two  Scipios  at  Munda  in  Granada> 
thirty-nine  of  his  elephants  were  slain. 

There  are  the  remains  of  an  amphitheatre  at  Seville. 


Remains  of  elephants  have  been  found  in  the  8u>iss  valleys,  near 
the  Rhine,  at  Geneva  and  at  Lucerne*. 

*  A  consul,  an  ancestor  of  Nero,  having  conquered  the  Allobro^ea  and  the 
Avemi,  made  a  tour  of  the  proTJnce  mounted  upon  an  elephant,  with  s  body 
of  soldiers  attending  him,  in  n  sort  of  triumpha)  pomp. — Suetonius, "  Nero."  Ch.  IL 
Geneva,  was  the  Colonin  Allobrogum. — See  Map  of  Hannibal's  march. 

y  Google 


Id  the  gretU  vtdUy  f^  the  Rhine  many  bones  of  elephants,  some  at 
Cleve»  (with  rhinoceros'  bones)  and  some  at  Zu^hen*. 

In  the  environs  of  Strashvrg  some  fossil  elephants'  bonesf . 

In  TJmringia,  Com.  of  Burgtouna,  bones  of  elephants,  rhinoceroses, 
and  stags,  at  great  depths.  Two  elephants  at  the  depth  of  fifty  feet, 
and  at  a  little  distance,  in  similar  beds,  "  des  bois  du  cerf,  6u  elan  fos- 
sile ."    At  BaUtadt,  a  near  village,  rhinoceros'  teeth. 

Near  Heidelberg,  elephants*  bones  were  found,  and  also  at  Manheim, 
Wvrtahurg,  and  Bamberg.  In  the  valley  of  Kocher,  near  Halle  in 
Swabia,  tusks  and  bones ;  near  Pattau,  elephants'  bones ;  and  near  Aich- 
tied,  with  bones  of  the  hysena.  At  Krembs  elephants'  bones,  and  al- 
so "le  corps  (fun  ntattodonte  a  dents  etroites."  At  Kayter-SteinhrHch, 
Buggau,  and  Vag-UgeH,  on  the  river  Vag,  in  Hungary,  elephants' 
bones.  In  several  places  of  ^tin^ary  and  Trtnuy^rratia,  some  bones; 
generally  in  marshes.  "  Une  tres  grande  machoire  inferieure  etoit  un 
peu  an  dessus  du  retranchement  des  Romains,  qui  va  de  la  Teiss  au 
Danube,  vis-a-vis  Peterwaradin." 

Note. — History  is  too  imperfect  to  permit  of  tracing  all  these  places. 
But  the  wars  of  Hadrian  in  Dacia;  and  the  Roman  troops  sent  by 

*  The  Romans  had  a  vast  number  of  vessels  always  upon  the  Rhine,  We  find 
a  thousand  constructed  at  one  time,  (some  large  for  engines  of  war),  and  ordered 
by  Germanicus  to  meet  at  the  isle  of  Bataria.  The  B^tavians  were  defeated,  and 
the  countries  to  the  Elbe  were  conquered.  Some  of  the  vessels  were  driven  to 
Britain  by  a  tempest,  and  sent  back  by  the  British  King  Cunobeline.  Tacitns,  An. 
II.  May  it  be  conjectured,  that  elephants  were  conveyed  about  this  river  for  ex- 
hibitions; and  for  amphitheatres  in  the  camps  and  towns,  when  there  was  such  a 
rage  for  those  sights?  The  amphitheatre  at  Treves  may  account  for  many  of  the 
bones,  besides  Colonia  Agrippina,  and  Colooia  Trajana,  now  Col<^e  and  Kel- 
len  (near  Cleves).  Eight  legions  were  kept  constantly  on  the  Rhine  by  Augus- 
tus, and  four  on  the  Danube. 

t  Julius  Cfesur  gained  a  victory  at  Strasburg,  which  Zosimus,  p.  68,  compares 
with  that  of  Alexander  over  Darios.  Sixty  thousand  were  killed,  and  as  many 
more  drowned  in  the  river. 



CHAP.  Antoninus  Pius  to  Olbiopolis  on  the  Dneiper,  to  act  against  the  Scy- 
s.^^'ym^  thians,  prove  that  hirge  armies  went  more  to  the  East  than  any  of 
the  places  where  those  fossil  bones  are  found.  The  conquest  of  Dacia 
required  a  war  office  years*  duration. — See  Julius  Capitohnus  in  Ber- 
nard, Vol.1,  p.  100.  "Probus  conquered  all  the  country  near  the 
Euxine."    Vopiscus  in  Bernard,  Vol.  II.  p.  287.    (See  forward.) 

Near  Wo^enbuitle,  a  whole  skeleton.  At  Bnauwick,  at  the  depth 
of  tweWe  feet,  one  tusk,  eleven  feet  long;  one  fourteen  feet  eight 
inches,  curved  in  a  half-circle  * ;  with  nine  others,  and  at  least  thirty 
grinders,  twenty-two  of  which  are  like  other  fosnl  molar  teeth ;  mixed 
with  bones  of  rhinoceroses,  horses,  oxen,  and  stags,  in  prodigious 

At  Osterode,  a  skeleton,  with  two  bones  of  a  rhinoceros.  Near  Steig^ 
erthal,  (Hohenstein),  four  grinders ;  (also  an  under  jaw  of  a  faysna,  and, 
atthe  distance  ofa  league,  some  bones  of  a  rhinoceros).  Between  HaUe 
(in  Saxony)  and  Querfurt,  many  elephants*  bones,  some  of  which  were 
found  in  a  quarry  of  hard  stone,  apparently  in  a  cleft  ("  fente  ").  At 
Covjf/,  and  several  places  inHease,  elephants  bones:  at  Soderthaasent 
elephants'  bones  much  calcined.  At  Pottditm,  elephants*  bones:  near 
Magdeburg,  elephants'  bones  f . 

In  Bohemia,  some  elephants*  bones  in  several  places. 

Note — Marcus  Aurelius  waged  war  in  person  for  about  three  years 
together  against  many  nations  who  had  confederated.  The  Emperor 
in  person,  and  the  principal  officers,  marched  at  the  head  of  the  troops : 
this  war  was  very  obstinate,  and  many  of  the  nobility  were  killed.  The 
nations  were  the  Quadi,  (by  the  Danube  and  the  river  Mark);  Suevi, 
(between  the  Rhine  and  the  Elbe);  Sarmatse,  (very  undefined,  Poland, 


*  This  curve  is  like  that  of  the  tiuks  of  the  Lena  elephant.    Mr.  Aduus  nw 
a  tusk  at  Yakoutsk,  6rteen  feet  loo;  (Frencli). 
t  See  the  Note**,  p.  319. 



Russia,  &c);  Latringes,  (LiTcmia>  Riga);  Bursi,  Victovali,  Sosives,  Si- 
cobateSfRoxalani;  (the Ukraine) ;  Bastanue, (Upper  Hungary);  Alani, 
(the  countries  by  the  Don  and  the  Palus  Msotis);  Costoborei,  (this  and 
sereral  others  are  uneerttdn) ;  Marcomanni,  Narisei,  (Bohemia  and  Mo- 
nria).  This  war  was  resumed,  and  was  not  finished  at  the  Emperor's 
death. — CapitoUnus  in  Aug.  Hist,  p.  132. 

At  Seelberg,(oa  the  otiier  side  of  the  Necker),  six  hundred  ptces 
frcHii  Oaustadt>  at  the  depth  of  eighty  feet,  thirteen  tusks,  in  general 
much  curved,  placed  near  each  other,  as  if  intentionally,  and'  several 
separately;  also  a  number  of  grinders,  from  two  inches  to  one  foot  in 
length.  Bones  of  the  horse,  stag,  a  number  of  rhinoceros'  teeth ; 
others  supposed  to  be  of  the  bear,  and  one  attributed  to  the  tapir. 
Kear  the  walls  of  Canttadtj  a  skeleton  and  two  tusks. 

At  Cemttftdt,  (three  miles  from  Stutgard),  in  the  year  1700,  a  vast 
collection  of  bones  was  found,  none  at  a  greater  depth  than  twenty 
feet  "  Sans  aucun  ordre,  en  gnmde  partie  bris^ ;  quelquesuns  roules. 
sans  aucune  proportion  entre  eux:  des  dents  de  cfaevauz  par  charet- 
t^es,  et  pas  des  os  pour  la  dixieme  partie  de  ces  dents*:  plus  de  soiz- 
ante  defenses,  une  tr;^  courbee,  de  cinq  et  demi  pieds,  une  autre  de 
quatre  et  demi.  Les  os  des  elephans  paroissent  avoir  et^  plus  elev^, 
que  la  plupart  des  autres.  Une  partie  etoit  engag^e  dans  une  espece 
de  roc,  fermee  par  de  I'argile,  du  sable,  des  caiUeux  et  de  I'ocre ;  a^lu- 
tines  ensemble,  et  Ton  fut  oblige  d'employer  la  poudre  pour  !es  avoir. 
Ces  OS  sont  accompagnes  dans  le  cabinet,  de  beaucoiip  d'os  de  rhino- 
ceros, d'hyseue,  et  d'animaux  du  genre  da  cheval  f,  du  cerf,  du  bteiif, 

*  Hones,  bulli,  and  other  domettic  animak,  were  ilBJa  ia  the  ampbitbeatret, 
Montfaucoa,  Vo).  IIL  Julin  Canar  exhibked  a  combat  of  forty  elepbaate 
against  fire  bundred  bone  aad  one  tbonsand  foot  Keoaet,  p.  368.  Plioyt  ^bL 
H»t.  Lib.  VIII.  Cb.  VII. 

t  PoHibly  the  cebra,  quagba  ur  orix  f  wbicb  were  at  Rome  not  uncommoii. 
Sererus  broagbt  hories  reaemUing  tigen,  fron  tbe  Bed  Sea.    Sioo  Canhia. 

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du  Hivre  et  petits  carnassiers  •.  De  tr^s  grandes  epiphyses  de  vertfe- 
I  bres,  ponrroient  Fure  soup90iuier  des  c^tasesf .  Il-y-a  aussi  quelques 
fragmens  kanutins.  Malheureusement,  on  n'a  pas  assez  distingue 
les  hauteurs  diff^rentes,  6u  chaqne  os  fut  trouve,  pendant  six  mois 
que  les  fonilles  dur^rent,  ni  les  os  qui  etoient  dans  le  retranche- 
ment  mentionn^  par  Reisel,  de  ceux  qu'on  trouva  hors  de  ses 
Ihnites.  On  deterra,  par  example,  aussi  des  morceaux  de  charhon 
et  des  fragments  d'objets  fabriques  par  I'homme,  comme  des  vaseSj 
&c.  qui  assurSment  n'avoient  pas  ete  deposes  en  meme  temps  que 
les  grands  os  %.  Reisel  dit  qu'il  y  avoit  des  debris  d'un  ancien  mur, 
€pais  de  huit  pieds  et  de  quatre  vingts  de  tour,  qui  paroit  avoir  ete 
I'enceinte  d'un  fort  ou  d'un  temple;  et  Ton  Toit  en  effet  encore 
quelques  Testes  §.  Aussi  Spleiss  conclut-il  que  ces  os  etoient  ceux 
des  animaux  qu'on  sacrifioit;  mais  ils  etoit  pour  la  plupart  bien 
plus  profondement  que  les  fondations  de  ce  mur :  d'ailleurs  Ton  en 
trouve  encore  plus  pr^  du  Necker,  dans  un  sol  naturel,  et  tout  sem- 
blable  ^  celui  6u  on  les  deterra. 

Tout  ce  qu'on  pourroit  conclure  de  leur  aboudance  dans  cette  en- 
ceinte, c'est  qu'ils  avoient  deja  ^te  une  fois  deterres  et  rassembl^  a  cet 
endroit  par  quelque  curieux. 

M.  Autenrieth  a  trouve  dans  le  voisinage  une  foret  enti^re  de 
tronc  II  de  palmiers  couches. 

*  Sometimea  three  liundred  oxen  were  sacrificed.     Livy,   B.  XXII.  Ch.  X. 

Hares  and  deer Kennet,  p,  276.     Swine,  sheep,  eagles,  lions,  a  hundred  at  a 

time Bernard,  Vol.  II.  p.  86. 

t  Bones  of  wbaleg  and  other  sea  animuls  were  sometimes  exhibited.  By  Au- 
gUBtiis._See  Suetonius,  Ch.  LXXII.     By  Scauras See  Catron,  Vol.  VI.  p.  96. 

X  Sacrifices  aud  games  were  common  for  a  great  many  centuries. 

%  Sacrificial  Temples  were  round.  Kennet,  p.  84. 

y  These  trunks  uf  trees  are  rery  probably  the  wrecks  of  an  amphitheatre,  see 
Chap.  X.    The  rases  assist  in  proving  a  Romaa  origin. 

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Note.*  • — The  Emperor  Probus,  after  slaying  near  four  hundred 
thousand  of  the  barbarians,  (and  the  entire  submission  of  nine 
kingdoms),  drove  the  rest  beyond  the  rivers  Elbe  and  the  Necker. 
He  took  as  much  booty  from  them,  as  they  had  taken  from  the  Ro- 
mans ;  besides  which,  he  planted  Roman  colonies  and  garrisons  on  the 
barbarian  soil,  and  placed  his  soldiers  upon  them.^ — ^Bernard,  Vol.  II. 
p.  289,  from  Flavins  Vopiscns.  The  great  stone  wall  which  Probus 
caused  to  be  built  by  the  Roman  legions  reached  from  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Newstadt  and  Ratisbon  on  the  Danube,  across  hills,  rallies, 
rivers,  and  morasses,  as  far  as  Wimpfen  on  the  Neeker,  and  at  length 
terminated  on  the  banks  of  the  Rhine,  after  a  winding  course  of  near 
two  hundred  miles. — See  Gibbon,  Ch.  XII.  As  Probus  had  been 
much  in  Egypt,  and  possessed  such  vast  numbers  of  wild  beasts,  (see 
Ch.  XI.)  there  can  be  little  doubt  but  that  the  troops,  during  this 
labour,  and  especially  on  the  fulfilment  of  their  arduous  task,  were  in- 
dulged with  the  combats  of  beasts,  and  other  amusements,  which  were 
usual  in  the  camps :  and  that  the  reduced  kings  and  their  subjects 
would  be  conciliated  by  the  like  means.  Probus  transplanted  a  great 
number  of  Vemdals  into  Thrace. — Augustan  Hist.  Vol  II.  293.  He 
also  sent  some  Vandals  to  Britain,  who,  it  is  supposed,  settled  near 
Cambridge,  and  from  whom  a  village  was  named  Vandalsburg.  See 
Rees's  Cyc.  **  Vandals."  The  history  or  life  of  Probus  is  exceedingly 
imperfect,  having  been  lost ;  and  there  remains  little  more  than  has 
been  preserved  in  the  Augustan  History,  by  Flavius  Vopiscus,  which 
see,  p.  273. 

In  Poland  a  few  bones  have  been  found. 

Note. — There  is  perhaps  not  a  place  mentioned  where  bones  have 
been  found,  that  was  not  visited  by  large  Roman  armies,  and  most  of 
them  even  by  Emperors.  Trajan  twice  invaded  Dacia,  and  the  wars 
were  long  and  difficult:  he  made  it  a  province  of  the  empire,  and  plant- 



ed  it  with  Roman  colonida.  On  bis  return  to  RomSi  the  spectacles 
lasted  for  months:  eleven  thousand  various  beasts  were  slain;  and  ten 
thousand  gladiators  combated. — Augustan  History.  VoL  I.  p.  80.  On 
the  other  occasion  of  his  return  from  Dacia>  a  medal  was  stmok  to 
celebrate  his  victory,  upon  which  is  represented  a  chariot  drawn  by 
four  elephants. — Haym.  YvA.  II.  p.  306.  Augustus,  partly  in  person, 
and  partly  by  his  lieutenants,  conquered  Pannonia,  (Hungary).  He 
put  a  stop  to  the  inroads  of  the  Dacians,  (Transylvania,  Moldavia,  and 
Wallachia),  by  cutting  off  three  of  their  generals  with  vast  armies. 
He  drove  the  Germans  beyond  the  Elbe. — Suetonius,  "  Aug."  XXI. 
Domitian  invaded  Germany,  Poluid,  and  Dacia.  If  bones  of  ele~ 
phants,  and  such  wild  beasts  as  were  slain  in  the  Roman  games,  are 
found  in  any  places,  not  known  to  be  mentioned  as  having  been  fre- 
quented by  the  Romans,  can  thb  same  cause  for  their  existence,  in 
such  places,  be  doubted  ?  May  not  some  of  those  countries  have  adt^t- 
ed  the  like  sports  by  purchasing  beasts? 

In  Ostrobothnie,  a  grinder.  At  Falkenburg,  in  Halland,  two  bones. 
In  Iceland,  a  petrified  grinder  *.  Pontoppidan  mentions,  from  Tor*- 
foeus,  a  prodigious  skull  and  tooth. 

*  Such  instancea  ofbonei,  whidi  may  bare  been  conreyed  by  travellenf  aa 
curioaitieH,  cannot  be  supposed  to  affect  the  general  question. — The  late  perioda 
of  the  conquests  in  the  abore  countries  bare  been  selected  in  preference  to  those 
of  Ctesar  and  others,  in  comeqiience  of  the  Romans  having  subdued  Egypt,  and 
then  possessing  such  numbers  of  wild  beasts. — All  the  elephants  and  wild  beastSi 
shown  from  the  earliest  times  as  curiosities,  must  hare  produced  many  of  the  re* 
mains  of  single  animals,  which  have  been  found. 

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Sketch  of  the  History  of  Roman  Britain,  ending  A.  D.  427. 

Julius  Ctesar, Claudius. Elephants^ Britain  is  vi- 
sited by  many  Emperors. York,  the  Head  Quarters  of  the 

Roman  Empire  for  three  years* -Mines. Wealth. 

Teu^les. Baths. Amphitheatres.  ■■— —  British  Empe- 
rors.  Carausius;  his  powerful jleet;  he  sails  to  Africa. 

Conquest  of  Gaul  and  l^ain  by  Maximm;  he  passes  the  Alps. 

Invasion  of  Gaul,  Spain,  and  Italy,  by  Constantine. 

Sudden  ruin  and  destruction  of  Colonies,  Tozens,  Temples,  and 

JdRITAIN,  to  any  one  who  is  searching  for  tnith>  or  real  history, 
furnishes  no  materials  which  are  worthy  to  occupy  his  time  or  atten- 
tion, until  that  island  attracted  the  notice  of  the  Romans :  and  even 
then,  for  nearly  a  century,  we  are  confined  to  the  picture  which  Csesax 
has  drawn  in  his  Commentaries.  Rude  as  is  his  description  of  the  Bri- 
tons, he  failed  with  hb  immense  army  to  subdue  them.  The  inter- 
course which  this  event  caused  between  Britain  and  Italy,  appears  to 
have  had  a  favourable  effect  on  the  savage  manners  and  customs  of 
the  natives. 

The  residence  of  Agricola  may  he  considered  as  the  foundation  of 



a  rapid  approach  to  a  degree  of  civilization,  and  even  grandeur,  seldom 
granted  to  their  own  island,  in  those  ages,  by  the  generality  of  the 
English  in  modern  times. 

The  invasion  by  Csesar  is  described  in  so  many  bookfi,  that  it  will 
be  merely  glanced  at  in  this  chapter,  in  order  to  dwell  at  greater  length 
on  that  part  of  history,  which  is  more  to  the  purpose  of  this  essay; 
and  much  less  known  to  most  readers. 

From  the  first  invasion  of  Britain,  by  Julius  Csesar,  about  fifty-four 
years  before  Christ,  to  the  abandoning  of  the  island,  is  four  hundred 
and  eighty-one  years.  Of  this  number  there  are  no  less  than  three 
hundred  and  twenty  years  in  which  Britain  is  not  noticed  by  any 
known  author*.  In  the  rest  of  that  long  period,  war  is  almost  the 
only  topic  which  engages  the  attention  of  the  Romans,  when  Britain 
is  mentioned. 

The  manners  and  customs  of  the  Britons,  and  of  the  resident  Ro- 
mans, while  the  island  was  under  their  domination,  can  only  be  known 
by  the  few  incidental  remarks  that  can  be  collected,  and  the  very 
numerous  vestiges  which  have  been  discovered  and  described  by  An- 

Ceesar  invaded  Britain  two  successive  years;  the  first  time  with  two, 
and  the  second,  with  five  legions  f,  and  about  two  thousand  cavalry,  in 
eight  hundred  vessels.     On   the  approach  of  the  Romans  to  the 

*  Horsleyi  Britannia  Romana.    Chronolo^cal  table. 

t  A  legion,  without  auxiliaries,  was  about  aix  tfaouaand  foot,  and  with  auxilia- 
ries, double  (he  number.  The  auxiliariea  were  levies  from  the  conquered  coun- 
tries. In  the  reigns  of  Dioclesian  and  Maximian  a  legion  consisted  of  six  thousand 
six  hundred  and  six^-six.    Bernard,  Vol.  II,  p.  348. 

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Thames,  which  they  meant  to  cross,  (at  Oatlands),  CaBsireUumus,  with  CHAP, 
his  army  of  Tritons,  were  there  to  dispute  the  passage,  which  was  forti-  v.«i-y-^>. 
fied  with  sharp  stakes.  Cssar  ordered  the  cavahy  to  ride  into  the 
water,  and  the  foot  to  follow:  the  ford  was  ahout  five  feet  deep.  C»- 
sar  had  with  him  a  vastly  large  elephant,  covered  with  an  iron  coat  of 
mail,  bearing  a  large  turret  upon  his  bac^  filled  with  bow-men  and 
dingers.  The  cavalry  and  foot  attacked  the  army  with  vigour*.  At 
the  approach  of  the  elephant,  the  Britons,  with  their  horse  and  cha- 
riots, dismayed  at  the  sight  of  such  a  monstrous  beast,  fled;  and  the 
rest  of  the  Romans  crossed  without  oppositionf . 

The.  many  adoantageg  gained  by  the  Romans,  according  to  their 
commander's  Commentaries,  ended  in  a  treaty,  by  which  the  Britons 
engaged  to  pay  a  moderate  tribute :  and  they  gave  hostages  for  the 
performance  of  their  engagement.  Ceesar  departed  with  his  whole  ar- 
my; and,  "on  his  return  to  Rome,  at  ffjrom  a  gloriotu  enterprite,he 
offered  to  Venus,  the  patroness  of  his  family,  a  corslet  of  British 
pearls  J." 

Augustus,  according  to  Dion  Cassius,  set  out  for  the  conquest  of 
the  island,  but  the  Britons  sued  for  peace,  and  obtained  it  while  he 
was  in  Gaul.  There  are  British  coins  with  the  head  of  Augustus,  and 
the  word,  tascia,  and  several  with  that  word  and  the  head  of  Cunobe- 
line:  it  is  therefore  highly  probable  that  tribute  was  paid,  and  that 

*  Ctesar'B  CommeDtarieB. 

t  Polyienus's  SlretageiDB,  B,  VIII.  Neither  Ctesar  nor  any  Romaa  baa  bad  tbe 
candour  to  mentioD  this  sh-atagem. 

t  Milton,  Htstorical  Works,  Tol.  II.  p.  19,  from  Pliny.  Snetonius,  Ch.  XXVIl. 
says,  *'  Ibey  report  tbat  Ctesar  invaded  Britain,  in  hopes  of  finding  pearU,  the  big- 
ness of  which  he  would  compare  together,  and  examine  tbe  weight  by  poising 
them  in  his  band."  "  The  British  pearls,  however,  proved  of  little  ralae,  on  ac- 
count of  their  dark  and  livid  colour."    Gibbon,  Cb.  I.  Note  6. 

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Horace  alludes  tA  that  cireumstancef.    Iik  tbe  reign  ofTiberius^  stnne 
'  slrips  belonging  to  Genuanicus  wer«,  in  «  furious  stonnl  driven  to  Bri- 
tain, and  were  sent.back  by  Cunobelhi^.    ^he  marinersKOJ)  th^  re- 

*  "jbo  earth  a  |>resent  ^fCMyBhall  Cxaatr  reign, 


Sfncfl  world-divided  BriniD  owBa  his  sway." 
V  \     Fratici^t  Horace,  B,  III,  Ode  V. 

-Mikon,  ID  bisHistofyvdeBies  that  tribute  w^uli^iL  See  Camden, 'Vt>LJt4i--IXTiii. 

/'      t -DBSCEIPTIOIfOrPLATEI.  / 

j^  I      CCOIN8  OB  ANCffiN^  BUl'LSH  KUiGS.)         ( 

L  Cutiobeliiw.     The  Rbver^e  reprflsent^^coiaiog.      (This  coii^as  foo^d  at 
~~  '      St.  Albans.)     Re-was  kin^  of  the  -T^iD'obaniea,  and  resided ^it'Cai^ladu- 

num  (Colchester).    He  died  about  A.  D.  41.  x"^    : 

i  7^  tame, — Reverse,  Apollo.     (Fonnil  at  St.  Albans).  / 

8.  7%e  same. — Reverse,  a  horse.    (Founa  at  St.  Albans),    British  bocanB  were 
.  then  much  jtnzed.  ,  .      ■  \  ' 

•-A-3Sre  saffle.^-Revefse^.E^asus.    (Founit  «tJEi»g«cote,  Gtoucestecahin); 

5  Jtt)*  Jttiowa.-^Rever8e,  Vernlam.'   (Found  at  St.  Albans). 

6  Caractacus,     Son  of  Cunsbeltna.     He  was  king  of  the  Silures.     His  capital 

wt^-i^gcgu&Kf^  ia  MontDonthshire.    (Found  at  Stv^lbans).    . 
^        6  A  The  tame.  /His  snaaU  brass  coio/is  a  great  curiosity,  haj^ing  A  head  of 

<      this  renowned  Brifon.  '  It  is  not  will  execufied.   The  reTerse^CAItlCt  shows 

V  that  Carictakas  Avas  tha  proper  way  of' s)ielling  his  name:  it  js  from  Tac - 

~~        tus  that  thecomfnob'  spelling  is  denwd..  .(in  the  possesion  of  tEe  Earl  of 

Wih<)hdwn.)     Haym.  Vol.  I.  p.  145. 

7  Arpiragut.    Sqii  of  Cunobeline.    Hels  called  the  youngest  ssh,  by  Sbakes- 
'  pear.    He  was  tiTing  and  celebrated  as  a  monarcli  of  importance  in  the 

reign  orDJmitian,by  Juvenal,  Sat\^IV.;i37.     (Found  at  K'ngscote). 

^JMn of  BoadieeU^^Qaeea  of  tho  Icem;  ^li^epapital  was  Castei;, (Ncirwich). 
Tho  strange  figure  on  the  reverse  has  been  conjectured  to  mean  a  borae 
worn  out  by  hard  labour.    (Found  at  St.  Albans). 

9  ifot  ascertained.      Sererse  an  elephant.     (Found    in  Buckitigi^iisbire), 

The  head  bears  resembluice  to  Arriragus.  /      . 

n.  {fix  itoowii.  ^verke  an  unicorn.  (Found  in  Herefordshire.)  Cateden 
could  not  explain  the  legend.  He  does  not  conjecture  <tbnt  it  may  be  de- 
rived froffl  the  Greeks    See  Cb.  XI.  lBEitHote,OD  theUofwra. 


Coins  of  Ancient  British  Bires. 


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tiirD>  recoanted  wonders,  uncommon  birds,  and  sea  monsters  of  ambi- 
guous forms  between  man  and  beast:   strange  sights,  (says  Tacitus,  '. 
Annal.  II.),  or  the  effects  of  imagination  and  fear*. 

Not  any  thing  more  material  is  known  till  Adminius,  son  of  Cuno- 
belinus,  having  incurred  his  father's  displeasure,  fled  to  Rome,  and 
persuaded  Caligula,  (A.  D.  40),  to  send  an  army  for  the  conquest  of 
Britain.  A  considerable  force  was  collected  on  the  coast  of  Belgic 
Gaul.  While- the  army  was  embarking,  Caligula  went  on  board  a  gal- 
ley, and  was  rowed  towards  Britain:  but  being  told  that  the  enemy 
were  in  force  upon  their  coast,  waiting  the  attack,  he  speedily  return- 
ed, and  harangued  his  army,  as  if  the  Britons  were  in  view.  The 
charge  was  sounded,  and  the  troops,  by  their  Emperor's  command — 

*  These  were  not  the  first  report!  about  (rightful  aaimali,  probably  seals. 
The  ocean  wild  that  roars, 
With  moDBter-'beariDg  wares,  ronnd  Britain's  rocky  shores." 

Horace,  B.  TV.  OdeXlV. 

The  words  Tascio,Tascia,Ta8cie,  are  said  to  be  derived  from  Taxatio,  and 
mean  tribute  money.  For  further  inforaiation,  see  P^^'s  Essay ;  Cam- 
den's Britannia;  and  H.  Moll's  Description  of  England. 

11  &  12    'Are  Saxon,  (Sancii  Petri  Monela,)  coined  at  Eboracum. 

a  A.  The  head  CanicalU.  The  rererae  represents  a  ship  built  in  an  amphi- 
theatreatBome;  from  which  400  wild  beasts  were  let  out  at  once.  Seeuotea 
on  Sevn-us  in  this  Cht  and  Cb.  XI.  The  medal  is  in  A.  Morellins,  8fo. 
Lipsife,  1695.     Specimen  Unirersae  Rei  Nummarin,  &c. 

13  A.     Two  sides  of  an  Altar  for  sacrificing,  and  the  implements:  it  was  found  at 

Bibcbester,  nenr  Preston ;  (where  many  curious  Roman  antiquities  faa?e 
been  dug  op). 

14  A.    The  bottom  of  a  broken  sacrificing  cup.     (Found  at  Ribchester). 

16  A.  Maximian.  This  Emperor's  history  is  imperfectly  known.  He  had  a  tri- 
umph for  exploits  in  Britain:  and  the  Roman  fleet  commanded  by  bint 
was  overpowered  by  that  uf  the  British  Emperor  Carausins,  off  Ibe  Isle  of 



filled  their  helmets  with  cockle-shells,  and  returned  to  Rome.  Tfani 
ridiculous  tyrant  wrote  to  the  senate  to  decree  him  a  triumph. 

Cunobelinus,  whose  capital  was  Camelodunum,  (Colchester),  had, 
it  is  said,  been  brought  up  at  the  Court  of  Augustus  *.  At  his  death  > 
his  son  AdminiuB,  who  had  possessed  regal  powerf.  was  in  buiish- 
ment:  and  he  was  succeeded  by  his  other  sons^  Togodumnus  and  Ca- 
ractacufl ;  but  it  is  not  known  if  they  were  equal  in  power. 

Bericus,  a  fugitive  Briton,  with  some  of  his  party,  went  to  Rome, 
and  persuaded  Claudius  to  invade  the  island  |.  The  Britons  demanded 
the  fugitive,  and  prohibited  intercourse  with  Rome  §.  The  £mi>aor 
resolved  on  the  conquest  of  the  island. 

The  Roman  soldiers,  aware  of  the  reception  Julius  Caesar  had  met 
with,  expressed  their  aversion  to  wage  war  at  the  extremity  of  the 
world,  and  refused  to  embark.  This  caused  the  Britons  not  to  make 
the  necessary  preparations  for  their  defence.  The  Roman  troops  were, 
however,  brought  to  a  sense  of  their  duty;  and,  under  the  conunand 
of  Aulus  Plautius,  Vespasian,  (afterwards  Eniperor),  and  his  brother 
Sabinus,  four  legions,  with  their  auxiliaries,  amounting  to  about  fifty 
A.D.  48.    thousand  troops,  safely  landed,  without  opposition  [|. 

Plautius  first  marched  in  quest  of  the  two  kings,  and  defeated  them, 
one  after  the  other.  He  then  reduced  part  of  Oxfordshire  and  Glou- 
cestershire, (the  Dobuni),  and  left  a  Roman  garrison  to  keep  them  in 
awe.    After  this,  his  German  soldiers  swam  across  a  river,  surprised 

*  HilloB,  8T0.edit.  p.  6S.    See  Sbakespear,  Cymbeline,  Act  III.  Scene  I. 

" Thou  art  welcome,  Caius, 

Thy  Casar  knighted  me:  my  youth  I  spent 
Much  under  him}  of  him  I  gathered  honour." 

t  See  Medal  29,  Plate  3. 

X  No  further  particulars  are  known  about  Bericua. 

%  Suetonius,  in  Claudius,  Cb.  XVII.  U  Rapin,  Vol.  I.  p.  35,  Note  2. 



the  Britons,  And,  accarding  to  orders,  fell  on  ^eir  horses  which  drew 
the  war  chariots.    Another  body  of  troops  joining  the  Germans,  the  < 
Britons  were  pat  to  flight,     a 

'The  next  day  the  Britons  fought  the  Romans  with  great  bravery, 
on  the  banks  of  the  Severn,  it  is  supposed ;  and,  after  a  conflict  which 
was  long  doubtful,  the  Romans  were  victorious,  and  the  Britons  fled  to 
the  mouth  of  ihe  Thames.  They  were  closely  pursued  by  the  Ro- 
mans, who,  being  unacquainted  with  the  flats  and  shallows,  were  often 
in  danger.  The  Germans,  as  before,  swimming  the  river,  and  the 
Romans  crossing  by  a  bridge  higher  up,  the  Britons  were  surrounded, 
and  great  numbers  of  them  were  cut  to  pieces.  Many  of  the  Romans, 
too  ei^;er  in  the  pursuit,  were  lost  in  the  marshes.  In  one  of  these 
battles  Togodumnus  was  killed. 

The  Britons  were  not  disheartened,  but  were  eager  to  revenge  the 
death  of  their  king ;  and  Plautius,  who  was  at  one  time  thought  to  have 
been  slain  or  captured,  contented  himself  witb  placing  garrisons  in 
his  conquests  *. 

"  Plautius,  fiearing  the  worst,  and  gUd  that  he  could  hold  what  he 
possessed,  as  was  enjoined  him,  sends  to  Qaudius.  He,  who  waited 
ready  with  a  huge  preparation,  as  if  not  safe  enough  amidst  the  flower 
of  his  Romans,  tike  a  great  eastern  king,  with  armed  elephants  f . 
marches  through  Crallia  (to  Boulogne).  So  full  of  peril  was  this  enter- 
prise esteemed,  as  not  without  all  this  equipage,  and  stranger  terrors 
than  Roman  armies,  to  meet  naked  and  native  British  valour.  Joined 
with  Plautius,  he  crosses  the  Thames,  llie  Britons  scrupled  not 
to  afircmt,  in  open  field,  almost  the  whole  force  of  the  Roman  Em- 

•  SeeEnc.  Brit.  "  Engtaod."  Milton,  Sro.  edit.  p.  ff4. 

f  The  elephants  of  Claudim  are  never  mentioned  by  the  Romans  as  used  in 
battle  against  the  Britons.  This  stndied  silence  is  creditable  rather  to  the  island- 
ers, than  to  their  enemies. 

y  Google 


^Ynf '  P^'^*-"  Claudius,  bieing  viKtorious,  encamped  at  Camelodiuum,  the 
^^if-^-m^  royal  seat,  with  three  legions.  A  large  well-built  town  was  immedi- 
ately erected,  with  temples,  theatres,  &c. 

Togodumnus  behig  killed,  it  was  at  this  period  that  Arriragiu,  ano- 
ther son  of  Cunobeline,  is  supposed  to  have  been  placed  on  the  throne 
at  Camelodunumf. 

After  six  months'  absence,  the  Emperor  returned  to  Rome:  he  had 
been  but  sixteen  days  in  Britain.  The  senate  decreed  him  a  triumph, 
and  to  him,  and  to  his  son,  the  surname  of  Britannicus.  The  pub- 
lic rejoicings  lasted  many  days.  Claudius  presided  in  his  general's 
cloak,  and  represented,  in  the  field  of  Mars,  the  sacking  of  a  town,  and 
the  surrender  of  the  British  kings];. 

The  Britons,  having  been  left  in  possession  of  their  goods,  erected 
a  temple  to  the  Emperor  at  Camelodunum,  and  paid  him  divine 

Plautius,  Vespasian,  and  his  son  Titus,  (then  a  military  tribune)  car- 
ried on  the  war  with  great  reputation.  Vespasian,  whom  Claudius 
had  associated  in  the  direction  of  this  conquest,  captured  some  chieft, 
gained  near  thirty  battles  in  the  southern  provinces ;  and  conquered 
the  Isle  of  Wight  In  one  of  the  conflicts,  Vespasian  was  surrounded, 
and  in   danger  of  being  killed,  but  was  valiantly  rescued  by  Ti- 

»  Millon,Vol.Ii.  p.Sl. 

t  The  beginning  of  the  reigo  of  Claudius  being  a  part  of  Tacitut  which  is  loit, 
hae  created  uncertainty  with  respect  to  the  period  orArviragiu.  Hector  Boethiua 
(an  author  or  little  reputation)  relates  that  he  was  placed  on  the  throne  by  Clandina. 
Shakespear,  in  his  playofCymbeline,  (spelt  Kymbeline  by  Milton  in  his  Histo- 
ry), calls  him  the  youngestson  of  Cunobeline.  Juvenal,  Sat.lV.  127,  proves  that 
he  was  living  in  Domitian's  reign.  Claudius  invaded  the  island  in  the  year  43. 
Domitian  began  his  reign  in  the  yearSl.  Therefore  the  above  account  of  him  is  pos- 
sibly the  truth,  but  cannot  be  depended  oa. — See  Camden;  and  Dr.  Pegge,  p.  78. 

t  Suetonias,Ch.XXI. 


tuB  *.     Great  dignities  and  honours  were  granted  to  Vespasian,  at 
Rome,  for  his  victories  f.  v 

On  the  return  of  Plautius  to  Italy,  the  Emperor  met  him  without 
the  gate  of  Rome,  and  in  his  carriage  gave  him  the  right  hand  seat, 
ai  they  entered,  in  token  of  his  high  applause :  an  ovation  also  was 
granted  to  this  meritorious  officer,  who  had,  among  his  other  exploits, 
gained  a  victory  over  Caractacus.     A.D-  47. 

Ostorios  Scapula  succeeded  Ptautius  as  propraetor,  (A.  D.50.) — 
He  found  Britain  in  great  combustion  aud  uproar.  Since  a  peace 
made  by  restraint,  is  never  sincere,  and  could  not  insure  repose,  he 
determined  to  deprive  of  their  arms  all  those  whom  he  suspected, 
and  to  confine  them  between  the  rivers  Avon  and  Severn :  a  determi- 
nation at  first  thwarted  by  the  Icenians,  a  powerful  people,  who  had  of 
their  own  accord  confederated  with  the  Romans,  and  who  were  not 
weakened  by  the  assaults  of  war :  the  bordering  nations  joined  them, 
and  an  army  was  formed. 

The  place  they  chose  was  defended  by  a  ditch,  and  the  approach  to 
it  was  not  passable  by  cavalry.  The  Roman  general,  without  the 
support  of  the  legions,  ranged  his  cohorts,  dismounted  the  horse, 
forced  the  diteb,  and  broke  the  enemy,  who  performed  many  feats  of 
bravery.  Marcus  Ostorius,  the  general's  son,  having,  in  this  battle, 
saved  the  life  of  a  Roman  citizen,  acquired  the  civic  crown.  The 
overthrow  of  the  Icenians  calmed  those  unsettled  spirits,  who  were 
before  wavering  between  peace  and  war,  says  Tacitus,  and  the  Ro- 

*  Dion  CaMius,  **  Claudius." 

t  O  dioa,  to  wbtHH  tbe  unfreqoented  sea 
Reserved  the  hononr  of  discovery  I 
fVben  Caledonia's  waves  tby  vessel  bore. 
Those  waves  tfaat  FfaTygJa**  race  disdain'd  before. 

Faleritu  Flacats  to  Fetpasian.     Camden,  Yol.  I.  p.  xli. 



mans  were  led  against  the  Cangians,  (Cheshire  and  Lancashire),  vriiofe 
'  territories  were  ravaged. 

The  Roman  army  having  reached  the  shore  opposite  Ireland,  the 
general  was  informed  that  commotions  had  begun  among  the  Brigantes, 
and  he  returned  thither.  A  few  who  had  raised  the  revolt  were  exB- 
cuted,  and  the  rest  were  pardoned:  but  no  rigour  or  mercy  couM  re- 
claim the  Situres,  (South  Wales),  who  were  to  be  reduced  only  by  the 
legions.  To  facilitate  this  design,  a  colony,  powerful  in  the  number 
of  vet^'ans,  was  conveyed  to  Camelodunum,  to  inure  their  allies  to  the 
Roman  laws  and  jurisdiction.  To  the  British  Ung  Co^unus  cer- 
tain communities  were  given:  a  prince  who  very  long  remained  faith- 
ful to  the  Romans. 

From  Camelodunum  the  Roman  army  marched  agiunst  the  Silures, 
a  people  resolute  and  fierce  by  nature;  and,  moreover,  confiding  in  the 
valour  of  Caractacus  *,  renowned  for  disasters,  and  surpassing  all  the 
other  British  commanders.  In  the  advantages  and  situation  of  the  coun- 
try he  was  more  expert  than  the  Romans,  and  therefore  translated  the 
seat  of  war  into  the  territory  of  the  Ordovices,  (North  Wales):  tatd 
being  joined  by  those  who  feared  an  unequal  peace  with  their  oppo- 
nents, he  ventured  to  ixy  the  decision  of  the  sword. 

He  chose  a  place  every  way  incommodious  to  Uie  Romans  f .  It 
was  on  the  ridges  of  steep  mountains:  and  where  the  sides  were  iq>- 
proachable,  he  reared  walls  of  stone  as  ramparts.  At  the  foot  of  the 
mountain  flowed  a  river,  daugerous  to  be  forded;  and  a  host  of  men 
guarded  his  entrenchments,  llie  leaders  of  the  confederate  nations 
were  busy,  from  quarter  to  quarter,  exhorting  and  animating  their 

*  Caerftuent  in  Monmoathahire,  was  his  capital, 

t  Caer  Caradoc,  two  railn  south  of  Clan,  and  three  from  Coxa),  in  Shropshire. 
The  ranparts  are  still  visible,  in  the  nineteMith  oentniy. 



followers:  Caractacus  flew  through  the  whole  anny  and  proclaimed     CHAP. 
"  That  from  this  battle  they  must  date  their  liberty  rescued ;  or  their  v.^-v'^ik^ 
servitude  eternally  established."    He  invoked  those  of  their  ancestors 
who  bad  exterminated  Ctesar  the  Dictator ;  "  men  by  whose  valour 
they  yet  lived  from  tribute,  and  the  Roman  axes, — yet  preserved  from 
prostitution  the  persons  of  their  children  and  wives." 

This  loud  alacrity  of  the  Britons,  amazed  the  Roman  general.  The 
river,  the  ramparts,  the  declivities,  and  the  hosts  of  the  enemy  were 
terrible  difficulties.  But  the  soldiers  and  the  tribunes  were  ardent 
for  the  attack.  Thus  animated,  Ostorius  led  them  on ;  and,  without 
much  difficulty,  gained  the  opposite  bank.  In  approaching  the  bul- 
wark, while  the  encounter  was  with  flights  of  darts,  more  of  the 
Romans  than  of  the  Britons  T^re  wounded,  and  many  began  to 
&11 :  but  after  they  had  formed  themselves  into  the  testudo,  or  mili- 
tary shell,  demolished  the  huge  and  shapeless  structure  of  stones,  and 
encountered  hand  to  hand  upon  even  ground,  the  barbarians,  says 
Tacitus,  betook  themselves  to  the  ridges  of  the  mountains,  and  were 
pursued  by  the  light  and  heavy  armed  Romans,  who  fought  in  close 
order,  while  the  Britons  only  discharged  their  arrows;  and,  as  they 
do  not  wear  armour,  their  ranks  were  broken.  Whero  they  resisted 
the  auxiliaries,  they  were  slaughtered  by  the  swords  and  javelins  of  the 
^Idiers  of  the  legions ;  and  by  the  great  sabres  and  pikes  of  the  auxi- 
liaries, where  they  &ced  those  of  the  legions.  Signal  was  this  victory. 
The  wife  and  daughter  of  Caractacus  were  taken  prisoners  and  his 
brother  surrendered  to  mercy  *. 

The  British  king,  after  nine  years'  opposition  to  the  Romans,  fled 
for  protection  to  his  stepmother,  Cartismandua,  queen  of  the  Drigan- 
tesf;  but  adversity,  says  the  Roman  historian,  has  no  friends:  she 

*  Tacilus,  Ad.  XII.  f  Yorkshire,  Lancuhire,  Wettrooreland,  &c.  , 




CHAP,     knded  him  with  irons,  and  deiiveied  him  up  to  the  ccmqueror:    he, 


^^^-y^m^  with  hifl  familf ,  was  sent  to  Rome.  The  Emperor  was  proud  of  bis 
captive ;  and  the  curiosity  of  the  Romans  was  eager  to  behead  a  hero 
whose  fiune  had  become  celebrated  even  in  Italy,  from  having  so  h>i^ 
withstood  the  Roman  arms.  At  the  solemn  procesgion  of  the  British 
captives  into  Rome,  the  military  accoutrements,  the  golden  chains 
and  rich  collars,  which  the  king  had  gained  in  various  battles,  were 
displayed  with  pomp.  All  the  prisoners  descended  to  abject  supplicar 
tions,  unworthy  of  tjieir  quality,  says  Tacitus,  except  Caractacua,  who, 
with  dignity  and  unshaken  fortitude,  addressed  the  tribunal,  on  the 
nobility  of  his  birth,  his  former  power,  his  actions,  and  his  present  fate. 
"  If  you  are  bent  on  vengeance,"  said  he,  "  execute  your  purpose,  and 
the  bloody  scene  will  soon  be  at  an  end.  Preserve  my  life,  and  I  shall 
remain  a  mtmument  of  Roman  clemency."  Claudius  was  charmed 
with  the  heroic  boldness  of  his  prisoner,  and  pardoned  him  and  his 
tnnily.  The  captives  were  all  unbound,  and  submissively  returned 
thanks  to  tlie  Emperor,  and  his  Empress  Agrippina,  who  were  seated 
in  state,  in  the  midst  of  the  cohorts.  When  the  aenaie  was  assembled, 
many  and  pompous  encomiums  were  pronounced  on  the  taking  of  Car 
ractacus,  as  an  event  no  leas  illustrious  than  the  c^ture  of  Syphax  by 
Publius  Scipio,  P^ses  by  Lucius  Paulus,  or  any  other  conquered 
kings,  which  the  great  captains  had  presented  to  the  Roman  people*. 

*  Caractacua  was  one  of  the  bods  of  Cunobeline,  whose  ftmily  appears  to  hare 
been  the  moat  powerful  in  Britaio.  Sincetbe  mitof  JuUiuC»ur,gi«nt[»ogTea8  - 
had  been  made  in  civilization.  Always  shewing  brarery,  but  not  poliahed,  the 
Britons  do  not  appear  to  have  bad  justice  done  them.  How  could  Tacitus  Fentare 
to  compare  tfais  capture  as  equal  in  fame  to  those  of  the  sovereigns  of  Africa  and 
Mncedos,  if  they  were  the  barbariatu  that  they  are  in  general  in  English  histo- 
ry represented  to  have  beeni  Probably,  most  readers  form  their  opinion  of  the  Bri- 
tons from  the  account  of  them  in  Ceesar's  Commentaries,  without  taking  into  consi- 
deration die  great  change  that  was  quickly  effected  by  their  intercourse  widi  the 



The  tTiiimphal  ornaments  yren  decreed  to  Ostorius.    The  brare  Bri- 
tish king,  when  conducted  tbrough  Rome  to  survey  its  grandeur —  > 
"  Why  are  you  Romans,"  said  he, "  who  live  in  sudi  magnificence,  so 
desirous  to  possess  our  country?" 

The  Romans,  perhaps,  thought  that  the  capture  of  Caractacus  had 
finished  the  war:  hut  the  Britons,  burning  for  revenge  at  the  loss  of 
so  great  a  king,  by  surprise  assailed  the  camp-marshal  and  legiim- 
ary  cohorts  left  to  raise  fortresses  in  the  country  of  the  Silures;  and, 
but  for  sudden  succours  from  the  circumjacent  garrisons, "  our  troops* 
says  Tacitus,  "had  been  cut  in  pieces;  as  it  was,  the  marshal  himself 
and  eight  centurions  were  there  slain,  with  the  most  resolute  soldiers." 
Soon  after,  the  foragers,  and  even  the  Roman  troops  sent  to  guard 
them,  were  entirely  routed.  Ostorius  despatched  to  their  relief  some 
cohorts  lightly  armed,  hut  they  were  not  able  to  stay  the  flight,  so 
that  the  kgions  were  drawn  out  to  restore  the  battle ;  which,  by  their 
strength,  instantly  became  equal.  The  Britons  fled ;  but,  as  the  night 
approached,  with  slight  loss.  Frequent  encounters  continued  in  woods 
and  morasses;  sometimes  by  command  of  their  officers,  and  often 
without  their  knowledge. 

Of  all  others,  the  Silnres.  were  the  most  implacable :  they  were  in- 
censed by  a  saying  of  the  Roman  general,  current  amongst  them, 
*'  that  their  name  must  be  utteriy  extinguished,  as  was  that  of  the 
Sugambrians,  who  had  be,en  partly  cut  ofi^,  and  the  rest  transphinted 
into  Gaul."  Thus  animated,  they  surprised  and  carried  off  two  auxili- 
ary cohorts,  who  were  plundering  the  country  to  satiate  the  avarice 

RomanB.  Th«  term,  Barbarians, wasapplied,bytheRoin&iui,toallnattODa«]:cept 
the  Greeks;  ta  it  was  by  the  Egyptians  to  all  who  did  not  speak  tbeir  langnage. 
SeeHerodotua,  Clio,Ch.1.  Note2;  Euterpe,  Cb.  CLVIU.  The  subseqaeot 
ftteof  Caractacus  is  not  known.  SeePlateL  Com  A6.  foralikeioess  ofthis 
celebrated  person. 

y  Google 


CHAP,    of  their  officers;  and  the  Britons  by  distrihuting  the  spoil  and  cap- 

^..•••v-'^-'  ^ives  among  the  neighbouring  nations,  were  drawing  them  also  into 

the  revolt,  when  Ostorius,  sinking  under  the  weight  of  his  anxieties^ 

A.  D.63.    expired;  to  the  great  joy  of  the  enemy,  that  so  considerable  a  captain 

had  perished  in  the  wan 

The  Emperor  Claudius  immediately  sent  over  Aulus  Bidius;  but« 
before  he  could  arrive,  the  legion  commanded  by  Manlius  Yalens  had 
suffered  a  defeat.  Didius  now  attacked  and  repulsed  the  Britom. 
Their  ablest  warrior,  since  the  capture  of  Caractacus,  was  Yenusius, 
of  the  city  of  the  Jugantes ;  a  man  long  faithful  to  the  Romans,  and 
protected  by  their  arms,  during  his  marriage  with  Csrtismandua,  Queen 
of  the  Brigantes;  but  being  divorced  from  her,  and  opposing  her  in 
war,  he  likewise  began  hostilities  against  the  Romans.  The  queen 
having,  by  stratagem,  possessed  herself  of  the  brother  and  other  kin- 
dred of  Venusius,  he  was  exasperated ;  and,  scorning  the  infamy  of  fall- 
ing under  the  dominion  of  a  woman,  assembled  all  the  ablest  and  most 
warlike  youth,  and  invaded  her  territories.  The  Romans  perceivmg 
this,  had  sent  some  cohorts  to  the  queen's  aid ;  and,  after  a  fierce  bat- 
tle, she  was  victorius.  Didius,  unwieldy  with  age,  and  satiated  with 
honours,  acted  by  his  lieutenants ;  and  the  legion  commanded  by  Ce- 
sius  Nasica  was  successful  against  the  Britons*. 

The  Bmperor  Claudius  was  poisoned,  A.  D.  64-f. 

Avitus  had  succeeded  Aulus  Didius.     At  this  time  the  Romans 

suffered  great  loss  in  Britain;  and  Avitus  could  but  just  maintain  his 

A.D.  67.    conquests.    He  was  replaced  by  Teranius,  who  ravaged  some  part  of 

the  country  of  the  Silures,  but  was  intercepted  by  death.     He  flattered 

*  Tacitus,  An.  XII. 

f  When  Claudius  was  sick,  Nero  presented  the  people  wiUi  a  bunting  of  wild 
beasts,  for  his  health.  Suetonius,  Nero,  Cb.  Vll.  This  iras  probably  by  tbe  or- 
der of  Agnppina. 



Nero  in  bis  will,  and  added, "  that  if  lus  life  had  been  prolonged  for  two 
years  longer,  he  should  have  completely  subjected  that  province  to  ~ 
his  obedieoce."    Suetonius  Paulinus  was  appointed  to  the  command. 
He  invaded  Mona,  (Anglesea),  the  common  refuge  of  revolters  and  fu- 
^tives,  and  where  the  entires  were  sacrificed  in  the  consecrated 

On  the  shores  of  the  island,  where  the  Britons  were  drawn  up,  the 
Romans  were  amazed  at  the  sight  of  womm,  with  their  hair  disheveled, 
and  fire-brands  in  their  hands,  frantic  and  furious,  surrounded  by  Dru- 
ids, with  uplifted  hands,  and  pouring  out  bitter  and  direful  impreca- 
tions on  the  invaders.  The  astonished  and  dismayed  Romans  paused 
and  stood  motionless  with  terror.  Exhorted  repeatedly  by  their  ge- 
neral, they  at  length  fell  on  the  enemy,  sword  in  hand,  and  conquered 
Mona.  In  the  mean  while,  Prasatugua,  long  renowned  for  hisopulence 
and  grandeur,  king  of  the  Icenians,  died,  and  left  Nero  co-heir,  with 
his  two  daughters,  of  his  great  treasures:  but  the  Emperor's  officers 
seized  the  whole  m  the  name  of  their  master  f .  The  widow,  Boadi- 
cea,  remonstrating  against  this  injustice,  underwent  the  ignominious 
violence  of  stripes,  and  her  daughters  were  brutally  dishonoured.  In- 
dignant at  this  infamous  conduct,  all  the  Britons  subjected  to  the  Ro- 
mans, (except  London),  revolted.  The  Trinobantes  were  particularly 
exasperated  by  the  Roman  veterans  having  turned  them  out  of  their 
houses,  and  debased  them  by  the  vile  titles  of  captives  and  slaves. 

Catus  Decianus,  the  procurator,  regardless  of  law  or  justice,  confis- 
cated the  property  guarantied  by  the  decree  of  Claudius.  Seneca, 
the  moralitt  and  philosopher,  having  lent  the  Britons  about  three 

*  TaciliM,  An.  XIV. 

X  The  country  of  the  Iceni  iras  Norfolk,  Suffolk,  and  Canibridge«hire.  Venln 
Icenoram  (now  Coster,  near  Norwich,)  was  their  capita). 



hundred  thousand  poonds  on  uaorions  interest,  exacted  rigorowly,  oa 
'  8  sudden,  the  repajrment.  (A.  D.  61^ 

At  this  period,  says  Tacitus,  the  statue  of  victory  at  CaneU)dunum 
tumbled  down,  with  her  ikce  tamed  round;  some  womoi  were  tran»- 
ported  with  oracular  fury,  and  chaunted  destruction  to  be  at  hand.  In 
the  places  of  public  business  the  accent  and  tumultuous  murmurs  of 
strangers  were  heard:  th^r  theatre  echoed  with  dismal  howlings;  and 
in  the  lakes,  formed  by  the  tides  resisting  the  Thames,  a  representa- 
tion was  seen  of  a  colony  overthrown.  The  sea  was  dyed  wiUi  blood, 
and  phantoms  of  human  bodies  appeared  left  behind  on  the  strand. 
These  omens  filled  the  Britons  with  joy  and  hope:  the  Romans  were 
cast  down  with  fear  and  despondency*.  They  sought  succours  from 
the  procurator  of  the  province,  who  sent  them  only  two  hundred  mai; 
and  there  was  but  a  small  number  in  Uie  colony  itself. 

The  Britons  rose;  and  every  thing  at  Camelodunum  yielded  to  in-' 
stant  violence,  and  was  razed  or  burnt  f.  The  temple  stood  a  siege  of 
two  days,  all  the  soldiers  having  retired  thither;  and  was  then  taken 
by  storuL  Petilius  Cerialis,  commander  of  the  ninth  legim,  as  he  ad- 
vanced to  relieve  his  friend,  was  met  and  encountered  by  the  victo- 
rious Britons :  his  legion  was  routed,  and  all  his  infimtry  were  slain. 
Cerialis,  with  the  horse,  escaped  to  the  camp,  and  there  defended  him- 
self in  his  entrenchments. 

The  terrified  procurator,  universally  hated  by  the  province,  driven 
thus  into  hostility,  by  his  rapacious  avarice,  fled  into  Gaul  j;. 

Suetonius  bravely  marched  through  the  heart  of  the  insurrection 
quite  to  London,  "a  city,  in  truth,  not  distinguished  with  the  title  of  a 
cf^ony,  but  highly  famed  for  the  vast  conflux  of  traders,  and  her  abun- 

•  See  DioD  Cassiiu,  Vol.  1,  p.  846. 
t  Th«  town,  Pliny  relates,  vbb  quickly  restored.  t  Tacitos,  An.  XIV, 



dant  commerce  and  ploity.  Suetonins  feared  to  make  London  his  bead- 
quarters,  in  consequence  of  the  small  number  of  his  troops.  Many  of  s 
tjie  inhabitnits  left  L<aidon  vith  him :  whoever  staid  behind,  whether 
ftom  tlie  weakneu  of  their  sex,  the  decrepitude  of  age,  or  the  charms 
of  the  place,  fell,  without  exception;  and  London  wasreduced  to  ashes. 
The  like  slaughter  hekl  the  mmiicipal  city  of  Yerulamium,  (St.  Al- 
bans). It  appearwl  that  seventy  thousand  Romans  or  confederates  of 
Rome,  for  the  Britons  neither  made,  nor  sold,  nor  exchanged  prison- 
era,  were  gibbeted,  burnt,  or  crucified,  with  the  desperation  of  men 
iriio  were  sure  «f  undergoing  a  terriUe  doom,  and  who  resolved,  by 
aatiinpatioD,  to  spiH  the  blood  of  others  before  their  own  was 

In  the  battle  that  followed,  Suetonins  had  ten  thousand  men  only, 
while  the  queen's  army  w  said  by  Dion  Cassiue,  to  have  consisted  of 
two  hundred  and  thirty  thousand,  confident  in  their  courage  and 
mtmbers.    Suetonius  chose  a  place  which  stretched  out  before  into  a 

*  A  short  time  previous  to  the  massacre,  the  Emperor,  says  Tacitus,  issued  an 
edict,  "  That  no  procurator,  or  any  other  magistrate,  who  bad  obtained  a  charge 
IB  any  proriaoe,  sbould  exhiUt  a  apedade  of  gladiators  or  vnid  beoitt,  nor  of  any 
other  popular  entertainment  whatsoerer;  for,  before  this,  they  had,  by  such  acts  of 
miiDificence,  no  less  afflicted  those  under  their  jurisdiction,  than  by  plundering 
them  of  their  money,  whilst,  under  the  tD8nenc«  of  such  court  to  the  maltitude, 
they  sheltered  their  arbitrary  delinquencies  and  rapine."  Claudius  sent  his  army 
to  Britain,  A.  D.  43.  Nero  succeeded  Claudius  in  tiie  year  54.  The  massacre 
was  in  the  ypar  61.  This  remarkable  edict  was  issued  not  long  before  the  massa- 
cre, which  happened  when  the  Romans  bad  been  in  the  possession  of  Britain 
for  fifleen  or  sixteen  years,  and  had  very  probably  been  entertaining  the  natives 
with  the  novel  and  extraordinary  shows,  and  battles  of  wild  beasts,  at  exorbitant 
charges.  Seneca's  loans  ere  a  proof  ihat  no  one  was  scrupulous  of  profiting  by  a 
newly  conquered  and  rich  country.  Tadtiu  remarks,  {Life  of  Afpricola),  that  Bri- 
tain bad  sufficient  gold  and  silver  amply  to  reward  all  t4e  toils  and  dangers  of  its 
conquerors,  besides  its  great  wealth  in  mines. 

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CHAP,    hollow  and  narrow  vale,  with  steep  sides,  and  was  behind  girt  in  wHh 

\.„^"y,-^^  wood. 

The  heroine,  with  her  daughters  at  her  side,  in  Uie  diariot,  rode 
among  the  several  nations,  animating  them  to  revenge  the  wnHigs  tiiey 
suffered,  from  the  lust  of  their  oppressors :  besides,  added  she,  "  yon 
pay  a  tax  for  your  very  bodies ;  my  resolution  Is,  to  vanquish  or  die : 
as  for  the  men,  they  may,  if  they  please,  live  and  be  slaves."  At  the 
end  of  her  speech,  she  let  loose  a  hare,  whic&  she  had  concealed  in  her 
bosom,  as  a  good  omen  of  victory. 

The  Britons  were  slain  to  the  number  of  eighty  thousand;  while  the 
Romans  had  but  eight  hundred  killed  and  wounded:  so  superior  is 
discipline  to  numbers  and  the  most  desperate  courage.  The  unhappy 
queen  poisoned  herself. 

Poenius  Postnmus,  camp-marshal  to  the  second  legion,  on  the  tid- 
ings of  the  exploits  and  success  of  the  fourteenth  and  twentieth  legions ; 
as  he  had  defrauded  his  own  of  equal  honour,  and,  contrary  to  the  laws 
of  military  duty,  had  disobeyed  the  orders  of  his  general,  pierced 
himself  through  with  his  sword- 
Suetonius  received  strong  reinforcements  from  Germany*,  while 
the  Britons  were  dying  in  numbers  by  famine ;  having  neglected  to 
cultivate  the  ground  f. 
Besides  that,  this  people,  by  nature  wonderfully  stubborn,  saysTaci- 

*  On  the  loeing  of  Britain  and  Armenia,  Nero  thougbt  that  he  had  run  through 
all  the  misfortunes  the  Fates  had  decreed  liim.     Suetonius,  Ch.  XL. 

t  About  this  period,  or  later,  a  Roman  senator  married  a  British  lady  named 
Claudia  Rufina,  an  accomplished  beauty.  Rapin,  (Vol.  I.  p.  14,)  supposes  this 
lady  to  be  one  of  the  Saints  mentioned  by  St.  Paul.    See  Milton's  8ro  edit.  p.  93. 

"  From  painted  Britons  bon*  was  Claudia  bonif 

The  feir  barbarian  how  do  arts  adorn?. 

When  Roman  charms  a  Grecian  soul  commend, 

Athens  and  Rome  may  for  the  dame  contend."        Martial. 

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tas,  were  become  more  arerse  to  peace,  firom  the  behaviour  of  Julius 
Classicianus,  who  had  arrired  as  successor  to  Catus ;  and,  being  at 
Taiiance  with  Suetonius,  he  obstructed  the  public  good,  to  gratify  pri- 
Tate  pique;  every  where  publishing,  that  another  governor  was  ex- 
pected, who  was  free  Irom  the  arrogance  of  a  conqueror.  He  trans* 
mitted  advice  to  Rome  of  the  necessity  of  a  change,  chu-ging  all  the 
recoit  disasters  to  the  bad  conduct  of  Suetonius.  Nero  despatched  to 
Britain  Polycletus.  one  of  the  imperial  freedmen,  conceiving  mighty 
hopes,  that,  by  the  authority  of  his  domestic,  private  amity  between 
the  governor  and  procurator  would  not  only  be  effected,  but  that  the 
hostile  spirit  of  the  Britons  would  be  reconciled  to  peace.  Polycletus 
travelled  through  Italy  and  Graul,  and  oppressed  both  with  his  enor- 
mous train;  and  thence  crossing  the  Channel,  he  marched  in  such 
-awAil  state,  that  he  became  a  terror  even  to  the  Roman  soldiers.  To 
the  Britons  he  proved  an  object  of  derision:  for,  as  amongst  them  po- 
pular liberty  even  then  reigned,  they  were  hitherto  utter  strangers  to 
the  power  of  manumitted  bondsmen.  They  were  amazed,  that  a  gene- 
ral and  aimy  who  had  finished  so  formidable  a  war,  should  be  subser- 
vient to  slaves.  From  the  report  of  Polycletus,  Suetonius  was 
continued  in  the  government;  but  having  loet  a  few  gallies  and  thdr 
rowers,  he  was  ordered  to  resign  his  army  to  Petronius  Turpilianus, 
who  had  just  finished  his  consulship ;  a  commander,  who,  on  his  stupid 
inaction,  bestowed  the  appellation  of  peace*.  His  successor,  Tre- 
bdlius  Maximus,  fled  out  of  Britain,  scared  by  the  fury  and  me- 
naces of  the  soldiers,  and  was  succeeded  by  VetUus  Bolanusf,  in  the 
reign  of  YitelUus. 

Petilius  Cerealis,  of  consular  dignity,  was  sent  by  Vespasiao,  as  go- 
vernor, to  Britain. 

•  TacitiH.    .  t  Tadtw,  History,  B.  n. 




In  that  island  tiie  a&ction  for  Vespawui  was  great.    He  had  com^ 
'  manded  the  second  legion  there  in  the  reign  of  Claudius,  and  acqidt- 
ed  himself  irith  great  glory. 

The  troops  in  that  conntry  acceded  to  his  parly;  but  not  without 
opposition  firom  the  other  legions ;  in  which  many  centurions>  and 
many  soldiers  had  been  promoted  b;f  Vitellius,  and  were  brought  with 
re^et  to  diange  a  prince  of  whom  the;  had  already  had  smne  experi- 
A.]).  69.  From  these  contests  and  reports  of  civil  war  in  Italy,  the  Britons, 
swayed  by  Venusius,  who  hated  the  Roman  uame,  and  was  at  personal 
enmity  with  Cartismandua,  tiie  queen  of  the  Brigantes,  resumed  ho»> 
tihties.  This  lady  was  illustrious  in  her  race,  and  her  power  had  be^i 
greatly  augmented  since  the  merit  she  enjoyed  of  haTing  given  up  Ca- 
ractactts  to  the  Romans.  Hence  her  opulence  and  wild  riot  in  pros- 
perity. Rejecting  her  husband  Venusius,  she  conferred  her  person 
and  crown  on  Vellocatus,  his  armour-bearer.  By  this  reproachful  ac- 
tion the  queen  wrought  the  present  ruin  of  her  house.  The  Brigantes 
revolted  in  &Tour  of  Venustos.  Cartismandua,  by  the  Roman  squad- 
rons and  cohorts,  was  rescued  fr<Hn  impending  danger:  but  the  king- 
dom remained  to  Venusius,  uid  the  war  to  the  Romans*. 

CereaUs  defeated  the  Brigantes  in  several  battles,  some  of  which 

A.D.  74.  were  very  bloody,  Vespasian  had  lent  off  to  Italy  many  British  recruits, 

during  his  war  with  Yitctiins.    Jtdius  Fnmtinus  was  now  governor  t 

he  in  his  torn  had  to  sustain  this  mighty  task  t  and  utteriy  subdued 

tiic  powerftil  Silures. 

Such  was  now  the  condition  of  Britain.  Who  were  the  first  in- 
habituits  of  the  island,  cannot  be  known,  says  Tacitus^  among  a  people 
so  barbarous.    In  their  looks  and  persons,  th^  vary.    The  red  hair 

•  TaoitiM,  History,  B.  IIL  Cb.  XLIII. 



and  large  limbs  of  the  Cakdonitiu  testiiy  their  desrant  to  be  from 
Crermany.  The  swarthy  complexion  of  tiie  Silures,  and  their  hair.  ' 
which  is  g^ierally  curled,  with  their  situation,  opposite  the  coast  of 
Spain,  furnish  ground  to  betiere  that  they  are  descendants  from  the 
ancient  Iberians.  They  who  Htb  next  to  Gaul,  are  Hke  the  Gauls: 
their  sacred  rights  and  superstitions  are  the  same;  their  speech  does 
not  much  vuy;  in  daring  dangers  they  are  prompted  by  the  like  bold- 
ness, and  with  the  like  affHght  aroid  them  when  they  approach.  In 
the  Britons,  however,  superior  ferocity  and  defiance  is  found,  as  in  a 
people  not  yet  softeued  by  a  long  peace;  for  we  learn  from  hiatwy 
that  the  Gauls,  too,  flourished  in  warlike  prowess  and  renown;  but 
that  with  peace  and  idleness,  effeminacy  altered ;  and  thus,  with  the 
loss  of  their  liberty,  they  lost  their  spirit  and  magnanimity.  The  same 
happened  to  those  of  die  Britons  who  were  conquered  long  ago.  The 
rest  continue  such  as  the  Gauls  once  were. 

Their  principal  force  consists  in  their  foot.  Some  nations  among 
them  make  war  in  chariots.  The  more  homonrable  person  alw^ 
drives,  and  under  his  leading,  his  followers  ^it.  They  werefi»meriy 
subject  to  kings.  They  are  now  swayed  by  several  chiefs,  and  xcnt 
into  factions  and  parties.  Against  nations  thus  powerful,  nou^t 
avails  the  Romans  so  mudi  as  that  they  consult  not  in  a  body. 

The  sky  of  the  island  is  dull  and  heavy;  but  there  is  not  exceasnre 
cold.  The  soil  is  such,  that  except  the  cdive  and  the  vine,  it  readily 
bears  all  fruits  and  grain,  end  is  very  fertile;  it  pvoducea  tpatMf,  hub 
from  the  extreme  humidity,  its  productions  ripen  slowly. 

Britain  yields  gold,  silver,  and  other  metals,  all  of  which  prove 
the  prize  and  reward  of  the  conqnercmi.  Hk  sea  breeds  pearis, 
but  of  a  dark  and  livid  hue,  a  defect  ascribed  by  some  to  the  unskilfiil- 
ness  of  those  who  gather  them:  for  myself,  continues  the  Roman  his- 




CHAP,     torian,  I  am  much  apter  to  believe  that  nature  has  not  fldren  these 


v.^-v'-^  pearls  perfection,  than  that  we  &il  in  avarice. 

The  Britons  themselves  cheerfully  comply  with  the  levies  of  meni 
the  imposition  of  taxes,  and  all  the  duties  enjoined  by  government; 
provided  they  receive  no  illegal  treatment  and  insults  from  their  go- 
vernors: those  they  bear  with  impatience.  Nor  have  the  Romans  any 
&rther  subdued  them,  than  only  to  obey  just  laws,  but  never  to  sub- 
mit to  be  slaves.  Even  the  deified  Julius  Ciesar,  the  first  of  all  ihe 
Romans  who  entered  Britain  with  an  army,  though,  by  gaining  a  bat- 
tle, he  frightened  the  natives,  and  became  master  of  the  coast;  yet  he 
may  he  thought  to  have  rather  presented  posterity  with  a  view  of  the 
country,  than  to  have  conveyed  down  the  possession.  The  civil  wars 
ensuing,  Britain  was  long  forgott^i,  and  continued  to  be  so  even  dur- 
ing peace.  This  was  what  Augustus  called  Reasons  of  State,  but 
what  Tiberius  stiled  the  Ordmanee  of  Augustus*. 
A.D.  78.  Towards  the  end  of  Vespasian's  reign-f-,  (A.  D.  78),  Julius  Agricola, 
who  in  his  youth  had  been  trained  up  in  the  British  wars,  succeeded 
tothe  command;  a  generalof  the  highest  reputation.  He  entirely  de- 
feated the  Ordovices,  (North  Wales),  who  had  surprised  and  killed  a 
whole  squadron  of  Roman  horse. 

Mona  required  again  to  be  invaded.  Agricola,  by  his  sudden  attack, 
his  prud^ice  and  justice,  conciliated  that  island.  Such  was  his  discre- 
tion that  he  did  not  apply  this  his  good  fortune  and  success  to  any  pur- 
pose of  vun  glory :  nor  would  he  so  much  as  with  the  bare  honour  of  the 

*  TacitoB,  Life  of  Agricola. 
t  Referriog  to  this  period,  Josep  bus  w  rites,  "  As  for  tbose  who  place  so  mucb 
confidence  in  the  walla  of  Jerusalem,  they  would  do  well  to  consider  the  walls  of 
foitain,  where  the  inhabitants  are  surrounded  by  the  sea  in  a  kind  of  a  new  world, 
not  much  inferior  to  tlie  other.  They  have  made  tbemselres  masters  of  ibis  vast 
island  too,  and  assigned  only  four  legions  as  a  g;uard  upon  it"  Wars  of  the  Jews, 
B.  n.  Cb.  XVI.  Sir  Roger  L'Estrange'a  £d. 



lanrd  distn^pusfa  these  exploits.  Men  considered  how  vast  must  be 
his  future  views,  when  he  thus  smothered  in  silence  deeds  so  noble*.  < 
Being  acquainted  with  the  temper  of  the  Britons,  he  determined  to 
cut  off  all  the  causes  of  war.  Beginning  with  himself,  he  checked  and 
regulated  his  own  household;  a  task  whibh  to  many  is  not  less  diffi- 
cult than  goTeming  a  province.  He  did  not  permit  any  thing  which 
concerned  the  public  to  be  transacted  by  a  domestic,  bond  or  firee. 

He  ndsed  the  soldiers  to  a  superior  class,  being  convinced  that  the 
best  are  ever  the  most  faithful.  For  small  offences  he  was  often  satis- 
fied with  the  remorse  of  the  culprit:  for  such  as  were  great  he  exer- 
cised proportionable  severity.  Though  the  imposition  of  tribute  and 
grain  had  been  augmented,  he  caused  it  to  be  adjusted  with  equality. 
The  inhabitants  had  been  forced  to  bear  the  mockery  of  attending  at 
their  own  bams,  locked  up  by  the  publicans,  and  of  purchasing  their  own 
com  of  the  monopolists ;  they  had  moreover  been  enjoined  to  carry 
grain  across  the  countries  to  great  distances.  By  suppressing  these 
grievances,  Agricola  gained  a  high  character ;  for,  till  then,  a  state  of 
peace  had  been  no  less  dreaded  than  that  of  war. 

By  his  wise  and  mild  conduct,  several  communities,  which  till  now 
had  kept  their  independence,  ceased  hostility,  gave  hostages,  and  were 
b^rt  with  garrisons  and  fortresses,  erected  with  such  just  contriv- 
ance, that  no  part  of  Britain  hitherto  known,  escaped  thenceforward 
from  being  annoyed  by  them.  The  following  winter  Agricola  pri- 
vately exhorted,  then  publicly  assisted,  the  Britons  to  build  temples 
and  houses  and  places  of  assembling.  He  was  taking  care  to  have  the 
sons  of  their  chie&  taught  the  liberal  sciences,  already  preferring  the 

*  Tacitus.  We  tuny  perceire  and  admire  (he  aflectiunate  partiality  of  this  ce- 
lebrated  liistomo  for  bis  father  id  law,  throughout  his  life  of  Agricola.  Ilisper- 
baps  requisite  to  keep  this  in  mind,  when  trusting  to  the  authority  of  Tacitua  con- 
centing  Agricola. 

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natnnl  caapBcity  of  the  firitoiu  to  the  i^died  scquirement  of  the 
/  Crsuh;  and  such  was  hi*  succeBs.  that  thff^  who  had  so  lately  scorned 
to  learn  the  language,  were  become  fimd  of  acquiring  the  Roman  eto* 
quence.  They  began  to  honour  the  apparel,  and  the  use  of  the  Ro- 
man gown  grew  frequent  among  them.  By  degrees,  they  proceeded  to 
the  incitemente  and  charms  of  vice  and  dissoluteness,  to  magnificent 
galleries,  sumptuousi  bagnios,  and  all  tiie  stimnlationa  and  el^ance  of 
banquetting.  In  the  third  year  of  his  command,  Agrioola  discovered 
new  people,  and  continued  his  enterprises  qnite  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Tay.  Terror  seized  the  inhabitants,  and  they  dared  not  attack  tiie 
Romans,  though  they  were  annoyed  and  shaken  by  terrible  tempests. 
The  Romans  secured  possession,  by  erecting  forts,  and  no  place  of 
strength  was  founded  by  Agricola,  that  was  erer  taken  by  violence: 
they  were  supplied  with  provisions  for  a  year;  and  each  fortress  de- 
fended itself  through  the  winter:  which  reduced  the  Caledonians  to 
despair.  Agricola  never  arrogated  to  himself  the  glory  of  exploits  per- 
formed by  others :  were  he  a  centurion  or  the  commander  of  a  legion,  in 
his  genera)  he  found  a  sincere  witness  of  his  Achievements.  By  some, 
he  is  said  to  have  been  over  sharp  in  his  reproof^,  but  from  hu  anger 
no  spleen  remained. 

Vespasian  having  died,  Titus  continued  Agrioola  in  the  command ; 
this  Emperor*  expired  <m  the  13th  of  September,  81;  and  Agric<^ 
remuned  as  governor  under  Domitian  f .    Agricola  built  a  chain  of 

*  Titus  was  saluted  Emperor  no  less  than  fifteen  times  for  Agricola's  successes. 
Csmden,  Vol.  I.  p.  xiii. 
t  Arvingus  was  living  in  Domitiao's  reig^n. 

"  A  great  omen 
You  have  of  a  great  and  illustrious  triumph; 
You  will  take  some  king,  or  from  a  British  chariot 
Arviragus  will  fall."  MadatCt  Juvenal,  Sat.  IV.  127. 



fortresses  from  the  Clyde  to  the  Frith  of  Forth ;  and  fnmisbed  them    CHAP. 

with  garnBons,  to  secure  his  conquests  from  the  inroads  of  the  northern  's^i-v^^ 


"  In  the  fifth  year  of  the  war,  AgricoU  passed  the  Frith  of  Forth. 
iBmself  being  in'  the  first  ship  that  reached  the  laud.  Here  he  sub- 
dued natitms.  till  that  time  not  known;  and  placed  garriaons  on  the 
coast  of  Britain,  which  feces  Ireland ;  which  in  soil  and  climate,  as 
abo  in  the  temper  and  manners  of  the  natives,  varies  little  from 
Britain ;  its  ports  and  landings  are  better  known,  through  the  frequen- 
cy of  commerce  and  merchants.  A  petty  king  of  that  country,  who 
had  been  expelled  by  domestic  dissension,  was  protected  by  Agri- 

He  coasted  and  explored  the  large  commnnities  beyond  the  Frith. 
His  fleet  by  sea,  and  his  army  by  land,  made  a  glorious  appearance. 
The  same  camp  often  contained  the  foot,  the  horse,  and  the  marines; 
all  intermixed,  and  severally  magnifying  their  own  feats  and  hazards 
amidst  dismal  forests,  steep  mountains,  and  tempestuous  seas.  The 
sight  of  the  fleet  Edrack  the  Britons  with  dismay.  The  last  refuge  of 
the  vanquidied  was  now  invaded. 

The  intrepid  Caledonians  attacked  the  forts,  and  defied  the  invaders. 
Agricola  divided  his  army  into  three  parts,  to  prevent  the  enrany  from 
Burrounding  him.  The  Caledonians,  availing  themselves  of  the  op- 
portunity thus  offered,  assaulted  the  ninth  l^on  in  the  night,  slew 
the  guards,  and  entered  the  trenches:  they  were  pursuing  the  fight  in 
the  camp  itself  f,  in  the  gates  of  which  a  bloody  encounter  ensued. 
The  Caledonians  were  routed,  and  fled  to  the  woods  and  marshes. 

•  TaciiDi. 
t  Supposed  to  be  at  Lochore,  two  milea  Ax»n  LochlereD,  where  there  u  a 
Soman  camp. 

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The  Romans  were  elated  at  this  succras  and  tite  renown  thns  gained 
,  hy  their  valour. 

The  spirit  of  the  Caledonians  was  imsubdned,  they  armed  their 
yonng  men,  and  placed  their  wives  and  chOdren  in  secure  towns. 

The  summer  having  commenced,  Galgacns,  the  hravest  and  noblest 
commander  of  the  Caledonians,  encamped  on  the  Grampian  Hills, 
with  thirty  thousand  men  in  arms.  The  youths,  and  such  of  the  elder- 
ly men  as  were  still  hale,  and  had  distinguished  themselves  in  war, 
continued  to  flock  in.    Agricola  arrived  with  his  army. 

On  the  approach  of  the  two  armies,  Galgacus  addressed  his  troops: 
"  When  I  contemplate,"  said  he, "  the  necessity  to  which  we  are  re- 
duced, great  is  my  confidence  that  this  union  of  yours,  will  this  day 
prove  the  beginning  of  universal  liberty  to  Britun.  Bondage  is  what 
we  have  never  borne.  Beyond  ua  is  no  land,  and  the  Roman  fleet  is 
upon  OUT  co€ist.  Arms  are  therefore  the  safest  refuge,  even  for 
cowards.  The  other  Britons  have  had  various  success,  and  their  re- 
m^ing  hope  is  in  us,  the  noblest,  and,  thence,  placed  in  its  innermost 
regions.  This  remote  tract,  unknown  even  to  common  fame,  is  the 
last  that  enjoys  liberty.  Against  the  domineering  plunderers  of  the 
earth  and  sea,  humility  will  prove  no  refuge.  To  conunit  spoil  and 
butchery,  they  call  government;  and  where  they  have  spread  desola- 
tion, they  call  it  peace.  If  our  wives  and  sisters  escape  their  violence, 
they  are  debauched  by  their  pretended  hospitality.  Our  fortunes 
are  exhausted  for  tribute,  our  grain  for  their  provision.  We  are 
doomed,  under  blows,  to  fell  forests  and  to  drain  bogs.  Remember 
that  the  Brigantes  under  a  woman  stormed  the  Roman  entrenchments; 
but  success  degenerated  into  sloth.  There  are  Britons  in  the  enemy's 
army,  with  shame  I  mention  it,  but  they  are  only  held  by  terror,  frail 
bondage  of  endearment ! 

"  Whatever  the  Romans  beh(^d  around  them,  strikes,  them  witb 



dread:  the  air,  the  sky,  the  woods,  the  sea;  all  is  wild  and  strange,  CHAP. 
so  that  the  Gods  have,  in  some  sort,  delivered  them  inclosed  and  iJEJJILj 
bound  into  our  hands.  Be  not  dismayed  with  a  glare  of  gold  and 
silver,  which  can  neither  wound  nor  save.  In  the  host  of  the  enemy 
we  shall  find  that  the  Britons  will  espouse  their  genuine  cause;  the 
Gauls  will  recollect  their  former  liberty;  the  Germans  will  abandon 
the  Romans.  The  Romans  have  no  wives  to  hearten  and  ni^  them ; 
no  &thers  and  mothers  to  upbraid  them  for  flying. 

"  The  Roman  colonies  are  full  of  dissensions — ^here  you  see  a  gene* 
ral,  here  an  army.  Th&te  you  may  behold  tributes,  and  the  mines, 
with  an  other  corses,  ever  pursuing  men  enslaved. 

"  Whether  these  things  are  to  be  for  ever  imposed;  or  whether  we, 
forthwith,  avenge  ourselves  for  the  attempt,  this  very  field  must  deter- 
mine. Therefore,  as  you  advance  to  battle,  look  back  on  your  ances- 
tors; look  forward  to  your  posterity!" 

This  speech,  says  Tacitus,  was  received  joy^illy,  with  chantings, 
terrible  din,  and  dissonant  shouts,  after  the  manner  of  barbarians. 
Already  their  bands  moved,  and  the  glittering  of  their  arms  appeared ; 
the  most  resolute  were  running  to  their  front,  and  the  army  forming 
in  battle  array :  when  Agricola,  though  seeing  his  soldiers  full  of  ala- 
crity, and  hardly  to  be  restrained  by  express  cautions,  chose  to  Address 
tbem :  "  It  is  now  the  eighth  year,  my  follow  soldiera,  since  you  have 
been  pursuing  the  conquest  of  Britain.  In  the  many  battles  you  have 
fought,  you  have  had  cimstant  occasion  either  to  be  exerting  your  bra- 
very against  the  foe,  or  your  patience  against  the  obstacles  of  nature. 
We  now  possess  the  extremity  of  Britain  with  our  camps  and  ar- 
mies. In  the  midst  of  fatigue,  while  passing  morasses,  rivers,  and 
mountains,  I  have  been  wont  to  hear  those  who  are  remarimbly  brave 
ask, — When  shall  we  see  the  enemy,  when  be  led  to  battle  f  Already, 
roused  from  their  festnesses  and  lurking  holes,  they  are  come.  Now, 



CHAP,  all  is  projntious,  if  you  coDquer ;  all  is  disaster,  if  yon  be  vanquidied. 
\.^,^>^.^  Safety,  there  is  none,  in  turning  oar  backs  on  the  foe ;  neither 
would  it  be  a  &te  void  of  glory  to  fall  in  this,  the  utmost  verge  of  iht 
earth  and  of  nature.  These  are  the  enemy  you  utterly  discomfited 
last  year,  by  the  terror  of  your  shouting ;  when,  by  stealth,  they  at- 
tacked a  single  legion  in  the  dark.  These  are  they,  who,  of  all  tiie 
Britons,  are  the  most  abandoned  to  fear  and  flight,  and  thence  h^pen 
to  survive  the  rest,-  a  crowd,  fearful  and  effeminate,  and  stand  in  yonder 
field,  benumbed  and  bereft  of  spirit.  Here  close  a  stmggle  of  fifty 
years ;  so  that  there  may  not  be  imputed  to  the  army  either  the  procras- 
tination of  the  war,  or  any  cause  for  reriving  it." 

The  centre  of  the  Roman  army  was  composed  of  a  stroi^;  band  of 
«ght  thousand  auxiliary  foot.  The  wings  were  environed  with  three 
thousand  horse.  The  legions,  without  advancing,  stood  embattled 
j  ust  without  the  entrenchments :  for  mighty  would  be  the  glory  of  the 
victory,  were  it  gained  without  spilling  Roman  blood. 

The  Bntiah  host  was  ranged  upon  the  rising  ground,  both  for  show 
and  terror:  the  first  band  standi]]^  upon  the  plain,  and  the  rest  rising 
successively  behind.  Their  cavalry  and  chariots  of  war  filled  the  in- 
teijacentfi^  with  great  tumults  and  bounding  to  and  fro. 

Agricola,  fearing  he  might  be  beset  at  once  in  frcmt,  and  on  each 
flank,  extended  his  troths.  Many  advised  him  to  bring  on  the  legions, 
but,  ever  firm,  he  dismounted,  and  advanced  on  foot  before  the 
burners.  In  the  beginning,  the  conflict  was  nuuntained  at  a  distance. 
The  Britons*,  brave  and  ^ilfhl,  armed  with  their  huge  swords  and 
small  bucklers,  quite  eluded  the  missive  weapons,  or  beat  them  off; 
whilst,  of  their  own,  they  poured  a  torrent  upon  the  Romans ;  till  Agri- 
-     cola  encouraged  three  Batavian  and  two  Tungrian  cohorts  to  dose 

*  IWcitiut  OBM  ibe  lerint  Bntons  and  Caledonniu  promiMnwdy. 

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with  the  enemy,  hand  to  hand,  a  famihar  practice  with  those  veterans,  CHAP, 
but  embanasBing  to  the  Caledonians,  who  were  armed  wi^  little  tar-  ^^^^^sf^ 
gets,  and  swords  of  aiormoos  aise,  round  at  the  end,  and  unfit  for  grap* 
pifaig.  The  Batavians  thickened  their  blows,  wounding  the  foe  with 
the  iron  bosses  of  their  bn<&Iers,  and  mangling  their  faces:  they  wer» 
bearing  down  all  those  who  were  upon  the  plain,  when  the  rest  of  the 
cohorts  joined  them,  and  made  havoc  (^  aU  tfa^  encoimtered.  The 
British  cavahy  fled.  The  chariots  of  war  miaglsd  with  the  foot:  and 
now,  losing  their  riders,  the  horses  ran  wild  and  affrighted,  and  beat 
down  the  troops  of  their  own  side.  While  the  B<onians  were  urging 
their  victory,  the  Britons  upon  the  hills,  who  were  yet  fresh,  lotted 
with  scorn  on  the  enemy,  and  endeavoured  imperceptibly  to  surround 
their  rear.  Agricda,  who  had  apprdiended  this  very  design,  des- 
patched four  squadrons  of  horse  to  engage  them:  they  charge  in 
front,  wheeled  about,  assailed,  and  utterly  routed  the  Britons.  The 
^lectacle  was  tragical;  and  the  present  captives  weK  always  slaugh- 
tered as  often  as  others  wcae  tab«i. 

Some  of  the  vanquished  fled  in  large  troops,  wUh  all  tiieir  anns,  be- 
fore a  small  force:  <^hers.  unarmed,  Tushed  desperately  into  peril  and 
instant  death.  Some  of  the  ooAqucsed  exerted  notable  wtath  and  bca>- 
very.  When  near  the  woods,  they  joined,  and  dmumvcntad  the  fore- 
most puTsuns,  who  had  ra^ly  ventured  too  &r.  Agrioola,  fieaiuig 
some  disaster  firom  this  want  of  eaution,  kept  his  ranks  close,  and  con- 
tinued the  pursuit,  till  a  satiety  ctfj^aughter,  and  n^t.  ended  the  battle. 

Of  the  Britons,  ten  thousand  were  slain.  There  fell  of  the  Romans 
three  hundred  and  forty;  amongst  these  was  Aulus  Atticus,  command- 
er of  a  cohort,  who,  by  his  own  youthful  heat,  and  a  fiery  horse,  was 
fannied  into  the  nddstof  the  enemy*. 

*  This  great  batde,  accordiuir  to  Mr.  Gordeo,  was  foofht  in  StralberD,  half  a 



It  was  a  night  of  great  joy  to  the  conquerors,  both  from  the  vidory 
'  and  the  spoil.  The  Britons  wuidered  in  despair.  Sometimes,  on  be^ 
holding  their  dearest  pledges  of  nature,  their  spirits  became  utterly 
stmk  and  dejected:  some  by  the  same  sight  were  roused  into  resolu- 
tion and  fury.  It  is  certain,  that  some  murdered  their  wires  and 
children,  as  an  act  of  compassion  and  tenderness. 

The  next  day  produced  profound  silence,  solitary  hills,  thick  smoke 
arising  from  the  houses  on  fire,  and  not  a  living  soul  to  be  found  by  the 

The  summer  being  nearly  spent,  Agricola  conducted  his  army  to  the 
borders  of  the  Horestians,  where  he  received  hostages,  and  ordered 
the  admiral  of  the  fleet  to  sail  round  Britain.  Quitting  the  Frith  erf* 
Tay,  the  fleet  passed  round  the  north  of  the  idand,  and,  with  great 
fame,  arrived  at  the  port  of  Sandwich,  whence  they  had  originally  de- 

Titus  had  admired  and  rewarded  Agricola,  but  bis  brother,  Do^ 
mitian,  received  the  news  of  this  great  victory  with  feigned  joy*: 
but  it  was  dreadful  above  all  things  to  him,  that  the  name  of  a  private 
man  should  be  exalted  above  that  of  the  Emperor.  Agricc^  was  re- 
called. Domitian,  conscious  of  the  derision  inevitable  on  account  of 
his  mock  triumph  over  the  Germans,  for  which  he  had  purchased  a 
number  of  slaves,  and  dressed  them  to  resemble  captives,  was  stung 
at  the  thoughte  of  the  unfavorable  comparison;  and,  notwithstanding 
the  modesty  and  prudence  of  Agricola  after  he  returned  to  Italy, 

mile  ftoai  the  Kirk  of  Conterie,  wbere  there  is  a  remarkable  encampmetit.— 

*  In  DomiliftB's  reigo,  the  Britooa  were  net  ioferior,  id  way  of  life  and  improre- 
ment,  to  the  other  prorinces. —Camden,  Vol.  I.  p.  xlvii.  Also  Juvenal,  Sal. 
XV.  Ill,  wye— 

"  And  learned  Ganl  tbe  Britbh  hwyen  forms.'* 



trhete  he  lived  in  Tetirement,  there  is  little  douht  of  the  jealous  and 
cruel  tyrant  having  poisoned  him*  (A.  D.  93,  aged  56). 

Britain,  south  of  Agricola's  forts,  in  which  he  placed  strong  garri- 
sons, was  now  become  a  Roman  province;  and  the  natives,  adopting 
the  Roman  costoms  and  manners,  made  but  Sunt  attempts  to  recover 
their  liberty.  Nothing  occurred,  that  has  been  noticed  by  historians, 
except  that  in  Tnyan's  reign  Britain  revolted  and  was  subdued,  till  the 
reign  of  Adrian,  when  the  northern  people  demolished  some  of  Agri- 
cola's  fortresses,  and  made  irruptions  into  the  Roman  province.  Ju- 
lius Severus,  a  general  of  renown,  governed  the  island ;  but  having  been 
sent  to  suppress  the  Jews,  who  were  in  tumult,  Adrian  himself  ar- 
rived in  Britain.  Hearing,  at  York,  from  some  old  soldiers  who  had  j 
accompanied  Agricola  in  his  expedition,  what  kind  of  country  he  had 
to  invade,  he  resolved  on  abandoning  the  territory  north  of  the  Tyne 
and  Solway  Frithf .  He  dug  a  deep  ditch,  and  made  a  lofty  and  spacious 
ranq>art  firom  sea  to  sea,  above  sixty  miles  in  length,  and  garrisoned 
eighteen  thousand  Roman  troops  in  forts  and  stations,  at  proper 
distances.    WhUe  in  Britain,  Adrian  received  news  of  the  death  of 

*  Domitiaii  pot  to  death  SallostiusLacallDS,  Lieateaant  of  Britain,  forsuffering 
fome  lances  of  a  new  iDTention  to  be  called  JJuculUan Soetonius,  Cb.  X. 

t  "  Adrian,  careless  of  repoee,  marched,  bare-headed,  over  the  sultry  plains  of 

Upper  Egypt,  and  the  snows  of  Caledonia." Gibbon,  Cb.  I.    It  does  not,  how. 

ever,  appear,  that  he  iitvaded  Caledonia,  while  he  was  id  Britain :  Floras  write* — 

"  Cttsar,  I  eoTy  not  thy  tmde. 
Among  the  Britons  to  parade. 
And  midst  the  Scottish  frosts  be  laid." 

To  which  Adrian  replies, 

"  Floras,  I  enry  not  thy  sphere. 
Taverns  to  haunt  in  qoeat  of  cheer; 
To  lounge  in  every  eating-bouse. 
And  there  in  brimmen  to  o 

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Plotiua,  the  widow  of  Tr^an,  U>  whom  he  chiefly  owed  his  deration. 
His  grief  was  so  immoderate,  as  to  be  attributed  to  love  for  that  em- 
press *.  Adrian  returned  to  Rome,  and  was  honoured  with  medab— To 
the  Restorer  of  Britain:  he  left  Prisons  Licinius  as  governor. 

In  the  reign  of  Antoninus  Pius,  on  tiie  removal  of  some  of  the 
Roman  troops,  Adrian's  rampart  was  in  several  places  destroyed,  and 
tiie  country  rav^fed  by  the  Caledoniana.  Lollius  Urbicus  was  B«it  to 
Britoin  as  governor.  He  subdued  the  revolted  Brigantes,  and  con- 
A.D.  144.  ^cd  the  northern  tribes  again  within  tbe  line,  where  Agricola's  taeU 
had  he&a,  by  a  broad  and  deep  ditdi,  and  a  rampart  iqion  a  foundation 
of  stone,  and  feced  wit^  atone,  defended  by  e^hteen  garrisons,  at  two 
miles'  distance  ^m  each  other,  with  watch  towen  between  ea^ 
It  was  called  Antoninua's  wall.  The  Roman  navy  in  Brittdn  was  now 
commanded  by  Seins  Satuminus. 
A.D.  162.  MarcuB  AureUus  sent  Calphumius  Agrioola,  as  goremor,  to  Britain. 
He  checked  the  insolence  of  the  Caledonians,  and  strengthened  the  Ro- 
man power.  In  this  nign,  Lndus,  a  British  king,  b  said  to  have  on- 
braced  the  Cteistian  rdigion.  At  the  termination  of  the  Marcomanic 
war/the  Emperor  sent  eight  thousand  Scythians  (Jazyges)  into  Britainf . 

In  the  reign  of  Gommodus,  there  were  greatdisturbwices  in  the  island. 
The  Romans  had  neglected  to  keep  up  the  discipline  of  their  army;  and 
a  Roman  general,  with  his  troops,  had  been  defeated,  and  cut  to  pieces. 
The  ErapiCYor  yrs&  Manned  at  this,  and  aesit  over  Ulpius  MarcellBst> 
a  general  of  high  reputation,  who  restored  peace  and  discipline:  for 
which  he  was  rewarded  with  hatred  and  envy. 

•  Life  of  Sabina,  wife  of  Adriao,  by  De  Seiriez. 

t  Reea's  Cyc.  "  Sarmalia." 

t  While  tbia  governor  whb  m  Brittin,  in  •fitt  to  keep  kmiself  vigilaot  by  ab- 
stemiousnese,  he  had  bis  bread  fttmi  Rome,  and  atcit  elrie,  that  he  mig^bt  not  be 
induced  to  any  exceaa  by  freA  brsRd..^GHBMkB. 

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On  the  Tecal  of  Hanellus,  the  rapacious  and  ambitious  Perennis,     ^^^f- 
the  Emperor's  iaTourite^  removed  the  veterui  officers  in  Britain,  to  v^v^v-^b^ 
replace  them  with  oUiers  ef  his  own  nominatitm.    A  deputation  of 
fifteen  hundred  troops  marched  to  Rome,  demanded  justice,  and  in-  ^■^-  ^^' 
formed  the  Emperor  of  the  intrigues  that  were  hatching  agfdnst  him. 
CmmnoduB,  who  was  ahvady  jealous  of  Perennis,  delivered  him  up  at 
once  to  the  mutineers,  who  executed  him  instantly:  his  wife,  his  sis- 
ter, and  his  two  childroi,  shared  his  fate:  his  son,  who  conunanded  the 
troops  in  llljria,  was  entrapped  by  a  friendly  letter  from  Commodus, 
to  proceed  to  Rome;  but  as  soon  as  he  set  his  foot  in  Italy,  he  also 
was  despatched,  still  being  ignorant  of  his  Other's  fate  *. 

Pertinax  (afterwards  Emperor)  was  deputed  to  Britain  to  restore 
order;  but  commendng  with  too  much  severity  in  military  disci- 
^ine,  the  ninth  legion  mutinied :  and  being  desirous  to  have  a  new  Em- 
poror,  they  oflfered  that  dignity  to  Pertinax,  who,  in  one  of  these  revolts, 
was  wounded  and  left  for  dead  among  the  slain:  he  however  recovered,  A.D.  189. 
and  subdued  all  obstacles;  hut  being  accused  of  having  contributed  to 
the  death  of  Arrius  Antoninus,  and  not  being  beloved  by  the  soldiers, 
he  requested  his  lecaL 

:  ClodiuB  Albiniu,  a  general  of  great  reputation,  was  now  selected 
by  Commodus  for  the  important  command  of  Britain;  and  the  Em- 
peror wrote  him  a  letter,  fearing  the  revolt  of  Sevems  and  Nonius 
Murcus,  to  desire  him,  if  he  found  the  necessity,  to  assnme  the  title 
and  dignity  of  Caesar,  with  permission,  should  he  do  so,  to  make  use  of 
the  requisite  sums  of  money  to  distribnte  among  the  soldiers.  But 
Albinus,  fearing  some  tragical  event  might  befal  Commodus,  and  cause 
his  own  ruin,  did  not  avail  himself  of  this  offer. 

On  Pertinax  succeeding  to  the  empire,  (A.  D.  192),  he  confirmed 



CHAP.    Clodius  AlbiDus  goTemor  of  Britain:  and  he  was  continued  in  that 

v.«»-v~«o^  post  the  next  jear  by  the  new  Emperor,  Didius  Julianus.  He  gain- 
ed the  affection  of  the  soldiers  to  so  great  a  degree,  that,  on  the  exe- 
cution of  Didius,  after  Severus  arrived  in  Italy  *,  they  proclaimed  him 
Emperor.     He  contested  the  throne  with  Septimius  Sevenis,  but  was 

A.  D.  197.  defeated  near  Lyons  in  a  great  battle,  immediately  after  which  Albinus 
destroyed  himselC 

Severus  divided  Britain  into  two  governments:  the  northern  half 
was  governed  by  Virius  Lupusf:  Die  relate  that  he  purchased 
peace  of  the  Caledonians.  After  a  quiet  period  of  several  years,  and 
great  relaxation  and  negligence  among  the  Roman  troops,  the  Cale- 
donians began  to  be  so  troublesome,  that  Severus  himself,  though 
afflicted  with  the  gout,  and  above  sixty  years  old,  resolved  in  person 
to  conquer  the  northern  part  of  the  island.  He  set  out  for  Britain 
(A.  B.  208),  at  the  head  of  a  numerous  army,  and  accompanied  by 
the  Empress  Julia  Domna  with  her  sister  Mesa,  and  his  sons  Carar 
calla  and  Creta,  both  of  whom  had  been  raised  to  the  rank  of  Augus- 
tus: and  Rome,  for  the  first  time,  had  three  Emperors  J.  The  Cale- 
donians sent  ambassadors  to  treat  on  honourable  terms.  Severus  re- 
quired them  to  submit  to  his  mercy;  which  they  refused.  The  Em- 
peror then  leaving  Geta  in  the  command  at  London,  attended  by  his 
whole  court,  and  his  formidable  army,  marched  to  the  north  with  hia 
eldest  son  Caracalls. 

*  When  Didius  had  intelligvnce  of  tbe  inarch  of  Sevenis,  nothing^  vaa  to  be 
teen  at  Rome  bat  soldien,  ekphantg,  and  horse*,  traioiDg  for  war Dion  Caaaiiw. 

t  An  altar  dedicated  to  the  goddess  Fortune,  inacribed  to  Virius  Lupus,  on  (be 
occasion  of  hia  repairing  a  bath  for  tbe  Tfaracian  cohorts  in  garrison  with  tbe 
Romans'  at  I.eratriie,  (Bowen,  Bicfamondshire),  has  been  dag  up  at  that  [dace. 

$. Gibbon,  Ch.  VI.  Caracalla  was  elevated  in  tbe  year  198;  Oeta  at  about  tbe 
year  of  this  expedition.    Some  writers  date  tbe  arriral  in  Britain  in  207. 

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Romans  wiiowerein  !BiiiTAir». 

''J're  Description. J 



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.      YORK,  THE  HEAD  QUABT^fiS  OF  THE  ROMAN    = 

~-~-  fiseiMcox^fras  the  capital  0f  the  jnortbera  dinsipn.    Sevenis,  with 
his  Urge  army,  ai^d  his  whole  cimrt.  arrived  at  the  coital.,   "  It  was 

«  ^  (ROMANS  WHO  WERE  IN  BRnjAlNo  '. 

IS  JfuHut  CcBiar.—^Tene,  Aa^ujIuB.    (Foaad  at  Ujututahle). 
'     14  Claudius, — A  j^olonial  oteda).     (Found  at  Liltleborongh,  NottinghaiDBhire).  : 

15  yegpaaianaxd.Titus. — Hayni,   t>el  Teaoro  Britannico,  Vo}.  II.  Plate  V.     (Id 

(be  possetslon  oftfae  Diike  of  Devonshire). 

16  BadriaK.~(¥inni  at  LKtIeborough). 

17  PerttKO*.— HaydKVoK  I.  p.  258.     (Sir  Robert  Abdy). 

18  Chdiua  ^/iiatM.— Blasted  Emptor  by  the  troofM  in   Britain.     (Found  at 

id  AsvertH.— He  died  at  York.    (Found  ia  Leioealenhire). 
SO  CoracaZ/a.— Haym.  VM.  II.  Plate  XV.    (Duke  of  Deronshire). 
21   Qeta. — (Found  in  I^ces(enhire).  ,  . , 

S2  Julia  JTomna.— B^erse,  t'enus  LuciQa.     Haym.  .Vol.  II.  Plate  XIV. — fF'tii 
'of  Severus  and  motb^  of  Garacalla  and  Gna.     Suppiped  to  have  been 

coined  in  Lydn.    (Duke  of  DeYonsbire).      I  ; 

23  Julia  Meta.- — RevVr^*' •'opi(^'>Dd  Jnno,  deities  W  tb«  Amastriaus,  croH^ned  , 
^  with  the  signs  )»(^tbe  Zodiac Sister  of  Julia^omna;  grandmotber  M^ 

-^.     _Heli(%aba]u8   and  Atexaader-Sererua.      Haym.   Vol:  tl.   Plate  XVIII. 
(Duke  of  Devonshire). 

24  0)Mslan(iua,  /CA/orviJ.— He  died  at  York.     (Fouoit  in  Rutlaodahire).     For 

the  head  of  his  empress,  Helena,  see  Plate  III, 'Mu.  90,  / 

,25  Couatantine,  (The  CfrealJ:~Hje  wds  proclaimetj'at  York.     (Found  at  Cfaes- 

terton  in  Warwickshire).  , 

^  Coiutantine,  (The  tiiungtr)  .—tLeyene,  PLON.  Apined  at  Londoa He  boifl 

.  a  won  round  Londba,  or  fio&hed  the  one  said  Ui_liav0  been  built  by  hU 

father  or  Helena.     (Found  in  Kutlandiihire). 
27  Tkeodotiut. — He  served  in  Britain  under  bis  father,  and  vitb  bis  futnre  r^, 
'  Iftaximus.    (Fonif'd  at  Dunstable).  i 

\  '«     DDD  \  ' 



^'^n^'  ^^  ^^^  period  that  Tork  shone  in  fbll  lustre.  Briiamuci  orbit  Howia 
Vi^-v^./  Altera,  JPalatitim  Curi^,  et  Preetorittm  C^garia,  are  titles  it  might 
justly  laj  claim  to.  The  prodigious  concourse  ci  toihutarjr  kings^ 
foreign  ambassadors  and  others,  which  crowded  the  courts  of  the 
sovereigns  of  the  world,  when  the  Ronum  empire  was  in  its  prime, 
must  hare  produced  the  height  of  sahluniry  grandeur:  aadthis,  with- 
out mentioning  the  Emperor's  own  magnificeace,  bis  nnmarooB  »• 
tinue,  the  noUemen  of  Rome,  or  the  officers  of  the  army,  which  must 
ftU,  necessarily,  attend  bim.  In  th^e  days,  and  before,  no  doubt,  the 
temple  of  Bqllona  stood  here.  Whatever  was  done  at  Rome,  we  may 
presume  was  executed  at  Tork.  The  palace  ai;  Tort:  must  have  be^ 
very  magnificent.  (The  one  built  by  tliis  Emperor  was  noble  and  ex- 
tensive). It  wa*  here  that  8everu»  tritmtphed  Jbr  one  <^  the  greatest 
conquests  (over  the  Parthkms  and  Arabians),  Rome  eter  gmned,  and 
which,  with  the  building  of  the  waD,  Spartian  expressly  c^Is  the 
greatest  glories  of  his  reign*." 

Severus,  fVom  his  infirraitiesr  and  then  having  the  gout,  was  carried 
all  over  the  island  in  a  litter  f;  he,  with  infinite  toil,  penetrated  to 
the  utmost  bounds  of  the  north,  cutting  down  forests,  and  draining 
morasses,  or  filling  them  with  bavins.  All  this  while  no  enemy's 
soldiers  appeared:  they  hung  unseen  on  the  rear  and  flanks  of  the 
Romans,  and  harassed  them  perpetually. 

This  campaign,  from  the  extreme  severi^  of  the  labour,  and  ex- 

*  Drake's  York,  p.  10  to  1^  Thsre  had  also  been  a  triumph  at  Rome  for  the 
eutem  TictorraB,  in  the  tenth  year  of  Severus's  reign,  but  he,  haring  the  gout, 
would  not  permit  it  in  hU  own  name,  being  too  ill  to  be  present  at  it;  Caracalla 
therefore  enjojed  the  honor, for  bia  niccesa  against  the  Jaws;  and  this  triiunpb,  at 
Ywk,  WW  to  celchrata  the  conquests  of  Severus.  He  received  from  the  senate  the 
title  of  the  conqueror  of  the  Britons,  while  he  was  at  York.  See  Spartian,  and  Ber- 
tianl.  Vol.  I.  p.  246 ;  aUo  Medal,  PUte  1.  A.  13. 

■f  Dion  Cassius,  "  Severus." 

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posure  to  cold  ra  the  momitams  and  bogs,  is  said  to  hare  cost  the 
BomftDS  fiftf  thoiutand  men  *.    The  Caledonians*  faoweTer,  at  length 

The  Emperor,  findii^  that  he  could  not  keep  the  country  in  sub- 
jection without  a  cwuiderable  army  on  the  spot;  resolved  to  depend 
on  the  project  of  Adrian,  by  oonfiniii^  the  Caledonians  within  a  more 
secure  bairier.  This  great  undertaking  was  saperintended  by  Can- 
cdla.  The  positioB  was  a  few  paces  north  of  Adrian's  rampart;  and 
the  length,  from  the  mouA  of  the  Tyne  to  Boulness  on  the  Solway 
Frith,  sixty-eight  Ei^;liah  miles.  To  the  north  of  the  wall  was  a 
broad  uid  deep  ditch :  the  wall  itself,  on  the  brink  of  the  ditch,  was 
built  of  s(rffid  stones  strongly  cemented  with  the  best  mortar.  The 
haght  wna  twelve  feet,  besides  the  parapet;  and  its  breadth  eight 

There  were  eighteen  stations  fortified  with  deep  ditches  and  strong 
walls,  the  great  wall  itself  forming  the  nwth  wall  of  each  station. 
The  smallest  station  contained  a  cohort,  or  six  hondred  men.  With- 
out the  walls  of  each  station,  was  a  town  inhabited  by  labourers,  both 
R<Hnans  and  Britons,  who  chose  to  dwell  there*  under  the  protection 
of  these  fortresses. 

There  were  between  the  stations  eighty-one  castella,  or  castles,  ex- 
act squares  of  sixty-six  feet  every  way;  fortified  on  each  side  with 
thick  and  lofty  walk;  in  wUch  guards  were  constantly  kept  The 
towers,  or  turrets,  formed  each  a  square  of  twelve  feet  standing  out 
of  the  wall  on  its  south  side. 

The  troops  allotted  to  guard  the  wall,  consisted  of  twelve  cohorts 
of  foot,  one  cohort  of  mariners  in  the  station  at  Boulness,  one  detach- 

*  It  is  very  probabto  that  great  oamben  i^  cattle,  tneo,  and  other  reitigei  of 
tbisinvauoo  ^re  alill  io  the  manlMs  of  Scotlaad:  now  perhapa  dried  up. 



CHAP,     ment  of  Moors  •,  probably  equal  to  a  cohort,  and  four  al»,  or  wings^ 

v.«a*>^^-^  of  horse,  at  the  lowest  computatioo,  of  four  hundred  each-   In  all,  ten 

For  the  convenience  of  marching  ftom  one  part  of  the  wall  to 
another,  there  were  annexed  to  it  two  military  ways,  paved  with 
square  stones,  in  the  most  solid  and  beautiful  manner;  cme  larger  and 
one  smaller,  from  castle  to  caatle,  &c.  to  reUeve  guards  and  sentinels. 
(This  wall  proved  an  impenetrable  barrier  to  the  Roman  territories 
for  near  two  hundred  years.  In  subsequent  times,  it  was  the  common 
quarry,  for  more  than  a  thousand  years,  ibr  building  all  the  towns  and 
Tillages  around  f).  The  restless  Caledonians,  on  the  retiring  of  the 
Roman  legions,  resuming  hostilities,  Severus  was  provoked  to  send 
another  army  iato  their  country,  under  the  command  of  Caracalla, 
with  the  most  bloody  orders:  not  to  subdue, but  toexterminatethem; 
even  to  the  child  unborn.  They  were  saved  by  the  Emperor's  death 
at  York,  A.  D.  211,  aged  66.  His  corpse  was  burnt  with  great  pomp 
at  a  place  without  the  walls  of  York  {. 

*  Tbe  Emperor  $«veraB  was  au  African,  born  at  Leptis  (Napoli  di  Barbaria,  in 
tbegoTerment  of  Tripoli).  Bernard,  Tol.  I.  p.  ^7. 

t  See  Henry,  Hist.  Eng.  II.  477.  Rees's  Cyc.  "  Wall."  "  When  Mr.  Roger 
Gale  and  I  rode  the  whole  length  of  Severus's  Wall,  in  August,  1725,  near  House- 
steeds,  (Borcovius),  fragments  of  pillars  lay  scattered  orer  the  whole  place;  whence 
we  conclude,  here  was  a  temple.  By  a  large  part  of  a  capital  that  remained,  we 
concluded  that  it  was  of  the  Doric  order,  suitable  to  a  military  atalion.  In  the 
meadow  there  was  such  a  scene  of  Romano  British  Antiquities  as  we  had  never 
beheld;  we  might  have  loaded  waggons  with  .many  most  carious  and  beeutifol 
large  altars.  There  were  scores  of  fine  basso  relieros  nearly  as  big  as  tbe  life*  one 
of  them  an  admirable  image  of  victory;  and  three  female  figures  sitting  together, 
with  globes  in  their  hands.  There  was  a  wall,  composed  of  dry  Roman  stones, 
and  fragments  of  carved  work,  as  a  sorry  fence  to  a  pasture.  Who  can  express 
the  indignation  we  conceived  at  the  miserable  havoc  of  these  most  valuable  monu- 
mentsf"  Stukeiey,  Medallic  History  of  Caraosius,  Vol.  II.  p.  161. 

{  This  place  is  said  still  to  bear  the  name  of  Serer'i^boe,     At  funerals,  it  was 

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The  signs  forenmniag  the  death  of  Severus,  were  these :  He 
dreamed  that  he  was  carried  up  to  Heaven  in  a  chariot  drawn  bjr  four  v. 
eagles,  and  was  callfed  by  Jupiter,  and  placed  among  the  Antoninuses. 
One  day,  wltile  the  gaanes  of  the  circus  were  celebrating,  as  there  were 
three  figures  of  Victory,  with  palms  in  their  hands,  placed,  according 
to  custom,  upon  the  platform  where  the  Emperor's  throne  is ;  that  in 
the  middle,  hearing  a  globe,  on  which  was  inscribed  the  name  of  Seve- 
riis,  was  blown  down  upon  the  ground  by  a  gust  of  wind*.  The  one 
with  the  name  of  Geta  fell,  and  was  broken  to  pieces:  but  that  which 
was  inscribed  with  the  name  of  Bassianus  (Caracalla)  stood,  but  lost 
the  palm  branch  by  the  wind- 
After  he  had  finished  his  wall,  and  was  returning  to  the  next  garri- 
son Tictorious,  having  hereby  assured  the  peace  of  Britain  for  ever; 
while  he  was  meditating  about  what  sort  of  omen  he  should  meet  with 
npon  it,  a  black  Moor,  one  of  his  soldiers,  and  a  famous  droll,  presents 
himself  before  him,  with  a  crown  in  his  hand  made  of  cypress.  Seve- 
rus in  anger  commanded  bim  immediately  to  retire  out  of  his  sight, 
being  sensibly  touched  with  the  double  ill  omen  of  his  colour,  and  the 
tree  of  which  his  crown  was  composed.  In  the  mean  time,  said  the 
man, "  your  Majesty  hath  been  all  things,  and  conquered  all  things, 
now  he  a  God." 

Having  afterwards  returned  to  York,  and  going  to  discharge  his  de- 
votion, the  Emperor  was  conducted,  by  a  mistake  of  an  augur,  into  a 
Temple  of  Bellona;  and  the  beasts  which  were  presented  to  him  to 
sacrifice  were  black :  but  he,  refusing  to  sacrifice  in  that  colour,  retir- 

ctuloinary  to  kill  oxen,  &c,  and  to  throw  tbem  upon  (he  pile.     Sevenu  ttnick 
money  at  York,  and  stiled  hinuelf  Britaimicus.     He  alto  issued  a  decree  r^ard- 
ing  slaves,  and  still  in  the  Roman  Code,  dated  Ebomcnm,  the  third  of  the  doom  of 
Mny,  in  the  consulate  of  Fauslinus  and  Rufus.  (A.  D.  309). 
*  Spartian.    See  Bernard,  Vol.  I.  p.  263. 



ed  to  the  palace,  and  the  same  black  Tictims  being  left  neglected  by 
f  the  priests,  went  after  him  as  &r  as  to  the  gates  of  the  palace*." 

SeveruB  had  been  near  four  years  in  Britunf  ,  where  he  got  a  prodi- 
gious mass  of  wealth  |.  The  cruel  temper  of  Caracalla,  whose  chief 
glory  was  in  killing  wild  beasts,  had  clouded  all  the  Emperor's  lattCT 
years.  The  ambition  of  this  monster  had  prompted  him  to  endeavour 
openly  to  slay,  or  privately  to  poison  his  father. 

Caracalla  had  produced  discontent  among  the  troops,  and  one  of  his 
party  had  murmured  that  their  victorious  career  was  retarded  by  a  gouty 
old  man.  The  empress  was  suspected  of  being  au  accomplice  in  this 
conspiracy.  Severus  caused  himself  to  be  carried  to  the  tribunal  j  and, 
in  the  midst  of  the  army,  condemned  some  of  Caracalla's  party  to 
death.  The  criminals,  falling  prostrate,  implored  the  Emperor's  mer- 
cy: for  some  time  Severus  was  inflexible;  but,  at  length,  pardon- 
ing them,  he  placed  his  hand  upon  his  head :  "  Now,"  said  he,  "  are  you 
satisfied  that  it  is  the  head  that  rules,  and  not  the  feet  ? "  Caracalla,  in- 
stead of  bemg  checked  by  this,  became  more  fbrious.  Severus  and  he 
being  sometime  afterwards  on  horseback,  holding  a  conference  with  the 
Caledonians,  in  presence  of  both  armies,  Caracalla  drew  his  sword 
with  intention  to  plunge  it  through  his  father's  back.  Those  who 
were  near,  suddenly  shrieked,  which  caused  the  Emperor  to  turn  his 
head,  when  he  was  shocked  by  the  sight  of  the  naked  sword.  The 
unhappy  parent  had  sufficient  command  of  himself  not  to  say  a  single 
word.    "When  he  arrived  at  his  tent,  he  threw  himself  upon  his  bed. 

*  Spartian.  Augustan  Hist,  The  person  of  Sererus  is  described  by  Spnr- 
tiaii  as  handsome  and  stout;  be  wore  a  loDg  beard,  and  bis  hair  curled  oatDrally; 
be  bad  an  awful  countenance,  and  a  sweet  voice,  bat  with  aometbing:  of  tbe  Afncan 
tune.  He  ate  liule,  often  quite  abstained  from  flesb,  and  was  partial  to  the  peas, 
beans,  and  pulse  of  bb  native  country.     He  aometinies  drank  pretty  freely. 

t  Henry,  Vol.  11.  }  Bion  Cassius,  •*  8670™*" 



and  sent  for  CaiEcalla.    In  the  preience  of  Papiiuns,  the  captain  of    ^^^^ 
ike  guards,  and  Castor,  a  Ireed  man,  the  Emperor  reproached  his  son  v.#«-v'*i^ 
with  great  codness.    "  If  jon  want  to  kill  me,"  said  he.  "  take  this 
•word  and  execute  your  desire  here,  and  not  in  the  presence  of  two 
armies:  or  if  shame  withholds  your  hand,  request  Papinius  to  rid  you 
of  me.* 

The  Roman  ewiwre  was  now  in  the  hands  of  Caracalla  and  Geta^ 
w^  equal  power :  and  the  senate  acknowledged  them  both,  as  lawful 
and  independent  Emperors.  They  left  Britain  and  the  Caledonians 
in  peace.  On  their  arrira!  at  Rome,  a  negotiaticm  was  attempted  to 
divide  the  Empire  into  East  and  West:  but  it  could  not  be  brought 
about  On  the  37th  of  February,  A.  D.  212,  Caracalla,  assisted  by 
other  assassins,  murdered  his  brother  Geta,  while  his  mother,  the  Em- 
press JnUa  Domna,  was  endearonring  to  protect  him  in  her  arms:  she  \,  d.  19S. 
hersdf  being  wounded  in  the  hand,  and  corered  with  the  blood  of  the 
onfiMtimate  Geta. 

Julia,  the  wife  (^  Sevems,  was  one  of  the  most  accomplished,  beauti- 
ful, dissolote,  and  unfortunate  of  die  Roman  empresses.  Juha  Mesa, 
her  sister,  was  a  Ii^  of  great  merit,  and  virtuous  beyond  the  reach  of 
malice;  she  was  prudent  and  pditic;  it  was  principally  by  her  man- 
agement tiiat  her  grandsons,  Heliogabalns,  and  Alexander  Sevems, 
were  devatcd  to  the  throng  of  the  Empire.  These  sisters  were  bom 
at  Emessa  in  Phcenicia,  and  were  daughters  of  Bassios,  Priest  of  the 
Sun.  Julia  Domna  was  about  twenty  years  of  age  when  she  married 
Scverus;  amd  when  he  became  Emperor  the  two  sisters  generally  ac- 
companied him  in  bis  expeditions,  JuKa  Mesa  having  becoou  a  wi- 
dow. They  were  both  In  Britain  during  the  whole  time  of  the  rest' 
dence  of  the  three  Emperors. 

Julia  Domna  is  described  as  extmnety  beautiAil .  and  as  having  a 
just  way  of  thinking,  a  peculiar  grace  in  her  speech,  and  an  elegant 



manner  of  writing:  she  had  studied  geometry,  and  other  sciences^  be- 
sides the  vain  art  of  judicial  astrology;  and  was  the  patroness  of  every 
art,  and  the  friend  of  every  man  of  genius.  She  was  prodigiously 
fond  of  sports  and  shows,  where  she  always  appeared  full  of  life  uid 
high  spirits,  and  where  her  beauty,  which  remained  to  ah  advanced 
age,  could  not  fail  to  procure  her  a  crowd  of  admirers.  Such  wias  her 
ascendency  over  Severus,  notwithstanding  her  notoriously  flagitious 
conduct,  that  she  could  calm  him  in  the  midst  of  his  fiiry,  andman^e 
him  as  she  thought  proper. 

Julia  accompanied  Severus  on  his  ezpeditimi  in  Caledonia,  and  re- 
ceived from  the  inhabitants,  with  whom  she  had  any  intercourse,  all 
the  honours  it  was  in  their  power  to  pay  to  her  exalted  rank.  Not 
finding  the  politeness  of  the  Roman  ladies  in  the  manners  of  the  na- 
tives of  Caledonia,  the  Empress  frequently  rallied  them  with  much  vi< 
vacity,  and  in  a  very  provoking  stile;. no  one  daring  to  offend  tiie 
dignity  of  the  Empress  by  a  repartee.  It  happened,  however,  that  a 
Caledonian  of  distinction,  named  ArgentQcox,  had  a  wife*  who  was 
very  witty  and  spirited  on  such  occasions.  One  day,  when  she  went 
to  pay  het  respects  to  the  Empress,  the  conversation  taking  a  turn  on 
the  customs  and  manners  of  the  country,  Julia  was  rather  satirical 
on  the  galantries  of  the  Caledonian  ladies,  the  little  fidelity  they  had  to 
their  husbands,  and  the  publicity  of  their  intrigues :  on  which  the 
Dther  replied  with  great  resolution,  "  It  is  true,  that  we  Caledonians 
do  not  manage  so  cunningly  as  the  Soman  ladies,  we  have  not*  their 
policy  to  impose  on  our  husbands  by  intrigues  carried  on  under  an 
appearance  of  modesty,  with  the  most  abject  persons;  we  have  the 
mncerity  without  disguise  to  enjoy  the  society  of  the  bravest  men  in 

*  The  wife's  nnme  (Dion,  Vol.  II.  p.  307,)  was  Argeloxa. 



the  world."    The  empress,  at  this  replj,  felt  much  confused^  and  never     CHAP, 
xenewed  the  sobject.  ^_^^-^j^ 

Aiter  the  death  of  Severus,  his  bodj  was  burnt,  with  the  usual  cere-  A.'D.2ll, 
monies,  and  the  ashes  were  deposited  in  a  costly  urn,  which  Julia  had 
carried  with  h«r  to  Rome. 

When  Caracallft  was  assassinated  in  Mesopotamia,  Julia,  her  nieces 
Soemia  and  Mamea,  and  their  mother  Mesa,  were  all  at  Antioch.  On 
the  nevra  reaching  the  unfortunate  empress,  she  gave  herself  up  to 
grief,  inflicted  blows  on  henelf,  although  she  was  suffering  ftma  a 
cancer,  whidi  she  mni^  iniamed;  and  refused  all  nourishmait.  A 
letter  from  Macrinus,  now  En^ror,  full  of  expressions  of  respect  and 
esteem^  and  continaing  all  the  prerogatives  and  honours  she  had  ever 
enjoyed,  mitigated  her  affiictions  and  sorrows.  But  Macrinus,  dread- 
ing her  influence  and  abilities,  changed  his  conduct,  and  commands 
faer  to  quit  Antioch.  Julia,  finding  no  remedy  for  her  midbrtunes, 
and  tortured  by  her  cruel  disease,  abstained  from  food,  and  died  in 
tiie-year  217,  at  the  age  of  about  sixty-three,  after  having  enjoyed 
the  highest  dignities  attainable,  and  being  afflicted  with  the  most 
dreadful  mental  and  bodily  uiguish  that  a  hunuut  bdng  can  sup- 

Britain,  enjoying  anintenrupted  tranquillity,  is  scarcely  noticed  by 
any  historian  for  about  eevsHiy^Jlve  years. 

A  governor  who  had  been  sent  to  Britain  by  the  Emperor  Probus 
assumed  the  Imperial  purple,  but  was  shortly  afterwards  pat  to  daath 
by  Victorinos,  a  Moor,  one  of  Probus's  ministers,  by  whom  the  govern 

*  LUe  of  Jalis  Domm,  by  De  Serriez.  AagustaD  Hialwy,  "Sereraa."  Gib- 
bon, Cl>,  VL  Spartian  repcnla,  that  Julia  married  faer  son  Caracalla,  whicb  other 
aathora  deny ;  dot  ia  il  in  tbe  least  probable:  she  was  fifty-seven  years  of  age, 
wben  Serenu  died.    He  also  asserts  that  Caracalla  vaa  her  step-soD. 



CHAP,  nor  had  been  promoted*.  Bodosub,  another  of  the  revolters  against  Pro- 
s«ia-V"«^  bus,  was  a  Briton  by  birth.  His  father  was  a  Spaniard,  and  either  s 
professor  of  rhetoric  or  a  grammarian,  and  died  while  Bonosus  was 
young:  his  mother  was  a  Gaulese,  and  a  woman  of  wit.  Bonosus  ser- 
ved first  in  the  infantry,  then  in  the  cavalry ;  and  when  he  became 
a  general,  he  had  charge  of  the  frontier  of  Rhsetia.  No  man  ever 
drank  like  him.  The  Emperor  Anrelian  esteemed  htm  for  his  mili- 
tary talents,  and,  as  he  could  drink  like  a  neve,  he  appointed  him  to 
entertain  the  ambassadors  fVom  all  nations,  that  be  might  discover 
their  secrets;  he  himself  remaining  perfectly  undtstarbed  by  any 
quantity  of  wine. 
A.D.  883.  The  Germans  having  burnt  the  Roman  shipping  on  the  Rhine,  and 
Bonosus  fearing  that  he  should  be  punished  for  his  neglect,  boldly 
claimed  Britain,  Gaul,  and  Spain,  and  assumed  the  purple.  He  en- 
gaged Probus  in  a  severe  battle,  but  being  overpowered,  he  hanged 
himself.  On  which  occasion,  it  was  said  of  him,  "  here  hmtge  a  ioK- 
kardt  not  a  mtm."  Probus  gave  his  wife  a  pension,  and  forgave  his 
two  sons.  His  wife's  name  was  Hunila,  of  the  royal  blood  of  the 
Goths.  She  was  a  woman  of  singular  merft,  and  bad  been  selected  by 
Aurelian,  in  order  that  through  her  means  Bonosus  might  become 
well  acquainted  with  the  af&ira  of  the  Goths.  Aurelian  commanded 
that  the  marriage  should  be  at  the  public  charge,  and  that  Hunila 
should  be  presented  with  silk  gowns  of  a  violet  colour,  and  one  of  silk 
embroidered  with  gold,  one  hundred  golden  Philips,  a  thousand  Anto- 
nines  in  silver,  ten  thousand  sesterces  in  brass,  and  all  such  things  as 
were  proper  for  a  lady  of  quality  f. 

Probus  was  the  first  Emperor  who  permitted  the  Britons  to  plant 
vines,  as  well  as  the  Crauls  and  Spaniards.     He  sent  over  to .  Britain 
many  Vandals  and  Burgundians  to  settle  in  the  island. 
*  ZoeimiiB,  p.  82.  f  Flavitu  Vopiscu*.    Aug.  Hist. 

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Emperors  of  Bbitai?}. 

^^1,VIU5^  ^^1,ECTir.o 

/UM'J  .  ■<*™'.  //.  /I 

Digitized  by  njOOQIC 


"WhSie  the  Enperor  Cams  was  in  Persia,  be  left  Britain  amd 
provinces  under  the  govermentof  his  son  Cjbinn^*. 


i     "    In  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  .Dioclesian,  an^  his  associate  M^xi-  ^^'  ^* 
Ximta  with  the'title  of  Augustus,  udGalerlus  and  6!^itetanthtB  Chlor^ 

with  the  inferior  tiltes  of  Caesar,  Cat«mias  a  Menapiaii,^mean  origin^~     -  ' 

commanded  the  Roman  fleet  stationed  at  Boulogne.     He  had  secured 

to  himself  immense  spoil,  taken  from  the  French  and  German  pirates. 

His  great  wealth  being  evidence  of  h 

/  thai  be^  should  be  potv^D  dea;th-    Can 

/     to  attach.ihe  flee^  to  his  ftnteacsi  an 

1  ^    Emperor,  lie  sailed' over  to  ^^n. ; 

snxftisr}e0>  who  gn^^ed  that'isiand,  i 

m«s»-shipB,  and  boldh^^lBSUiaed  the  I 

Augustusf.  (A.  D.  287). 

*  Aasrostan  Rutarr. "  Cnrtntts,"  No  Roman  laTUbcd  m  much  art  and  expence 

the  senate  had  decreed  Ihe  surname  firitannicus.     AdmiDiiu  or  £timiniiu 

was  uoa  of  Cunobeliae  king  of  Britain,     His  Aither  gave  bim  part  of  bis 

^■^vagAqfn.    Coins  ,baT«  been  found  at  Colchester,- with  Ibft   inacr^j^oo, 

Mitr/'^n'oXic'i^V'vwBiHnX&iic.     He  was  ej^lled,  and  fled  tot'^igiila. 

JAiiVWorlb.     h  Etiiainius."     (This  medal  maa  found   at  .Lii(iebcui»ugJ|). 

Jt  i»  Kighly  pbobable  that  Claudius  espousid  bis^cacuB..-   ~'  !  ,    '    ■ 



The  Romans  deplored  the  loss  of  an  island  so  valuable  for  its  rich 
mines,  temperate  climate,  corn,  abundant  pastures,  wealth,  and  con- 
venient harbours.  Carausius  supported  his  rebellion  with  ability. 
The  British  Emperor  invited  from  the  continent  skilful  artists  in  great 

80  Antoninut  Pius.— (Found  at  Littleborougb). 

81  TTiesame. — (Found  in  LeicestenhJre).  Tbe  two,  by  Ibedate8,ftre  for  different 

3Sl  ComtKodus. — (Found  at  Littleborougfa). 


S3  CsraKitv*  (Silver). — Reverse, Temple  at  Granta.  R.S.  R.Reipublicse  Sectirita* 
Restituta.  Haytn.  Vol.  II.  Plate  XXVIt.  Carausius  was  assassinated  in 
the  Temple  of  Bellona  at  York.  (In  the  possession  of  the  Duke  of  Devon- 
shire), lu  tbis  Emperor's  reign  there  were  struck  in  Britaia  about  tbree 
hundred  diff^erent  coins  and  medals. 

84  ITie  same,  (Silver) .—Reverse,  a  lion.  LEG  fill.  Tbe  fourth  legion  was  ap- 
pointed to  go  to  Syria,  but  joined  tberebe).  Caraasinabrougfatliotw  with 
him  from  Africa.  M.  S,  R.  Moneta  Signata  Rigoduni.  Coined  at  Rible- 
Chester,  or  Richmond,  Yorkshire.  Haym.  Vol.  11.  Plate  XXVII.  (Mr. 

36  7%eaame. — Rererse,  a  ram.  LEG  VIII.  Tbe  eighth  legion  joined  CaraHsius. 
M.  L.  Moneta  Londinensis.     Haytn.  Vol.  1.  p.  289.     (Lord  Winchelsea). 

36  Sylvius. — ^Tbe  bead,  is  his  father  Carausius,  with  whom  be  was  co-emperor, 

See  Haym.  Vol.  I,  p.  SS7,  who  eonfwtttres  that  thb  reverse  represents  a 
son  or  nephew,  not  being  acquainted  with  the  fact  of  Carausius  having  ason. 
(Lord  Winchelsea). 

37  Ailectvs.  (Silver).— (Found  in  London).     Very  rare.     Haym.  Vol.  II.  Plate 

XXVII.     (Duke  of  Devonshire.) 

88  The  same. — Q.  L.  Quinti  Liberlus  vel  Liberia.  Ainstvortb.  This  would 
not  accord  with  Allectus,  if  the  history  be  correct,  which  assigns  him  two 
or  three  years  only.     (Found  at  Chesterton). 

39  Helena. — I  at  first  imagined  this  to  be  a  coin  of  the  wife  of  the  British  Em- 
peror, Maximns;  but  Camden  says  it  is  of  Helena,  Empress  of  Constantius 
Chlorus,  and  mother  of  Constantine  the  Great:  she  is  by  some  said  to  have 
been  a  Briton:  as  the  other  Helena  certainly  was,  that  circumstance  may 
have  given  rise  to  the  error.  (Found  at  Chesterton). 
It  is  to  be  observed,  that, on  some  of  the  medal8,the  words  are  not  rightly  spelt. 
As  they  are  copied  from  engravings,  it  is  possibly  the  &ult  of  tbe  first 
publisher:  even  the  Romans  are  not  corrects  uniform  in  tbis  respect. 

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numbers:  he  displayed  his  taste  and  his  opul«ice  in  a  great  variety  of  9^^^- 
elegant  coins,  rtiU  extant  Bom  in  Brabant,  he  courted  the  Franks,  \.«-v^ 
imitated  their  dress  and  manners,  and  enlisted  their  bravest  youths  in 
his  army  and  navy.  Corausius  kept  possession  of  Boulogne  and  the 
adjacent  country.  His  fleets  commanded  the  mouths  of  the  Seine  and 
the  Bhine,  and  ravaged  the  coasts  of  the  ocean.  The  Romans  had  pre- 
pared  a  new  armam^t,  which  was  commanded  by  Maximian*;  but 
the  superior  power  and  skill  of  Carausius,  in  a  sea-fight  .off  the  Isle  of 
Wight,  ba£aed  it;  and  Dioclesian  and  his  colleague  reluctantly  re- 
signed to  Carausius  the  sovereignty  of  Britain. 

The  British  Emperor  returned  by  way  of  Sorbiodunum,  (Old  Sarum), 
to  ZiOndon,  which  he  entered  in  an  ovation,  or  lesser  triumph,  and,  on 
the  25th  of  December,  celebrated  the  horse-races  to  Mithras.  He 
declared  his  son  Sylvius  Princep»  Jutxntmtis,  and  President  of  the  Tro- 
jan games ;  and  the  next  year,  (390),  named  him  Ctesar.  He  proceed- 
ed to  York  and  Catterick,  subdued  the  Scoto  and  Picts,  repaired  the 
Frsetentura  of  Antoninus  in  Scotland,  and  built  seven  castles  there. 
He  also  built  a  triumphal  arch,  and  a  circular  house  of  stone,  on  the 
banks  of  the  Carron.     . 

In  the  year  291,  Carausius  constituted  a  senate  in  Britain ;  and,  on 
the  27th  May,  he  celebrated  the  LII.  Capitoline  Agonf . 

The  Ceangi  were  defeated  in  a  battle  near  Bath:  Carausius  was  ac- 
companied by  his  Empress  Orivna,  and  his  son  Sylvius,  who  was  soon 
afterwards  created  Augustus,  and  partner  in  the  empire. 

In  the  year  292,  the  city  of  Granta,  on  the  north  side  of  Cambridge, 
was  built,  and  in  it  a  Temple  "  Romte  ^tenue."    Many  Roman  roads 

*  Maximian  had  had  some  saccess  in  Britain,  for  which  he  bad  a  triumph.— 
Bernard,  Vol.  11.  p.  346. 

t  This  feast  wag  for  poets, orators,  hiBtorians,cDniedians,niusician8,athlete,&c. 
— See  Rees's  Cyc  "  Capitoline." 

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were  made,  leading  from  the  city.  Od  the  7tli  of  September,  the  Em> 
/  peror  celebrated  the  Quinqueimalia*.  (the  origin  of  Sturbech 
or  Sturbridge  &ir).  In  October,  the  temple  at  Granta  was  de> 
dicated,  and  many  coins  on  that  occasion  were  struck.  (In  this  Em- 
peror's reign,  there  were  struck  in  Britain  about  three  hundred  dff^ 
JireTtt  medals  and  coins.)  In  this  month  there  were  &ira  at  York  and 
Boroughbridge ,-  at  the  latter,  the  com  boats  arrived  by  the  rivers  and 
artificial  canals. 

Carausius  sailed,  with  a  powerful  fleet,  into  the  Mediterranean,  to 
excite  the  AAicans  in  his  favor,  and  gained  the  advantage,  while  at  sea. 
over  the  fleet  commanded  by  Constantine  Chlorus ;  he  returned  on 
the  19th  of  October,  celebrated  the  Secular  gamesf;  and  having 
brought  lions  with  him  fi-om  Africa,  he  exhibited  them  among  his 
other  magnificent  shows.  On  May-day,  295.  the  Emperor  celebrated 
the  Floral  games  in  the  temple  of  Rome  at  Granta  X-  Afterwards, 
the  Lin.  Capitoline  Agon  were  celebrated  in  the  Temple  of  Bellona, 
at  York  §. 

Constantias  was  preparing  a  large  fleet,  and  assumed  the  conduct  of 
the  war.  He  raised  a  stupendous  mole  across  the  entrance  of  the 
harbour  and  town  of  Boulogne ;  and  a  considerable  number  of  ves- 

*  la  honour  of  di«  deified  Emperors. 

f  These  games  continued  three  days  and  three  nigbta:  the  people  lacrificed  to 
Japiter,  Juno,  Diana,  Ceres,  &c.  Tbey  marked  out  a  place  which  served  for  a 
theatre,  which  was  illumiDated  with  an  immense  number  of  firea  and  fiambeaua. 
Hynos  were  aung  to  Jupiter  in  Greek  and  Latin.  Theatrical  shows  wers  exhi- 
bited, with  combats  and  sports  in  the  circus.' — Keonet's  Roman  Antiquities, 
p,  399.     Rees's  Cyc.  "  Secular  Games." 

X  At  the  celebraliou  of  the  ^mea  in  honour  of  the  Goddess  Flora,  Galba  enter- 
tained the  people  with  a  new  sight  of  elepbanla  walking  upon  ropes. — SaetooHu, 
Ch,  VL     It  ifl  said  that  Carinus  also  exhibited  elephants  dancing  on  ropes  oa 

these  occasions. See  Reea's  Cyc     "  Florales  Ludi," 

§  Stukely.     History  of  Carausius,  Vol.  IL  p.  170. 



■els  suTTendered:  he  also  detached  the  Franks  from  the  interests  <tf 

The  Britisfa  Emperor  was  murdered,  in  the  temple  of  Bellona,  at 
York,  hy  his  first  minister,  AUectus,  in  whom  he  had  placed  the  most 
implicit  confidence*.  The  assassin  usurped  the  power  of  hia  master, 
bat  was  of  very  inferior  abilities. 

AVhen  Constantios  bad  faily  prepared  the  very  large  army  and 
fl«et  which  he  had  oollected  upon  the  opposite  coast,  he  divided  his 
force:  it  was  so  considerable,  that  he  had  required  three  years  to  per- 
fect it.  The  principal  squadron,  imder  the  command  of  the  prsefect 
Asclepiodotus,  captain  of  the  prctorian  guards,  ventured  to  sul,  on  a 
stormy  day,  and  with  a  side  wind,  from  the  mouth  of  the  Seine.  The 
fleet  of  Allectus  was  stationed  off  the  Isle  of  Wight,  to  receive  the 
enemy:  bat,  under  cover  of  a  thick  fog,  Asclepiodotus  succeeded  in 
landing  the  imperial  troops  on  the  western  coast,  and  immediately 
reduced  his  fleet  to  ashes. 

Allectus  had  posted  himself  near  London,  to  await  the  attack  of 
Constantius;  but,  on  receivingthis  unwelcome  intelligence,  afterapre- 
cipitate  and  long  march,  be  encountered  the  pnefect's  wh<^  force,  with 
a  small  body  of  &tigued  and  disheartened  troops ;  many  of  whcnn  were 
foreign  hirelings,  ctdefiy  Franks.  Throwing  off  his  purple  robe,  that 
it  might  not  betray  him,  Allectns  rushed  desperately  into  the  battle, 
and  was  quickly  slain,  with  small  loss  to  the  Romans,  but  great 
slan^ter  among  the  soldiers  of  the  usurper. 

The  body  of  Allectus  was  fomid  in  the  field  of  battle,  almpst  naked. 
Those  Franks  who  had  survived,  fled  to  London,  in  order  to  pillage 
that  city,  and  then  make  their  escape  by  sea;  hut  a  part  of  the  Ro- 
man army,  whi(A  had  been  divided  frwn  the  rest  by  «  mist  at  sea,  ar- 

*  Aureliiw  Victor* 

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*^inTT*'    "^°f^  opportunely,  pursued  the  Franks  through  the  streets^  aod  killed 
'— ■«--,r-*-^  a  great  number  of  them  •. 

When  Constantius  landed  upon  the  shores  of  Kent,  he  found  them 
covered  with  obedient  subjects,  who  rejoiced  to  be  restored  to  the  Ro- 
man empire,  after  a  separation  of  ten  years.  Asel^iodotus  is  said  to 
have  usurped  the  purple,  and  to  have  been  killed  in  a  battle,  leaving 
Cdnstantius  master  of  Britain.  "  O,  invincible  Csesarl"  exclaims  the 
historian,  "  Britain,  and  the  glory  of  the  naval  power  of  Rome,  are  re- 
stored." (A.  D.  397+). 


A.D.  S07.  Constantius  administered  the  affairs  of  his  department,  Gaul, 
Spain,  and  Britain,  with  moderation,  clemency,  and  ability;  winning 
the  hearts  of  his  subjects  in  those  three  provinces  |.  Dioclesian  and 
Maximian,  having  both  resigned  the  purple  on  the  same  day,  (May.  1,) 
Constantius  and  Galerius  assumed  the  title  of  Augustus,  (A  J).  304). 
Some  commotions  in  Britain  required  the  presence  of  the  Emperor; 
and  he  crossed  the  sea,  accompanied  by  his  son  Coustantine,  then 
thirty  years  of  age,  and  proceeded  to  York.  An  easy  victory  over  the 
Caledonians  was  the  last  exploit  of  this  Emperor,  who  ended  his  life  at 
York,  the  25th  of  July,  300.  Constantius  died  in  the  imperial  palace; 
wbftre,  on  his  royal  bed,  he  took  leave  of  his  children.  The  fiineral  rites 
of  the  deceased  monarch  were  performed  with  the  utmost  magnificence. 

•  See  Augustan  History,  Vol. 11.  p.S43;  Stow.  Vol.  I.  p. 6;  MiltCH),8vo.  p.l06. 

t  See  Henry,  Hist,  Eng.  Vol.  II.  p.  277;  Dr.  Slukeley;  Gibbon,  Ch.  XIII. 
Bernard,  Vol.  II.  p.  346;  and  Rapin.  Tbore  is  nwdi  (xmtrviety  in  the  dates  dat- 
ing this  defection,  fiy  the  Chronology  of  the  Augustan  History,  Carausius  re- 
Tolted  in  S86,  and  was  killed  in  293;  and  Britain  was  regained  by  Constantius 

{  Constantius  generally  resided  in  Britain.  „  Zosimns,  p.  40. 



An  infinite  numbor  of  people,  assisting  with  dances,  songs,  and  loud     CHAP« 
acclamations,  congratulated  his  ascension  to  the  Gods.  k,^^./^^ 

The  flower  of  the  western  armies  hadfoIlowedConstantiusinto  Bri- 
tain;  and  the  lutional  troops  were  reinforced  by  a  numerous  body  of 
AUenunni.  Constantihe  was,  hy  the  legions,  saluted  Augustus  and 
Emperor.  While  he  remained  at  York,  the  British  soldiers,  in  Ro- 
man pay,  presetted  the  new  Emperor  with  a  golden  ball,  as  an  em- 
blem of  his  sovereignty  over  Britun.  On  his  conversion  to  Christian- 
ity, Constantino  placed  a  cross  upon  it :  and  it  has  become  the  sign 
of  majesty*  After  four  year^  absence  this  monarch  revisited  A.D.3IJ. 
Britain -f. 

During  the  reign  -of  Constantine  the  Great,  Britun  enjoyed  pro- 
found tranquillity ;  it  was  subject  to  the  pnefect  of  Gaul,  and  was  go- 
remed  by  a  deputy  under  him.  Isca  (Caerleon)  was  now,  by  a  new  ar- 
rangement of  Britain,  made  a  third  capital,  and  became  a  great  and  im- 
portant city;  splendid  pidaces  with  gilded  roofs,  a  temple,  a  theatre 
an  amphitheatre,  and  other  stately  edifices,  made  it  emulate  the  gnut- 
deurof  RomeJ. 

In  the  latter  period  of  the  Emperor's  reign,  his  son  Constantine  was 
governor  c^  Gaul,  Spun,  and  Britain.  He  built  a  wall  round  London. 
(See  Medal,  No.  26  $). 

•  ©mke'B  "  York,"  pp.  48.  46.    Gibbon,  Ch.  XIV. 

t  Conslantine  raised  a&  army  aaion|r  the  Germana  aod  Cetia,  wliicb,  with  the 
forces  he  drew  from  Brilain,  amouDted  to  ninety  thousand  foot,  and  eight  thousand 

J  Rees'a  Cyc.    "  Caerleon." 

§  Camden  says,  that  be  erected  some  structures  at  London.  Gongh,  in  a  note, 
says,  tbat  the  coin  is  ^nerally  referred  to  ibe  Castra  Preetoria  at  Rome;  but  this 
i^pears  very  improbable.  After  the  massacre  in  tbe  reign  of  Nero,  a  wall  of  stone 
and  brick  had  been  bnitt  round  London,  which,  in  above  two  centariea,  probably 
teqnired  improving.  There  was  not  an  efficient  wall  to  keep  the  Franks  from  en^ 
Cering  and  pillaging  Lo&don  when  Allectus  was  defeated,,if  they  »t««d  no)  by 



ConstantiQe  the  Great  died  in  the  year  S37,  leaving  three  wms,  Coi»< 
>  stantine,  Constana,  and  Constantius.  The  first  was  kilted  in  a  battfo 
against  the  second,  in  340,  when  ^e  western  diviuon  was  in  the  govem- 
ment  of  Constans,  who,  acoompanied  by  Constantius,  risited  Britain* 
and  landed  at  Suidwich*.  Constans  was  murdered  in  his  bed  b^ 
Magneo^us,  goremor  of  Rbsetia,  at  Anton,  in  Gaul ;  and,  at  his  deatl^ 
the  whole  empire  was  possessed  hj  Constantius.  He  soti  to  Briiain 
one  Paulas,  a  notary,  who  conunitted  numerous  extortions.  Msr^ 
nus,  the  governor,  remonstrated  agwnst  such  ui^ust  proeeediogp.. 
I^uhts  replied,  that  his  opposing  the  execution  of  the  Emperor's  or* 
ders,  could  proceed  only  from  a  spirit  of  rebellion :  he  even  accused 
Martimis  of  haTing  been  concerned  in  the  revolt  of  Uagn^itiaB.  The 
indignant  and  enraged  gtnemor  struck  at  Paolus  with  Ins  sword,  but^ 
missing  his  blvw,  he  plunged  it  into  his  own  breast.  The  merdless 
Paulss  now  eondosmed  to  dei^,  banishment,  or  iu^risonment,  att 
who  resisted  1^  will,  without  ever  being  restrained  by  the  Empermr. 
A,  D.  960.  He  was  afterwards  burnt  alive. 

The  Western  Empire,  Britain  included,  was  now  under  JoMan,  (tb« 
'  apostate):  he  sent  a  body  of  tro^is  under  the  c<Hnmand  of  Li^ciliuB 
A  J).  863.  to  oppose  the  ravages  of  the  Scots  i»d  Picts.    On  his  arrival  in  Lon- 
don he  was  recalled;  the  enemy  having  submitted. 

In  the  reign  of  Valentiniaa  the  First,  the  Attacotti,  (a  tribe  of  Cale- 
donians, accused  of  del^jjhting  m  the  taste  of  human  flesh*},  the  Ficts, 

■tratagem.  Stow  aaya,  (p.  7),  that  the  Emprea*  Helena  bailt  the  wall,  A.  D.  306k 
There  i»  every  probability  that  it  was  fiaished  by  Cmutantioe,  janior. 

•  See  Miltga,  8vo.  pu  107, 

t  "  The  ^ttiKOUik  ijM-etMnie^  aBdafteEwords  the  soldien  of  ValcntiniaD,  an 
accowd  by  Jenun*  tn,  eye-nitoan^  (whose  veracity  i  find  no  reasoD  to  queation), 
of  ddighting  in  the  taste  of  humati  flesh.  When  lliey  bnated  the  woods  foe  prey, 
itia  aaid,.  that  tbej  attacked  tiie  ahepherd  rather  than  his  flock;  aad  that  th«y 
oirioiuiy  aaUclad  the  moai  d«Ucat«  aad  bnurny  parts,  both  of  males  and  feanles^ 



fkxA»,  Fnmks,  and  SaKom,  all,  eithet  hy  accident  or  common  league,  u- 
vaded  the  Roman  province  by  sea  and  land  at  once,  and  made  great  < 
nvages.  Every  prodaction  of  art  and  nature,  every  object  of  con- 
T^ienee  or  lnxnry>  was  accumulated  in  the  rich  and  fruitful  province 
«f  Britain.  Severus  and  Jovinns  successively  endeavoured  in  vain  to 
atop  the  fury  of  these  inroads.  At  length,  Tal6ntinian  sent  Theodo- 
rtns  to  oommand  in  Britain.  The  two  military  commanders  of  the 
province  had  been  surprised  and  cut  off  by  the  barbarians:  and  every 
messenger  that  escaped  to  the  continent,  conveyed  the  most  alarming 
tidings.  A  penon  named  Yalenttnian  had  been  banished  to  Britain, 
and  endeavoured  to  render  himself  absolute  shout  this  period,  but  was 
aoon  deprived  of  his  hopes  and  his  life  *. 

The  nomination  of  so  great  a  general  as  Theodonns,  (the  &ther  of  a 
line  of  Emperors),  was  deemed  by  the  army  and  the  province,  a  sure 
presage  of  ^proaching  victory :  the  new  governor  landed  at  Sandwich,  A.D.  867. 

which  ifaey  prepared  for  tbeir  horrid  repasts.  If  in  the  neif^hbourboodoftbecwn- 
mercial  and  literary  town  of  Glasgow,  a  race  of  cannibals  has  really  existed,  we 
may  contemplate,  in  the  period  of  the  Scotlisfa  bistory,  the  extremes  of  savage  and 
civiliiad  life^  Socb  refiectima  tend  to  enlarge  the  circle  of  our  ideas;  and  to  eb> 
courage  the  pleasing  hope,  that  New  Zealand  may  produce,  in  some  futare  age, 
the  Hume  oftbe  Southern  hemisphere.  The  bands  of  Attacotti  which  Jerom  had 
seen  m  Gaul,  were  afterwards  stationed  in  Italy  and  Illyricam."     Gibbon,  Ch. 

XXV. Ammiauus  BlarcelliDns  mmtions  the  Attacottr,  but  does  not  aay  any 

thing  about  their  being  cannibals.  Could  such  a  remarkable  fact  hare  existed 
and  not  hare  been  noticed  by  Tacitus,  or  any  other  Roman  bistoriani  Agricola'i 
line  of  forts,  and  the  ramparts  of  Antoninus,  were  in  the  neighbourhood  of  dw- 
gow;  and  Soman  garrisons,  of  numbers  of  troops,  were  stationed  there:  that 
neighbourhood  was,  consequently,  well  known,  and  it  is  quite  incredible  that 
such  a  horrid  ca8t<«n  could  hare  escaped  especial  and  notorious  remark.  Tlin 
cbai^  against  the  Attacotti  had  scarcely  been  worth  notice,  were  it  not  sanctioned 
1^  sudi  authority  as  Gibbon:  but  as  it  stands  solely  on  the  assertion  of  a  bigoled 
passionate  controTersialist,  it  is  not  worthy  of  belief. 
•  Zoaimtu,  p.  100. 



auid  marched  to  London,  (A.D.  367),  with  his  numerous  and  Veteraa 
J  bands:  the  citizens  threw  open  their  gates. 

The  desultory  warfare  of  the  barbarians  who  infested  the  land  and 
sea,  deprived  Theodosius  of  a  signal  victory :  but  his  consummate  art 
and  prudence,  displayed  in  two  campaigns,  rescued  the  province  from 
the  cruel  and  rapacious  enemy.  Theodosius  entered  London  in 
triumph.  The  spl^idout  of  London  and  of  the  other  cities,  and  the 
security  tA  the  fortifications,  were  restored. 

The  Caledonians  were  confined  to  their  northern  r^on,  above  the 
Frith  of  Forth;  and  the  territory  south  of  that,  down  to  the  Tyne,, 
was  named  Valentta,  to  perpetuate  the  glories  of  the  reign  of  Valen- 
tinian:  and  to  the  city  of  London  was  given  the  name  of  Augusta. 

Theodosius  returned  to  the  continent  with  the  highest  reputation 
for  prudence,  justice,  vigour,  and  clemency;  and  his  great  merit  was 
rewarded  by  the  Emperor  with  applause  and  without  envy. 

Britain  was  now  divided  into  five  provinces,  and  a  governor  was 
appointed  to  each  of  them. 

In  the  reign  of  Gratian  and  Valentinian  U.  on  the  Picts  and  Scots 
beginning  to  threaten  hostility,  Maximus,  a  Spaniard  of  disUnction, 
was  invested  with  the  command  in  Britwn  *.  He  designed  to  subject 
the  whole  island  to  the  "dominion  of  the  Romans ;  but  finding  the 
union  of  the  Scots  and  Picts  a  great  obstacle  to  the  execution  of  his 
project,  he  feigned  to  be  exasperated  against  the  Scots,  as  the  sole 
cause  of  the  troubles  in  Britain ;  and  persuaded  the  Picts  to  join  their 
forces  to  his,  on  the  promise  of  giving  them  the  lands  of  the  Scots. 
His  artifice  succeeded.  The  Scots  being  thus  overpowered,  were 
forced  to  fly  to  Ireland  and  the  adjacent  isles.     Maximus  permitted 

*  Gibbon  does  not  allow  that  Maximus  was  either  gorernor,  or  a  general. 
See  Bapin,  and  Gibbon,  Ch.  XXVII.  and  Milton,  8ro,  [I.  III. 



ihe  RctB  to  take  possession  of  the  new  conquests;  when  i^irs  of     ^^^' 
higher  importance  to  himself  diverted  his  attention.  •w«-v^«.. 

The  two  Emperors  associated  as  a  third,  Theodosius,  the  son  of  the 
general  who  had  oommanded  with  such  distinguished  renown  in 
Britain.  Maximus,  highly  jealous  and  affronted  at  not  having  been 
preferred  to  Theodosius,  resolved  to  assume  the  imperial  dignitj.  I'o 
forward  his  project,  he  intended  to  gain  the  friendship  and  confidence 
ofthePicts;  and,  leaving  the  island  in  peace,  to  wage  war  against 
the  three  Emperors.  In  the  mean  time,  the  Scots,  assisted  by  the  Irish, 
invaded  the  north,  and  Maximus  was  obliged  to  head  his  troops  against 
them.  They  were  defeated  and  driven  back  to  Ireland:  and  on  Maid- 
mus  threatening  to  invade  that  country,  and  punish  the  Irish,  the  fear 
they  had  of  the  presence  of  a  Roman  army,  induced  them  to  grant 
Maximus  his  own  terms,  which,  in  order  to  conciliate  all  parties,  were 

Masimus  had  long  resided  in  Britain,  and  is  sud  to  have  married 
Helena,  daughter  of  Eudda,  a  wealthy  nobleman  of  Caersegont,  (Caer- 
narvon)*. He  was  a  person  of  acknowledged  abilities  and  integrity ; 
bom  in  Spain,  the  countryman,  fellow-soldier  in  Britain,  and  rival  of 


The  legions  in  Britain  had  long  been  famous  for  a  spirit  of  presump- 
tion and  arrogance.  Both  the  soldiers  and  provincials  proclaimed 
Maximus  Emperor.    (A.D.  S82). 

Gratian,  Emperor  of  the  West  had  degraded  himself  in  the  eyes  of 

•  See  PeDDanfs  Tour  in  Wales,  Vol.  11.    Carte's  Hist,  of  Eng.  Vol.  I. 



CHAP,    the  RoHiajas  by  ne^ectiog  tiie  daties  of  a  soTereign  and  a  genorat 

v,«»^v-^  The  skill  which  he  had  attained  in  the  maaagenent  of  a  horse,  and 

A.D;  3^.  the  dexterity  wkh  which  he  could  dart  a  javelin  and  draw  a  bow,  had 

inspired  him  with  an  ardent  passion  for  the  chace.    Large  parks  were 

enclosed  for  the  imperial  [deasnies,  and  plentifully  stocked  with  ever^ 

tpecietqfwildheeuU.    A  body  of  the  Alana  waa  reoeired  into  the 

d<Haae«tic  and  military  service  of  the  palace,  and  tiie  admirable  skiH 

which  they  had  been  accustomed  to  display  iif  the  unbounded  plains 

of  Scythia,  was  exercised  in  the  parks  and  enclosttres  of  Ganl. 

Gratian,  in  admiration  of  the  talents  and  customs  of  these  fiiTorite 
guards,  assumed  the  fur  dress,  Uie  bow,  aod  the  qmrer,  of  a  Scythian 
warrior.  Even  the  Germans  affected  U>  disdain  die  strange  appear- 
ance of  these  savages  of  the  north,  who  had  wand«%d  from  the  re> 
gions  of  the  Volga  to  Uie  banla  of  the  Seine  *.  The  unworthy  specta- 
cle of  a  Roman  prince,  who  had  renounced  the  dress  of  his  country, 
filled  the  legions  with  grief  and  indignation. 

Maximus  could  not  hope  to  reign  by  confining  his  ambition  to  Bri- 
tain. The  youth  of  the  island  crowded  to  his  standard ;  and  he  in- 
vaded Ganl  with  a  fleet  and  army,  which  were  long  afterwards  remem- 
bered as  a  considerable  part  of  the  British  nation  f. 

The  Emperor  was,  in  his  peaceful  residence  of  Paris,  idly  wasting 
his  darts  on  lions  and  bears.    The  armies  of  Gaul  received  Maximus 

*  GibboD'8  Roman  Empire.  Cb.  XXVII.    Zosimiu,  B.  IV. 

t  According  to  Archbishop  Uaber.  the  whole  emigratioD  consisted  of  thirty 
thousand  soldiers,  and  one  hundred  thousand  plebeians,  who  settled  in  Bretagne. 
Tbeir  deatioed  brides,  St,  Ursula,  with  eleren  thoasand  noble,  and  sixty  tfaousBiid 
plebeian  virgins,  mistook  their  way,  und  arrived  at  Goitre,  where  they  were  mur- 
dered by  the  Huns.— Gibbon,  Ch.  XXVII.  Lady  M.W.  Montague  writes  to  La- 
dy Rich  from  Cologne,  August  16tb,  1716;  "  I  was  very  well  satis6ed  to  see, 
piled  up  to  the  honour  of  our  nation,  the  skulls  of  eleven  thonsaod  nrgius." — 
Ed.  1803,  Vol  II.  p.  ia 



with  \ojit  and  joy^  acckmations.    The  Msuritwian  cavalry  werd    CHAP. 
Ae  feat  who  saluted  him  Augustas:  and  the  troops  of  the  palace  \^^>~y-^ 
abandoaed  ike  standard  of  Gratlan.  the  first  time  it  was  displayed,  id  -^•^'  ^^ 
t^  neighbourhood  oi  Paris^ 

The  Emperor  of  the  West  fled,  wHh  thvee  hundred  horse,  towards 
Lyons.  All  the  cities  upon  the  road  shut  their  gates  against  him ;  but 
he  might  have  reached  the  doattinions  <tf  his  brother  Valentinian,  had 
he  not  been  deceired  by  the  perfidious  gorcmo*  oi  the  Lyonese  pro- 
Tince,  who  aaused  him  with  protestations  of  doabtfol  fiddity,  till  the 
aniral  of  Andragathins,  general  of  the  cavalry  of  Maximus,  who  exo< 
euted,  without  remone,  the  intentions  of  the  British  osurper.  Crr»* 
tian,  as  he  rose  from  anpper,  was  deliTored  into  the  hands  of  the  assa»* 
an,  (August  39th>  383).  His  death  was  Mlowed  by  that  of  his  power- 
ful general,  Mellobaudes,  the  king  of  the  Franka.  After  these  execor 
tion8»  the  power  of  Mazimus  was  acknowle^ed  by  all  the  provinces 
of  the  west. 

The  Britkb  Emperor  sent  his  principal  chamberlain  to  the  East-  - 
eraEmiperDT;  and  the  choice  of  a  vener^e  old  man,  for  an  office  whidt 
was  usually  exercised  by  evnuchs,  announced  to  ^e  court  of  Con- 
stanlinople,  the  gravity  and  temperance  of  the  British  usurper,  llie 
ambassador  condescended  to  justify  or  excnse  -the  conduct  of  his  mas- 
ter,  and  protested,  in  specious  language,  that  the  murder  of  Gratian 
had  been  perpetrated  withent  his  consent,  by  the  precipitate  zeal  of 
the  soldieiB.  The  speech  of  the  ambassador  concluded  with  a  spirited 
declaratiflo,  thai  though:  Maxtmus,  as  a  Roman,  and  as  a  father  of  his 
peopTe,  would  chuse  rather  to  employ  bis  forces  in  the  common  de- 
fiance of  therepuUic;  he  was  prepared,  if  his  friendship  should  be  re- 
jected, to  dispute,  in  a  field  of  battle,  the  Enqinv  of  the  World.  An 
immediate  and  peremptory  answer